The bandoneon is a type of concertina popular in Argentina and Uruguay. It is an essential instrument in most tango ensembles from the traditional orquesta típica of the 1910s onwards; as with other members of the concertina family, the bandoneon is held between both hands, by pulling and pushing actions force air through bellows and routing air through particular reeds as by pressing the instrument's buttons. Bandoneons have a different sound from accordions, because bandoneons do not have register switches that are common on accordions; the tone of the bandoneon can be changed a great deal using varied bellows pressure and overblowing, thus creating potential for expressive playing and diverse timbres. The Bandonion, so named by the German instrument dealer Heinrich Band, was intended as an instrument for religious and popular music of the day, in contrast to its predecessor, German concertina, which had predominantly been used in folk music. Around 1870, German and Italian emigrants and sailors brought the instrument to Argentina, where it was adopted into the nascent genre of tango music, a descendant of the earlier milonga.
By 1910 bandoneons were being produced expressly for the Argentine and Uruguayan markets, with 25,000 shipping to Argentina in 1930 alone. However, declining popularity and the disruption of German manufacturing in World War II led to an end of bandoneon mass-production. Original instruments can be seen in a number of German museums, such as the Preuss family's Bandoneon Museum in Lichtenberg and the Steinhart family's collection in Kirchzarten, Freiburg. Bandoneons were produced in Germany and never in Argentina itself, despite their popularity in that country; as a result, vintage bandoneons had by the 2000s become rare and expensive, limiting the opportunities for prospective bandeonists. In 2014, the National University of Lanús announced its plan to develop an affordable Argentine-made bandoneon, which it hoped to market for one-third to one-half of the cost of vintage instruments; as with other members of the concertina family, the bandoneon is held between both hands, pulling and pushing actions force air through bellows and through particular reeds as selected by pressing the instrument's buttons.
As with other concertinas, the button action is in parallel to the motion of the bellows, not perpendicular to it as with an accordion. Unlike what happens with a piano accordion, but in similar fashion to a melodeon or Anglo concertina, a given bandoneon button produces different notes on the push and the pull; this means that each keyboard has two layouts: one for opening notes, one for closing notes. Since the right and left hand layouts are different, a musician must learn four different keyboard layouts to play the instrument; these keyboard layouts are not structured to make it easy to play scale passages of single notes: they were laid out to facilitate playing chords, for supporting singers of religious music in small churches with no organ or harmonium, or for clergy requiring a portable instrument. While the standard bandoneon is bisonoric, some bandoneon variants are unisonoric; these include the Ernst Kusserow and Charles Peguri systems, both introduced around 1925. The Argentinian bandleader, composer and tango performer Aníbal Troilo was a leading 20th-century proponent of the bandoneon.
The bandoneon player and composer Ástor Piazzolla played and arranged in Troilo's orquesta from 1939 to 1944. Piazzolla's "Fugata" from 1969 showcases the instrument, which plays the initial fugue subject on the 1st statement moves on to the outright tango after the introduction. With his solos and accompaniment on the bandoneon, Piazzolla combined a musical composition much derived from classical music with traditional instrumental tango, to form nuevo tango, his new interpretation of the genre. Exterior: A look inside a bandoneon: Henry Doktorski The Classical Bandoneón Proyecto Bandomecum Bandoneon's Portal Page Christian's Bandoneon Page
Cash Rounding or Swedish rounding occurs when the minimum unit of account is smaller than the lowest physical denomination of currency. The amount payable for a cash transaction is rounded to the nearest multiple of the minimum currency unit available, whereas transactions paid in other ways are not rounded. Cash rounding occurs when low-denomination coins are removed from circulation owing to inflation. Cash rounding may be a compulsory legal requirement if such coins are no longer legal tender, or a voluntary practice where they remain in circulation but are scarce or impractical. Cash rounding was introduced in Sweden in 1972 when 1 and 2 öre coins were withdrawn from circulation, has continued to be applied at incremental levels as smaller denomination coins have been withdrawn; the current level of cash rounding in Sweden is to the closest whole krona, after the 50 öre coin was withdrawn in 2010. The Reserve Bank of New Zealand used the name "Swedish rounding" in 1990 when withdrawing their 1- and 2-cent coins.
In Canada, cash rounding to nearest nickel due to the elimination of the penny in 2013 is called penny rounding. When small-value coins are withdrawn, an alternative to the implementation of cash rounding is instead to increase the minimum unit of account to the smallest remaining currency unit and to round all prices and bank accounts to this value. Whereas cash rounding is an ongoing process, this alternative is a one-time conversion, it was done, for example, when the British farthing was withdrawn in 1960. Rounding is applied to the total of a bill, not to the line items on the bill; the total is rounded to the nearest multiple of the smallest denomination, which may be higher or lower than the unrounded total. Where the unrounded total is an equal distance from two multiples, practice varies: merchants may be required or encouraged to round down rather than up, giving the benefit to the buyer. An equal distance is possible when the rounding interval is an number; the introduction of cash rounding is accompanied by publicity campaigns for awareness among both consumers and implementing merchants.
