Himno Nacional Mexicano
The "Mexican National Anthem" known by its incipit "Mexicans, at the cry of war", is the national anthem of Mexico. The anthem was first used in 1854, although it was not adopted de jure until 1943; the lyrics of the national anthem, which allude to historical Mexican military victories in the heat of battle and including cries of defending the homeland, were composed by poet Francisco González Bocanegra after a Federal contest in 1853. In 1854, he asked Jaime Nunó to compose the music which now accompanies González's poem; the national anthem, consisting of ten stanzas and a chorus entered into use on September 16, 1854. On November 12, 1853, President Antonio López de Santa Anna announced a competition to write a national anthem for Mexico; the competition offered a prize for the best poetic composition representing patriotic ideals. Francisco González Bocanegra, a talented poet, was not interested in participating in the competition, he argued that writing love poems involved different skills from the ones required to write a national anthem.
His fiancée, Guadalupe González del Pino, had undaunted faith in her fiancé's poetic skills and was displeased with his constant refusal to participate in spite of her constant prodding and requests from their friends. Under false pretenses, she lured him to a secluded bedroom in her parents' house, locked him into the room, refused to let him out until he produced an entry for the competition. Inside the room in which he was temporarily imprisoned were pictures depicting various events in Mexican history which helped to inspire his work. After four hours of fluent inspiration, Francisco regained his freedom by slipping all ten verses of his creation under the door. After Francisco received approval from his fiancée and her father, he submitted the poem and won the competition by unanimous vote. González was announced the winner in the publication Official Journal of the Federation on February 3, 1854. A musical composition was chosen at the same time as the lyrics; the winner was Juan Bottesini.
This rejection caused a second national contest to find music for the lyrics. At the end of the second contest, the music, chosen for González's lyrics was composed by Jaime Nunó, the Catalan-born King of Spain's band leader. At the time of the second anthem competition, Nunó was the leader of several Mexican military bands, he had been invited to direct these bands by President Santa Anna. About the time that Nunó first came to Mexico to start performing with the bands, Santa Anna was making his announcement about creating a national anthem for Mexico. Nunó's anthem music composition was made like masterpieces of classical music, with a high quality in composition, was chosen. Out of the few musical compositions submitted, Nunó's music, titled "God and Freedom", was chosen as the winner on August 12, 1854; the song was adopted as the Mexican national anthem on Independence Day, September 16 of that same year. The inaugural performance was directed by Juan Bottesini, sung by soprano Claudia Florenti and tenor Lorenzo Salvi at the Santa Anna Theatre.
Since 1943, the full national anthem consists of the chorus and 1st, 5th, 6th, 10th stanzas. The modification of the lyrics was ordered by President Manuel Ávila Camacho in a decree printed in the Diario Oficial de la Federación; when the national anthem is played at sporting events such as the Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup, an abridged form is used. An unofficial semi-abridged form has gained some acceptance in radio programming. An urban legend about the copyright status of the anthem states that years after its first performance, family sold the musical rights to a German music publishing company named Wagner House. Nunó was supposed to have turned the music rights over to the state in exchange for a prize from the Mexican government. However, according to the myth, the copyright changed hands again, this time to Nunó himself and two Americans, Harry Henneman and Phil Hill. In reality, this is not correct, it is true that Nunó, Henneman and Hill did register the music with the company BMI, with the Edward B.
Marks Music Company as the listed publisher of the anthem. This might be the version. However, United States copyright law declares the Mexican anthem to be in the public domain inside the United States, since both the lyrics and music were published before 1909. Furthermore, under Mexican copyright law, Article 155 states that the government holds moral rights, but not property rights, of the national symbols, including the anthem, coat of arms and the national flag. In the second chapter of the Law on the National Arms and Anthem, the national anthem is described in brief terms. While Articles 2 and 3 discuss in detail the coat of arms and the flag Article 4 mentions only that the national anthem will be designated by law. Article 4 mentions that a copy of the lyrics and the musical notation will be kept at two locations, the General National Archive and at the National Library, located in the National Museum of History. Chapter 5 of the Law goes into more detail about how to honor and properly perform the national anthem.
