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Bamberg

Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main. A large part of the town has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993. During the post-Roman centuries of Germanic migration and settlement, the region afterwards included in the Diocese of Bamberg was inhabited for the most part by Slavs; the town, first mentioned in 902, grew up by the castle Babenberch which gave its name to the Babenberg family. On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house; the area was Christianized chiefly by the monks of the Benedictine Fulda Abbey, the land was under the spiritual authority of the Diocese of Würzburg. In 1007, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II made Bamberg a family inheritance, the seat of a separate diocese; the Emperor's purpose in this was to make the Diocese of Würzburg less unwieldy in size and to give Christianity a firmer footing in the districts of Franconia, east of Bamberg. In 1008, after long negotiations with the Bishops of Würzburg and Eichstätt, who were to cede portions of their dioceses, the boundaries of the new diocese were defined, Pope John XVIII granted the papal confirmation in the same year.

Henry II ordered the building of a new cathedral, consecrated 6 May 1012. The church was enriched with gifts from the pope, Henry had it dedicated in honor of him. In 1017 Henry founded Michaelsberg Abbey on the Michaelsberg, near Bamberg, a Benedictine abbey for the training of the clergy; the emperor and his wife Kunigunde gave large temporal possessions to the new diocese, it received many privileges out of which grew the secular power of the bishop. Pope Benedict VIII visited Bamberg in 1020 to meet Henry II for discussions concerning the Holy Roman Empire. While he was here he placed the diocese in direct dependence on the Holy See, he personally consecrated some of Bamberg's churches. For a short time Bamberg was the centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry and Kunigunde were both buried in the cathedral. From the middle of the 13th century onward the bishops were princes of the Empire and ruled Bamberg, overseeing the construction of monumental buildings. In 1248 and 1260 the see obtained large portions of the estates of the Counts of Meran through purchase and through the appropriation of extinguished fiefs.

The old Bishopric of Bamberg was composed of an unbroken territory extending from Schlüsselfeld in a northeasterly direction to the Franconian Forest, possessed in addition estates in the Duchies of Carinthia and Salzburg, in the Nordgau, in Thuringia, on the Danube. By the changes resulting from the Reformation, the territory of this see was reduced nearly one half in extent. Since 1279 the coat of arms of the city of Bamberg is known in form of a seal; the witch trials of the 17th century claimed about one thousand victims in Bamberg, reaching a climax between 1626 and 1631, under the rule of Prince-Bishop Johann Georg II Fuchs von Dornheim. The famous Drudenhaus, built in 1627, is no longer standing today. In 1647, the University of Bamberg was founded as Academia Bambergensis. Bambrzy are German Poles who are descended from settlers from the Bamberg area who settled in villages around Poznań in the years 1719–1753. In 1759, the possessions and jurisdictions of the diocese situated in Austria were sold to that state.

When the secularization of church lands took place the diocese covered 3,305 km2 and had a population of 207,000. Bamberg thus lost its independence in 1802, becoming part of Bavaria in 1803. Bamberg was first connected to the German rail system in 1844, an important part of its infrastructure since. After a communist uprising took control over Bavaria in the years following World War I, the state government fled to Bamberg and stayed there for two years before the Bavarian capital of Munich was retaken by Freikorps units; the first republican constitution of Bavaria was passed in Bamberg, becoming known as the Bamberger Verfassung. In February 1926 Bamberg served as the venue for the Bamberg Conference, convened by Adolf Hitler in his attempt to foster unity and to stifle dissent within the then-young Nazi party. Bamberg was chosen for its location in Upper Franconia, reasonably close to the residences of the members of the dissident northern Nazi faction but still within Bavaria. In 1973, the town celebrated the 1,000th anniversary of its founding.

Bamberg is located in Franconia, 63 km north of Nuremberg by railway and 101 km east of Würzburg by rail. It is situated on 3 km before it flows into the Main river, its geography is shaped by the Regnitz and by the foothills of the Steigerwald, part of the German uplands. From northeast to southwest, the town is divided into first the Regnitz plain one large and several small islands formed by two arms of the Regnitz, the part of town on the hills, the "Hill Town". Bamberg extends over seven hills, each crowned by a beautiful church; this has led to Bamberg being called the "Franconian Rome" — although a running joke among Bamberg's tour guides is to refer to Rome instead as the "Italian Bamberg". The hills are Cathedral Hill, Kaulberg/Obere Pfarre, Jakobsberg, Altenburger Hill and Abtsberg. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen climate classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb", with a certain continental influence as indicated by aver

