Bandar Seri Begawan is the capital city of the Sultanate of Brunei. It is governed as a municipality. Bandar Seri Begawan has an estimated population of 100,700, including the whole Brunei-Muara District, the metro area has an estimated population of 279,924.'Bandar Seri Begawan' is derived from the official Malay name, translatable as'Seri Begawan City', with Seri Begawan being derived from Sanskrit meaning'the aura of the gods'. It was named after Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III, the previous Sultan of Brunei and the late father of the current Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah.'Seri Begawan' is part of the royal title bestowed on the late Sultan upon his abdication from the throne in 1967. The city was renamed in 1970 to commemorate his contribution to the development of the country during his reign on the modernisation of Brunei in the 20th century. Prior to this, the city had been known as'Bandar Brunei' or'Brunei Town'; the city is colloquially known by the local people as'Bandar', the Malay word for' City'.
However, the exact area that the name refers to may differ in conversational context: apart from referring to the same areas as the city's official jurisdiction,'Bandar' may refer to the Pusat Bandar area of the capital to distinguish from other named areas within the city, whereby they were not part of the capital prior to 2007. Meanwhile, it may sometimes extend beyond the city's proper area, encompassing its surrounding urbanised areas and to the extent of covering the whole of Brunei-Muara District; the reference of the latter is being used by the residents outside of the district. Human settlement in Brunei can be traced back to the 6th and 7th century with a Malay trading centre and fishing port near the current site of the city; the first settlement on the banks of the Brunei River can be traced to the 8th century where there had been settlements similar to those in Kampong Ayer, near the present site of the Brunei Museum with the modern city on the opposite shore. During the Bruneian Empire period from 15th–17th century, the Sultanate ruled much part of Borneo including the southern part of the Philippines and its capital of Manila, with the water settlement near the city area became the third centre of the administration.
When the Sultanate rule declined through the 18th century due to the arrival of Western powers such as the Spanish and the British, the settlement population decreased from its peak of 20,000 inhabitants. From 1888 until its independence in 1984, Brunei was a British protectorate and land development began in 1906 when the British resident encouraged the Sultanate citizens to move onto reclaimed land on the western bank of the inlet. In 1899, first oil well was drilled at Ayer Bekunchi near Bandar Seri Begawan. Although the well was drilled to a depth of 259 metres, no oil was found. Oil exploration in Brunei shifted to Seria and Belait District in 1924. Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II established a new palace on the west bank in 1909 after being persuaded by the British, along with the arrival of Chinese traders to boost the economy. A mosque and government buildings were built along the western shores in 1920. In the same year, the new settlement was declared the new capital of Brunei and became a municipal area.
However, the city's prosperity was ended when it was captured by the Japanese in 1941, before being recaptured by the Allied forces in 1945. During the war, most infrastructure was destroyed by Allied bombing; the British began reconstructing most of their possessions in Borneo at the end of 1945 with the restoration of law and order and the reopening of schools. In 1950, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III, upon his ascension to the throne, negotiated with the British for an increase in corporate taxes, growing from 10% to 30% in 1953. A M$1.2 million allotment to Brunei for war damages during the Japanese occupation increased from M$1 million in 1946 to M$100 million in 1952. A five-year development plan with a budget of M$100 million was implemented in 1953, with infrastructure receiving the largest percentage and the rest going toward social programmes. Together with the expansion of the oil and gas industry, commercialisation began to transform Brunei's capital and a large number of public buildings were constructed, along with the development of a central business district in the 1970s and 1980s.
On 1 August 2007, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah gave consent for the expansion of the city from 12.87 km2 to 100.36 km2. The city is administered by the Bandar Seri Begawan Municipal Board within Bandar Seri Begawan Municipal Department, a government department within the Ministry of Home Affairs; the Municipal Board was established in 1921 as a Sanitary Board which was, is still, responsible for maintaining the cleanliness to the Brunei Town. It achieved the status of bandaran in 1935 with the conversion of the Sanitary Board into the current Municipal Board. Bandar Seri Begawan is de facto a city but it is a municipality, thus has the same status as the towns of Tutong, Kuala Belait and Seria; the city is located in Brunei-Muara District, the smallest yet the most populous district in the country. The spatial jurisdiction of the city overlaps with the administrative divisions, namely mukims and villages. Since 2007, the city's official area has been expanded from 12.87 square kilometres to 100.36 square
In computing, a wireless intrusion prevention system is a network device that monitors the radio spectrum for the presence of unauthorized access points, can automatically take countermeasures. The primary purpose of a WIPS is to prevent unauthorized network access to local area networks and other information assets by wireless devices; these systems are implemented as an overlay to an existing Wireless LAN infrastructure, although they may be deployed standalone to enforce no-wireless policies within an organization. Some advanced wireless infrastructure has integrated WIPS capabilities. Large organizations with many employees are vulnerable to security breaches caused by rogue access points. If an employee in a location brings in an available wireless router, the entire network can be exposed to anyone within range of the signals. In July 2009, the PCI Security Standards Council published wireless guidelines for PCI DSS recommending the use of WIPS to automate wireless scanning for large organizations.