Article 38 states that the singing, playing and circulation of the national anthem are regulated by law and that any interpretation of the anthem must be
Tijuana is the largest city of both Baja California State and the Baja Peninsula. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana transborder urban agglomeration and the larger Southern California megalopolis; as the 6th-largest city in Mexico and center of the 6th-largest metro area in Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence in education and politics – across Mexico, in transportation and art – across both Californias, in manufacturing and as a migration hub – across the North American continent. One of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in Mexico, Tijuana maintains global city status; as of 2015, the city of Tijuana had a population of 1,641,570. Tijuana is located on the Gold Coast of Baja California, is the municipal seat and the cultural and commercial center of Tijuana Municipality. Tijuana covers 70 % of 80 % of its population. A dominant manufacturing center of the North American continent, the city maintains facilities of many multinational conglomerate companies. In the early 21st century, Tijuana became the medical-device manufacturing capital of North America.
Tijuana is a growing cultural center and has been recognized as an important new cultural mecca. The city is the most visited border city in the globe. More than fifty million people cross the border between these two cities every year; this metropolitan crossing makes the San Ysidro Port of Entry the busiest land-border crossing in the world. It is estimated that the two border crossing stations between the cities proper of San Diego and Tijuana account for 300,000 daily border crossings alone. Tijuana is the westernmost city in Mexico. According to the 2015 census, the Tijuana metropolitan area was the fifth-largest in Mexico, with a population of 1,840,710, but rankings vary, the city itself was 6th largest and the municipality 3rd largest nationally; the international metropolitan region was estimated at about 5,158,459 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in the former Californias region, 19th largest metropolitan area in the Americas, the largest bi-national conurbation, shared between US and Mexico.
Tijuana is becoming more suburbanized like San Diego. Tijuana traces its modern history to the arrival of Spanish explorers in the 16th century who were mapping the coast of the Californias; as the American conquest of northern Mexico ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tijuana's new international position on the border gave rise to a new economic and political structure. The city was founded on July 1889 as urban development began. Known by its supposed initials, T. J. and nicknamed Gateway to Mexico, the city has served as a tourist center dating back to the 1880s. The city’s name comes from the rancho that Santiago Argüello Moraga established in 1829 on his Mexican land grant, naming it Rancho Tía Juana; the first Spanish mission call the settlement variously as'La Tía Juana','Tiguana','Tiuana','Tiwana','Tijuan','Ticuan', as well as'Tijuana'. While the Mexican city standardized to "Tijuana", the American term for both the river and a U. S. settlement, now part of San Ysidro remained "Tia Juana" until the mid-20th century.
The accepted theory among historians is that Tía Juana, as Argüello named his rancho, is derived from the word "Tiwan" in the language of the Kumeyaay – the original aboriginal inhabitants of the San Diego-Tijuana region. Urban legend, states that Tía Juana, which means Aunt Jane in Spanish, was a real person whose inn provided food and lodging to travelers. There is however no record of such an inn. In Spanish, the name is pronounced "Tee-HWAH-nah" /tiˈxwana/ – with three syllables, the "j" in Mexican Spanish pronounced as a guttural "h" sound. In English, the name is pronounced "Tee-HWAH-nuh" /tiːˈhwɑːnə/ but the incorrect pronunciation "Tee-uh-WAH-nuh" /tiːəˈwɑːnə/, based on the obsolete "Tía Juana", persists outside the San Diego area. In Southern California, Tijuana is referred to as "TJ" or T. J. Baja Californians have adopted this pronunciation as Tiyei. In Spanish the demonym for someone from Tijuana is Tijuanense, while in English the demonym is Tijuanan. A common slang term used for a person from Tijuana is Tijuanero.
The nickname Tijuas is popular among residents and visitors alike. Due to a recent increase in violence in the city, a new term is developing; the phrase Yo Tijuaneo, ¿y tú? translates to I Tijuanate, you?. This term comes from a new popular local verb Tijuanear meaning to Tijuana, describing the cosmopolitan aspects of living in the city and crossing the border; the land was inhabited by the Kumeyaay, a tribe of Yuman-speaking hunter-gatherers. Europeans arrived in 1542, when the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo toured the coastline of the area, which Sebastián Vizcaíno mapped in 1602. In 1769, Juan Crespí documented more details about the area, called the Valley of Tijuana. Junípero Serra founded the first mission of Alta California in nearby San Diego. Further settlement took place near the end of the mission era when José María de Echeandía, governor of the Baja California and Alta California, awarded a large land grant to Santiago Argüello in 1829; this large cattle ranch, Rancho Tía Juana, covered 100 km2.
