Bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. The word "bamboo" comes from the Dutch or Portuguese languages, which borrowed it from Malay. In bamboo, as in other grasses, the internodal regions of the stem are hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross-section are scattered throughout the stem instead of in a cylindrical arrangement; the dicotyledonous woody xylem is absent. The absence of secondary growth wood causes the stems of monocots, including the palms and large bamboos, to be columnar rather than tapering. Bamboos include some of the fastest-growing plants in the world, due to a unique rhizome-dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow 910 mm within a 24-hour period, at a rate of 40 mm an hour. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family. Bamboos are of notable economic and cultural significance in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, being used for building materials, as a food source, as a versatile raw product.
Bamboo, like wood, is a natural composite material with a high strength-to-weight ratio useful for structures. Bamboo's strength-to-weight ratio is similar to timber, its strength is similar to a strong softwood or hardwood timber. Bamboos have long been considered the most primitive grasses because of the presence of bracteate, indeterminate inflorescences, "pseudospikelets", flowers with three lodicules, six stamens, three stigmata. Following more recent molecular phylogenetic research, many tribes and genera of grasses included in the Bambusoideae are now classified in other subfamilies, e.g. the Anomochlooideae, the Puelioideae, the Ehrhartoideae. The subfamily in its current sense belongs to the BOP clade of grasses, where it is sister to the Pooideae; the bamboos comprise three clades classified as tribes, these correspond with geographic divisions representing the New World herbaceous species, tropical woody bamboos, temperate woody bamboos. The woody bamboos do not form a monophyletic group.
Altogether, more than 1,400 species are placed in 115 genera. Most bamboo species are native to warm temperate climates. However, many species are found in diverse climates, ranging from hot tropical regions to cool mountainous regions and highland cloud forests. In the Asia-Pacific region they occur across East Asia, from north to 50 °N latitude in Sakhalin, to south to northern Australia, west to India and the Himalayas. China, Korea and Australia, all have several endemic populations, they occur in small numbers in sub-Saharan Africa, confined to tropical areas, from southern Senegal in the north to southern Mozambique and Madagascar in the south. In the Americas, bamboo has a native range from 47 °S in southern Argentina and the beech forests of central Chile, through the South American tropical rainforests, to the Andes in Ecuador near 4,300 m. Bamboo is native through Central America and Mexico, northward into the Southeastern United States. Canada and continental Europe are not known to have any native species of bamboo.
As garden plants, many species grow outside these ranges, including most of Europe and the United States. Some attempts have been made to grow bamboo on a commercial basis in the Great Lakes region of east-central Africa in Rwanda. In the United States, several companies are growing and distributing species such as Phyllostachys nigra and Phyllostachys edulis; the two general patterns for the growth of bamboo are "clumping", "running", with short and long underground rhizomes, respectively. Clumping bamboo species tend to spread as the growth pattern of the rhizomes is to expand the root mass similar to ornamental grasses. "Running" bamboos, need to be controlled during cultivation because of their potential for aggressive behavior. They spread through their rhizomes, which can spread underground and send up new culms to break through the surface. Running bamboo species are variable in their tendency to spread; some can send out runners of several metres a year, while others can stay in the same general area for long periods.
If neglected, over time, they can cause problems by moving into adjacent areas. Bamboos include some of the fastest-growing plants on Earth, with reported growth rates up to 910 mm in 24 hours. However, the growth rate is dependent on local soil and climatic conditions, as well as species, a more typical growth rate for many cultivated bamboos in temperate climates is in the range of 30–100 mm per day during the growing period. Growing in regions of warmer climates during the late Cretaceous period, vast fields existed in what is now Asia; some of the largest timber bamboo can grow over 30 m tall, be as large as 250–300 mm in diameter. However, the size range for mature bamboo is species-dependent, with the smallest bamboos reaching only several inches high at maturity. A typical height range that would cover many of the common bamboos grown in the United States is 4.5–12 m, depending on species. Anji County of China, known as the "Town of Bamboo", provides the optimal climate and soil conditions to grow and process some of the most valued bamboo poles available worldwide.
Unlike all trees, individual bamboo culms emerge from the ground at their full diam
The Laius complex revolves around the paternal wish for filicide for the extinction of the male heir, in an attempt to ensure one will have no successors. Indo-European mythology contains a number of stories of foundlings, like Cyrus the Great or Romulus and Remus, outcast after a prophesy that they will replace the dynasty into which they are born. In Greek mythology, Cronus had devoured his young because of his fear. Laius in the story of Oedipus casts the latter out to die as an infant because of "some wicked spell …. Saying the child would kill its father". Whereas Freud had laid stress on Oedipus’s filial violence against his father, George Devereux in 1953 introduced the term'Laius complex' to cover the corresponding feelings on the part of the father – what he called the "'counter-oedipal' complex". Explorations of masculinity have placed the aggressive aspects of the Laius complex within the broader frame of mammalian aggression against their young: what Gershon Legman called "the killing of the male children by the father".
Two specific psychosexual aspects of the complex have been highlighted. One lays stress on the magical thinking behind the complex – the unconscious belief that if one has no successors, one will be immortal; the other emphasises the narcissism in the Laius/Oedipus relationship – the belief that there is only room for a single figure to exist in life, leading to the destruction of the one or the other competitor, father or son. How far the playing down of the Laius neurosis can be linked to what Julia Kristeva called Freud's "paternal vision of childhood", remains for the 21st century an open question. Iris Levy, ‘The Laius Complex: From Myth to Psychoanalysis’ International Forum of Psychoanalysis 20 222-8 S-M Weineck, The Tragedy of Fatherhood Laius complex and mother-child symbiosis
Eminescu's Linden Tree is a 500-year-old silver lime in Copou Park, Iași, Romania. Mihai Eminescu wrote some of his best works underneath this lime, rendering the tree one of Romania's most important natural monuments and a Iași landmark. According to the Iasi Environmental Protection Agency's official data, the tree is 458 years old. A more recent survey conducted using an increment borer, placed the tree at 540 years of age; the tree was used as a civic symbol by the students who protested, in February 2013, against the removal of the linden tree alignment in the Iaşi city centre, its replacement by the local municipality with miniature Japanese shrubs. In November 2015, the decision was reversed following a public referendum on the topic, which resulted in the reinstatement of limes in the city centre. In June 2014, Asociatia Dendro-Ornamentala "Anastasie Fatu Iasi", backed by the Iaşi Academic Group and the'Iașul Iubește Teii' civic campaign, with support from'Asociația Peisagiștilor din România' and'Centrul de resurse pentru participare publica', warned the City Hall over the tree's near critical condition, asked for a number of emergency dendrological measures to be taken.
The same month, the City Hall complied with the request and, under the supervision of ing. dr. Ionel Lupu proceeded to treating the lime with Bordeaux mixture, insect repellent and organic soil enrichments. One day after the treatment, joined by local intellectuals and members of the public, ing. dr. Ionel Lupu, Professor Mandache Leocov and Professor Liviu Antonesei gathered near the tree and argued for the replanting of limes in the Iasi city centre, while accusing the City Hall of gross incompetence in managing the city's green spaces. Eminescu's Linden Tree Iasi - the county of centuries-old trees