A wireless intrusion detection system monitors the radio spectrum for the presence of unauthorized, rogue access points and the use of wireless attack tools. The system monitors the radio spectrum used by wireless LANs, alerts a systems administrator whenever a rogue access point is detected. Conventionally it is achieved by comparing the MAC address of the participating wireless devices. Rogue devices can spoof MAC address of an authorized network device as their own. New research uses fingerprinting approach to weed out devices with spoofed MAC addresses; the idea is to compare the unique signatures exhibited by the signals emitted by each wireless device against the known signatures of pre-authorized, known wireless devices. In addition to intrusion detection, a WIPS includes features that prevent against the threat automatically. For automatic prevention, it is required that the WIPS is able to detect and automatically classify a threat; the following types of threats can be prevented by a good WIPS: Rogue access points – WIPS should understand the difference between rogue APs and external APs Mis-configured AP Client mis-association Unauthorized association Man-in-the-middle attack Ad hoc networks MAC spoofing Honeypot / evil twin attack Denial-of-service attack WIPS configurations consist of three components: Sensors — These devices contain antennas and radios that scan the wireless spectrum for packets and are installed throughout areas to be protected Server — The WIPS server centrally analyzes packets captured by sensors Console — The console provides the primary user interface into the system for administration and reportingA simple intrusion detection system can be a single computer, connected to a wireless signal processing device, antennas placed throughout the facility.
For huge organizations, a Multi Network Controller provides central control of multiple WIPS servers, while for SOHO or SMB customers, all the functionality of WIPS is available in single box. In a WIPS implementation, users first define the operating wireless policies in the WIPS; the WIPS sensors analyze the traffic in the air and send this information to WIPS server. The WIPS server correlates the information, validates it against the defined policies, classifies if it is a threat; the administrator of the WIPS is notified of the threat, or, if a policy has been set accordingly, the WIPS takes automatic protection measures. WIPS is configured as either a network implementation or a hosted implementation. In a network WIPS implementation, server and the console are all placed inside a private network and are not accessible from the Internet. Sensors communicate with the server over a private network using a private port. Since the server resides on the private network, users can access the console only from within the private network.
A network implementation is suitable for organizations where all locations are within the private network. In a hosted WIPS implementation, sensors are installed inside a private network. However, the server is hosted in secure data center and is accessible on the Internet. Users can access the WIPS console from anywhere on the Internet. A hosted WIPS implementation is as secure as a network implementation because the data flow is encrypted between sensors and server, as well as between server and console. A hosted WIPS implementation requires little configuration because the sensors are programmed to automatically look for the server on the Internet over a secure TLS connection. For a large organization with locations that are not a part of a private network, a hosted WIPS implementation simplifies deployment because sensors connect to the Server over the Internet without requiring any special configuration. Additionally, the Console can be accessed securely from anywhere on the Internet. Hosted WIPS implementations are available in an on-demand, subscription-based software as a service model.
Niccolò di Buonaccorso Niccolò di Niccolò di Buonaccorso or Bonaccorso, was an Italian painter and one of the most prominent Sienese painters of the 14th century. The small body of his work that survives shows the artist's refined miniaturist technique; the artist was briefly involved in local politics. Little is known about this painter, it is believed his father was the painter Buonaccorso di Pace. In 1355 Niccolò di Buonaccorso enrolled in the Guild of Sienese painters. In May and June 1372 and in March and April 1376 the artist served in the government of Siena. In 1381 he was elected honorary Gonfaloniere in the parish of San Martino. Niccolò di Buonaccorso was commissioned to paint the capello over the high altar of Siena Cathedral in 1376 and a panel of the prophet Daniel for an altar in the Cathedral in 1383. Only two signed works by the artist are known. One of these is The Marriage of the Virgin, one of a series of panels a triptych; the other is a polyptych, dated 1387. The artist's style is close to that of the Sienese masters of the Trecento, such as Jacopo di Mino del Pellicciaio whom he resembles in his capacity to represent space through illusionistic techniques.
Other influences are the traditions of Simone Martini. The artist demonstrates an exceptionally refined technical ability, his work shows a certain repetitiveness in the figures. Miklòs Boskovitz, Su Niccolò di Bonaccorso, Benedetto di Bindo and Sienese painting in the early fifteenth century, Comparison, 1980. Pia Palladino and devotion to Siena after 1350: Luca di Tommè, Nicolò di Buonaccorso, Timken Museum of Art, 1998. Juliet Dini, Five Centuries of Sienese painting, Thames & Hudson, 1998. Pope-Hennessy, John & Kanter, Laurence B.. The Robert Lehman Collection I, Italian Paintings. New York, Princeton: The Metropolitan Museum of Art in association with Princeton University Press. ISBN 0870994794. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter Media related to Niccolò di Buonaccorso at Wikimedia Commons