Although "Tia Juana" means "Aunt Jane" in Spanish, the name was an adaptation of
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love and sense of attachment to a homeland and alliance with other citizens who share the same sentiment. This attachment can be a combination of many different feelings relating to one's own homeland, including ethnic, political or historical aspects, it encompasses a set of concepts related to, but mutually exclusive from those of nationalism. Some manifestations of patriotism emphasise the "land" element in love for one's native land and use the symbolism of agriculture and the soil – compare Blut und Boden. An excess of patriotism in the defense of a nation is called chauvinism; the English term patriot is first attested in the Elizabethan era. The abstract noun patriotism appears in the early 18th century; the general notion of civic virtue and group dedication has been attested in culture globally throughout the historical period. For the Enlightenment thinkers of 18th-century Europe, loyalty to the state was chiefly considered in contrast to loyalty to the Church.
It was argued that clerics should not be allowed to teach in public schools since their patrie was heaven, so that they could not inspire love of the homeland in their students. One of the most influential proponents of this classical notion of patriotism was Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Enlightenment thinkers criticized what they saw as the excess of patriotism. In 1774, Samuel Johnson published a critique of what he viewed as false patriotism. On the evening of 7 April 1775, he made the famous statement, "Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel." James Boswell, who reported this comment in his Life of Johnson, does not provide context for the quote, it has therefore been argued that Johnson was in fact attacking the false use of the term "patriotism" by contemporaries such as John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute and his supporters. However, there is no direct evidence to contradict the held belief that Johnson's famous remark was a criticism of patriotism itself. Patriotism may be strengthened by adherence to a national religion.
This is the opposite of the separation of church and state demanded by the Enlightenment thinkers who saw patriotism and faith as similar and opposed forces. Michael Billig and Jean Bethke Elshtain have both argued that the difference between patriotism and faith is difficult to discern and relies on the attitude of the one doing the labelling. Christopher Heath Wellman, professor of philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis, describes that a popular view of the "patriotist" position is robust obligations to compatriots and only minimal samaritan responsibilities to foreigners. Wellman calls this position "patriotist" rather than "nationalist" to single out the members of territorial, political units rather than cultural groups. George Orwell, in his influential essay Notes on Nationalism distinguished patriotism from the related concept of nationalism: "By'patriotism' I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force upon other people.
Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both culturally. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power; the abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, not for himself but for the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to sink his own individuality." "It is lamentable, that to be a good patriot one must become the enemy of the rest of mankind." Marxists have taken various stances regarding patriotism. On one hand, Karl Marx famously stated that "The working men have no country" and that "the supremacy of the proletariat will cause them to vanish still faster." The same view is promoted by present-day Trotskyists such as Alan Woods, "in favour of tearing down all frontiers and creating a socialist world commonwealth."On the other hand and Maoists are in favour of socialist patriotism based on the theory of socialism in one country. In the European Union, thinkers such as Jürgen Habermas have advocated a "Euro-patriotism", but patriotism in Europe is directed at the nation-state and more than not coincides with "Euroscepticism".
Several surveys have tried to measure patriotism for various reasons, such as the Correlates of War project which found some correlation between war propensity and patriotism. The results from different studies are time dependent. For example, patriotism in Germany before World War I ranked at or near the top, whereas today it ranks at or near the bottom of patriotism surveys. Since 1981, the World Values Survey explores people's national values and beliefs and refer to the average answer "for high income residents" of a country to the question "Are you proud to be?". It ranges from 1 to 4. Charles Blatberg, From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics: Putting Practice First, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-829688-6. Craig Calhoun, Is it Time to Be Postnational?, in Ethnicity and Minority Rights, Stephen May, Tariq Modood and Judith Squires. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. Pp. 231–56. Paul Gomberg, “Patriotism is Like Racism,” in Igor Primoratz, ed. Patriotism, Humanity Books, 2002, pp. 105–12.
