The Baltimore Orioles are an American professional baseball team based in Baltimore, Maryland. They compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division; as one of the American League's eight charter teams in 1901, this particular franchise spent its first year as a major league club in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as the Milwaukee Brewers before moving to St. Louis, Missouri, to become the St. Louis Browns in 1902. After 52 years in St. Louis, the franchise was purchased in November 1953 by a syndicate of Baltimore business and civic interests led by attorney and civic activist Clarence Miles and Mayor Thomas D'Alesandro, Jr; the team's current owner is American trial lawyer Peter Angelos. The Orioles adopted their team name in honor of the official state bird of Maryland. Nicknames for the team include the "O's" and the "Birds"; the Orioles experienced their greatest success from 1966 to 1983, when they made six World Series appearances, winning three of them. This era of the club featured several future Hall of Famers who would be inducted representing the Orioles, such as third baseman Brooks Robinson, outfielder Frank Robinson, starting pitcher Jim Palmer, first baseman Eddie Murray, shortstop Cal Ripken Jr. and manager Earl Weaver.
The Orioles have won a total of nine division championships, six pennants, three wild card berths. Since moving to Baltimore in 1954, the franchise has a win-loss record of 5306-5174 as of the end of the 2019 season. After suffering a stretch of 14 straight losing seasons from 1998 to 2011, the team qualified for the postseason three times under manager Buck Showalter and general manager Dan Duquette, including a division title and advancement to the American League Championship Series for the first time in 17 years in 2014. However, the 2018 team finished with a franchise-worst record of 47–115, prompting the team to move on from Showalter and Duquette following the season's conclusion; the Orioles' current manager is Brandon Hyde, while Mike Elias serves as general manager and executive vice president. The Orioles are well known for their influential ballpark, Oriole Park at Camden Yards, which opened in 1992 in downtown Baltimore; the modern Orioles franchise can trace its roots back to the original Milwaukee Brewers of the minor Western League, beginning in 1877, when the league reorganized.
The Brewers were there when the WL renamed itself the American League in 1900. At the end of the 1900 season, the American League removed itself from baseball's National Agreement. Two months the AL declared itself a competing major league; as a result of several franchise shifts, the Brewers were one of only two Western League teams that didn't fold, move or get kicked out of the league. In its first game in the American League, the team lost to the Detroit Tigers 14–13 after surrendering a nine-run lead in the 9th inning. To this day, it is a major league record for the biggest deficit overcome that late in the game. In the first American League season in 1901, they finished last with a record of 48–89, its lone Major League season, the team played at Lloyd Street Grounds, between 16th and 18th Streets in Milwaukee. After one year in Milwaukee, the club relocated to St Louis, for a while enjoyed some success in the 1920s behind Hall of Fame first baseman George Sisler. However, the team's fortunes declined from on, as playing success and gate receipts instead went to the Browns' own tenants at Sportsman's Park, the National League Cardinals.
During this period the Browns only won one pennant, in the 1944 season stocked with wartime replacement players, lost to the Cardinals in the third and last World Series played in one ballpark. In 1953, with the Browns unable to afford stadium upkeep, owner Bill Veeck sold Sportsman's Park to the Cardinals and attempted to move the club back to Milwaukee, but this was vetoed by the other Major League owners. Instead, Veeck sold his franchise to a partnership of Baltimore businessmen; the Miles-Krieger -Hoffberger group renamed their new team the Baltimore Orioles soon after taking control of the franchise. The name has a rich history in Baltimore. In 1901, Baltimore and John McGraw were awarded an expansion franchise in the growing American League, naming the team the Orioles. After a battle with Ban Johnson, the Head of the American League in 1902, McGraw took many of the top players including Walter Scott "Steve" Brodie, Dan McGann, Roger Bresnahan, Joe McGinnity to the New York Giants; as an affront to Johnson, McGraw kept the black and orange colors of the New York Giants, which San Francisco wears to this day.
In 1903, the franchise—the remaining players and debts, the corporation—was transferred to New York where they were nicknamed the Highlanders until circa 1912, by which time Yanks or Yankees had taken over as their popular moniker. As a member of the high-minor league level International League, the Orioles competed at what is now known as the AAA level from 1903 to 1953; when Oriole Park burned down in 1944, the team moved to a temporary home, Municipal Stadium, where they won the Junior W
The 2010 Hun Sen Cup was the 4th season of the Hun Sen Cup, the premier knockout tournament for association football clubs in Cambodia involving Cambodian League and provincial teams organized by the Football Federation of Cambodia. Phnom Penh Crown were the defending champions, having beaten Nagacorp FC 1–0 in the previous season's final; the matches were arranged with two groups in each region. The teams finishing in the top two positions in each of the eight groups in Group stage progressed to the Round of 16 in Phnom Penh. Groups A and B in Battambang Groups C and D in Siem Reap Groups E and F in Kep Groups G and H in Svay Rieng Top goal scorers: Kouch Sokumpheak of Khemara Keila FC, Srey Veasna of Phnom Penh Crown FC Goalkeeper of the Season: Peng Bunchhay of Phnom Penh Crown FC Fair play: Preah Khan Reach 2010 Cambodian League Cambodian League Hun Sen Cup
Friedrich Kettler was Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1587 to 1642. He was the son of the first Duke of Courland; until 1617, he ruled only the eastern Zemgale portion of the duchy, while his younger brother, Wilhelm Kettler, ruled the western Courland portion. Friedrich ruled the entire duchy from 1617 onward, after his brother emigrated due to conflicts with the nobility. Friedrich Kettler was born to Anna of Mecklenburg; the first of two sons, Friedrich in his youth had a good education and travelled to many other European countries. According to Gotthard Kettler's will, the duchy was to be divided between his two sons. After his father's death in 1587, Friedrich and his younger brother, became co-rulers of the duchy. After Wilhelm reached his majority in 1596, the duchy was partitioned into its Courland and Semigallian parts. During the Polish–Swedish War and Wilhelm led their troops in battles against the Swedes, with Friedrich leading 300 big cavalry units in the Battle of Salaspils.
During the war, Courland's aristocracy grew in their resistance to the ruling Kettler brothers. In 1617, the Regional Assembly of Courland sat in Schrunden Castle and decided that Wilhelm be stripped of his title and banished from the duchy; the following year, Friedrich was elected as the sole Duke of Courland, he approved a new constitution, Formula Regiminis, which gave greater rights to the aristocracy. Among the new parameters set by this constitution were that the duke could not implement decisions without the prior consent of the duchy's council, thus making Courland a constitutional monarchy. In 1622, the duke's residence in Mitau was surrounded by the Swedish army, forcing Friedrich to move to Goldingen. Friedrich Kettler married Elisabeth Magdalena of Pomerania in 1600, they did not have issue, so in 1625, he proposed that Wilhelm's son, Jacob, be recognised as heir. The duchy's council agreed to this proposal, Jacob was made co-ruler in 1638. Heinz Mattiesen, "Friedrich Kettler", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 5, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 513