Shorty Rogers Courts the Count

Shorty Rogers Courts the Count is an album by American jazz trumpeter and arranger Shorty Rogers, released on the RCA Victor label in 1954. Allmusic noted "Having found his own voice through stints with Woody Herman and Stan Kenton, Rogers gets a chance to show his appreciation for one of his early influences, with charts that both reflect the supple bounce of Basie and the complexly cool sound the trumpeter had been forging since the late'40s". All compositions by Shorty Rogers except. "Jump for Me" - 4:00 "Topsy" - 3:21 "It's Sand, Man" - 3:00 "Basie Eyes" - 3:27 "Doggin' Around" - 2:36 "Down for Double" - 2:57 "Over and Out" - 3:15 "H & J" -3:02 "Taps Miller" - 3:23 "Tickletoe" - 2:40 "Swingin' the Blues" - 4:29 "Walk, Don't Run" - 3:15Recorded in Los Angeles, CA on February 2, 1954, February 9, 1954 and March 3, 1954 Shorty Rogers - trumpet, arranger Pete Candoli, Harry Edison, Maynard Ferguson, Conrad Gozzo, Clyde Reasinger, - trumpet Milt Bernhart, Harry Betts - trombone Bob Enevoldsen - valve trombone John Graas - French horn Paul Sarmento - tuba Jimmy Giuffre - clarinet, tenor saxophone Herb Geller, Bud Shank - alto saxophone Bob Cooper, Bill Holman, Zoot Sims Bob Gordon - baritone saxophone Marty Paich - piano Curtis Counce - bass Shelly Manne - drums

3rd Congress of the Workers' Party of Korea

The 3rd Congress of the Workers' Party of Korea was held in Pyongyang, North Korea, from 23–29 April 1956. The congress is the highest organ of the party, is stipulated to be held every four years. 916 delegates represented the party's 1,164,945 members. The 3rd Central Committee, elected by the congress, reelected Kim Il-sung as WPK Chairman, a number of deputy chairmen; the 17th Plenary Session of the 2nd Central Committee decided on 3 December 1955 that the 3rd Congress would be held in April 1956, two months after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in which de-Stalinization became the Soviet Union's official policy. Choe Yong-gon, a partisan close to Kim Il-sung, attended the 20th Congress and reported on its activities to Kim Il-sung when he returned. After being told of the new Soviet policy, Kim Il-sung reacted swiftly. Kim Il-sung went on to chastise former figures such as Pak Hon-yong and Yi Sung-yop who, he claimed, had exerted "individual heroism" and failed to follow collective leadership procedures.

However, this was just talk, no one related the discussion about collective leadership to Kim Il-sung's power concentration at the top. In a similar vein, Kim Il-sung did not refer to the Soviet Union's de-Stalinization policies by name and did not criticize Joseph Stalin's leadership. Delegates from fraternal parties attended the congress, most notably CPSU Politburo member Leonid Brezhnev and Marshal Nie Rongzhen leading the delegation from the Communist Party of China. In his speech to the congress, Brezhnev congratulated the WPK on holding its 3rd Congress while telling them the new policies decided upon by the CPSU at the 20th Congress, he emphasized the importance of implementing the Leninist system of collective leadership within the party, from top to bottom, to strengthen the party. Nie Rongzhen on the other hand, congratulated the combine effort of the WPK and the Korean people in the reconstruction of the country in the aftermath of the Korean War. Kim delivered a lengthy speech, but arguably one of the worst in his career according to Suh Dae-sook.

In it, he condemned the former leaders of the domestic faction, talked at length about the economic situation, the North Korean position in international affairs and promoting the efforts of the partisans during the Japanese occupation of Korea, but he never mentioned the two most pressing subjects of the time. He claimed that the domestic faction were to blame for the failure of the Korean War, while in tandem reiterated that Koreans should read more history while continuing to claim that the partisan activities were the basis of North Korean culture and ideology. However, he went on to note that Korean nationalists such as Kim Gu were patriots. Yi Chong-won, one of the country's leading historians, spoke in favour of Kim Il-sung's suggestions after his speech, claimed inaccurately that the partisans and Kim Il-sung had played the dominant role in liberating Korea from Japan. To elaborate his position further, the Procurator General Yi Song-un told the delegates that there still existed people, who belonged to the domestic faction, who had not undergone proper self-criticism or still supported the overthrow of the existing party leadership.

Changes were made with Pak Chong-ae presenting the changes to the congress. She told the delegates that the changes were made under influence from the 20th Congress of the CPSU; these amendments, were new by-laws. Three reasons for the amendments were given to the delegates; the majority of her presentation dealt with how the new amendments would protect ordinary party members from high-standing officials. These new members were designed to protect ordinary members, however "there was little in the bylaws to substantiate such protection." In any case, by this point the party's by-laws were symbolic more than anything else, Kim Il-sung and his partisan colleagues did not adhere to them. According to Kim Il-sung the party had grown since the 2nd Congress, having by the 3rd Congress 1,164,945 members in 58,529 cells; the party had grown despite of the Korean War, with an increase from the 2nd Congress by 439,183 members and 28,496 cells. The entire WPK membership represented 10 percent of the entire North Korean population.

The confusion which stemmed from the decisions of the 20th Congress of the CPSU were felt in the election of the 3rd Central Committee. Several Soviet Koreans still held high-standing party offices, including their informal leader Pak Chang-ok, while prominent members of the Yanan faction "whose revolutionary activities had been ridiculed by Kim in the past were reelected"; the same can be said of the domestic communists, several of them who were reelected were close to Pak Hon-yong, such as Ho Song-taek and Puk Mun-gyu. Despite t