ISBN 1-57392-955-7. Jürgen Habermas, “Appendix II: Citizenship and National Identity,” in Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of
History of Mexico
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. One of the important aspects of Mesoamerican civilizations was their development of a form of writing, so that Mexico's written history stretches back hundreds of years before the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519; this era before the arrival of Europeans is called variously the prehispanic era or the precolumbian era. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan became the Spanish capital Mexico City, remains the most populous city in Mexico. From 1521, the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire incorporated the region into the Spanish Empire, with New Spain its colonial era name and Mexico City the center of colonial rule, it became the capital of New Spain. During the colonial era, Mexico's long-established Mesoamerican civilizations mixed with European culture.
Nothing better represents this hybrid background than Mexico's languages: the country is both the most populated Spanish-speaking country in the world and home to the largest number of Native American language speakers in North America. For three centuries Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, whose legacy is a country with a Spanish-speaking and Western culture. After a protracted struggle for independence, New Spain became the sovereign nation of Mexico, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba. A brief period of monarchy, called the First Mexican Empire, was followed by the founding of the Republic of Mexico, established under a federal constitution in 1824. Legal racial categories were eliminated. Slavery was not abolished at independence in 1821 or with the constitution in 1824, but was eliminated in 1829. Mexico continues to be constituted as a federated republic, under the Mexican Constitution of 1917; the Age of Santa Anna is the period of the late 1820s to the early 1850s, dominated by criollo military-man-turned-president Antonio López de Santa Anna.
In 1846, the Mexican–American War was provoked by the United States, ending two years with Mexico ceding half of its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to the United States. Though Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the disastrous defeat, he returned to office; the Liberal Reform began with the overthrow of Santa Anna by Mexican liberals, ushering in La Reforma beginning in 1854. The Mexican Constitution of 1857 codified the principles of liberalism in law separation of church and state, equality before the law, that included stripping corporate entities of special status; the Reform sparked a civil war between liberals defending the constitution and conservatives, who opposed it. The War of the Reform saw the defeat of the conservatives on the battlefield, but conservatives remained strong and took the opportunity to invite foreign intervention against the liberals in order to forward their own cause; the French Intervention is the period when France invaded Mexico, nominally to collect on defaulted loans to the liberal government of Benito Juárez, but it went further and at the invitation of Mexican conservatives seeking to restore monarchy in Mexico, to set Maximilian I on the Mexican throne.
The US was engaged in its own Civil War at that time, so did not attempt to block the French invasion. Curiously, the famous "Cinco de Mayo" celebrations in the USA refer to the victory of the Mexican army in 1862 over the French invaders; the French had planned to support the Southern Confederacy in the USA after conquering Mexico. The French were foiled in that effort by the Mexicans, so in this sense, Mexico inadvertently aided Abraham Lincoln. For that reason, Abraham Lincoln supported the Mexican liberals. At the end of the Civil War in the US and the triumph of the Union forces, the US aided Mexican liberals against Maximilian's regime. France withdrew its support of Maximilian in 1867 and his monarchist rule collapsed in 1867 and Maximilian was executed. With the end of the Second Mexican Empire, the period called the Restored Republic brought back Benito Juárez as president. Following his death from a heart attack, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada succeed him, he was overthrown by liberal military man Porfirio Díaz, who after consolidating power ushered in a period of stability and economic growth.
The half-century of economic stagnation and political chaos following independence ended. The Porfiriato is the era when army hero Porfirio Díaz held power as president of Mexico continuously from 1876–1911, he promoted "order and progress" that saw the suppression of violence, modernization of the economy, the flow of foreign investment to the country. The period ended with the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Under Díaz, Mexico's industry and infrastructure were modernized by a strong, stable but autocratic central government. Increased tax revenues and better administration brought dramatic improvements in public safety, public health, mining, foreign trade, national finances; the Mexican Revolution is the chaotic period between 1910 and 1920 when Mexicans fought to determine their future after the end of the Díaz era. The uncertainty about presidential succession in 1910, when 80 year-old Díaz was re-elected in fraudulent elections, touched off violence in northern Mexico and in the state of Morelos, just south of Mexico City.
The sparking forces of the Mexican Revolution were elites outside Díaz's inn