Prices are rounded down to the nearest multiple of 5 cents for sales ending in: 1¢ & 2¢. This is done, in Canada. Prices are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 cents for sales ending in: 3¢ & 4¢; this is done in Canada, for example. Values ending in 0¢ or 5¢ remain unchanged; this is used in New Zealand, which eliminated its 5 cent coin in 2006, in Hong Kong, which eliminated its 5 cent coin in 1989 and 1 cent coin in 1995. In practice only utility bills, petrol stations and banks still keep the cent. All other businesses use only ten cent intervals. Round down to the nearest 10 cent value for sales ending in 1 to 4 cents; the majority of retailers round it down. In Sweden between 1985 and 1992, prices were rounded up for sales ending in 5 öre. In the People's Republic of China, coins smaller than 1 jiao are now rare though still valid; as a result, many shops truncate their bills down to the next 1-jiao increment, giving the customer a discount of up to 9 fen. In Israel, 5 agorot coins were removed from circulation on 1 January 2008, after 1 agora coins had been removed in 1991.
Transaction amounts can still be specified to the nearest agora. Cash purchase totals are rounded to the nearest 10 agorot. A 5 agorot total is rounded up to 10 agorot. In Ukraine, from 1 October 2019, the 1-, 2- & 5-kopiyka coins would be demonetized and withdrawn from circulation, with the 25-kopiyok coin withdrawn. From all cash payments would be rounded to the nearest 10 kopiyok; the system used in Denmark from 1989 to 2008 is the following: Sales ending in 1-12 øre round down to 0 øre. Sales ending in 13-37 øre round to 25 øre. Sales ending in 38-62 øre round to 50 øre. Sales ending in 63-87 øre round to 75 øre. Sales ending in 88-99 øre round up to the next whole krone; the system used in Sweden from 1992 to 2010, in Norway from 1993 to 2012, in Denmark since 1 October 2008 is the following: Sales ending in 1–24 öre/øre round down to 0 öre. Sales ending in 25–49 öre/øre round up to 50 öre. Sales ending in 51–74 öre/øre round down to 50 öre. Sales ending in 75–99 öre/øre round up to the next whole krona.
In practice, the proportion of transactions rounded upwards is greater, due to psychological pricing of items ending in 90–99 öre. Rounding is only done on the total sum of a purchase. In some shops, all prices are rounded to the whole krone, so that no rounding takes place; the system used in Sweden since 30 September 2010 and used in Norway since 1 May 2012. Sales ending in 1–49 öre/øre round down to 0 öre/øre. Sales ending in 50–99 öre/øre round up to the next whole krona/krone. Mil Penny debate in the United States Take a penny, leave a penny
Creation and the Messiah is the title of an epic poem written by the Norwegian poet Henrik Wergeland in 1829. The scale of the poem invited criticism by Wergeland's counterpart, Johan Sebastian Welhaven. In 1845, while on his deathbed, Wergeland republished it under the title Man; the poem starts out at the beginning of history, with two spirits watching and arguing over the newly created earth. One of them, Phun-Abiriel, is dismayed, because he is eager to create on his own, but unlike God, his thoughts do not take shape. In the process, he wishes to see God, but can't. Phun-Abiriel's friend, patiently explains to him that the spirits are not able to see the eternal, that Phun-Abiriel is considered a newborn spirit or a rash youth. Anyway, Ohebiel can't help him from brooding; as they talk, the heavenly host led by the eldest of spirits, Akadiel. Akadiel and the host witness the birth of life, as recalled in Genesis, over a period of six days. At the end of this part, Akadiel holds his speech to the still-sleeping human couple, demanding of them that they shall be rulers over themselves first, over the creation as such, honour God in the creation and in themselves.
Phun-Abiriel, still broods over the sleeping humans below him. He makes up his mind that he would rather rule the earth as a man than be the most lowly of heavenly spirits, he decides he will become the soul of the sleeping man, the little "geist" that were in man before him, shall become "dream", as he himself will be called "thought". Phun-Abiriel descends and merges with the sleeping Adam, as this happens, he forgets his spiritual self and his background. Ohebiel, watching this and wonders what will happen if the woman awakes without soul, what kind of monster would come from the union of the two. To hinder this, she merges with Eve, after the advice of Akadiel, she sacrifices herself on behalf of humanity with the words: "Man, hope!" The history of humanity, at this point, can proceed as planned. This second part is the longest section of the epic poem, it follows the life of Adam and Eve, their recognition as kindred spirits. There are parts of Biblical history detailed, such as Cain and Abel, the great flood, so on.
This part consists of two monologues, one considering secular power, one considering clerical power, over people's goods and thoughts. This part tells of the archetypical man, both a king and a sage, along with a culture-hero, who teaches people to build cities, till the earth, govern justly and look into themselves for the truth; the woman teaches people agriculture, is hailed as Isis, Ceres and Athena. The man is hailed as Osiris, Crishna, Fu Hsi in China, Odin, Dionysus, Herakles and Saturn; as Man works to enlighten humanity, he is acknowledged as Kneph, Zerouane-Akherene, Huang Di, Nyame, Sommonadokom, Allfađir and Eloah. In the process, the vedam, the Zen, the I Ching, the ten commandments are established as laws and guidelines; the last names to be given of this amalgam of earthly wisdom are: Hermes, Zerdust, Yu the Great, Buddha, Manu and Moses. In the end, Akadiel approaches and foretells how this golden age of wisdom and prosperity will corrupt itself to the iron age, with chained thralls and manipulation.
He tells that humanity, the "abiriels" will rise and cast off their chains, to make a new priesthood in freedom and brotherly love. This part is a return to the theme of the lords and the priests, telling of exploitation and greed on behalf of the few; the voices from the people answer the demands of the lordships. This part contains scenes of romance, telling how individuals in love with one another can disregard their own potential differences between casts and classes; this section tells how the rulers and priests continue their treatment of ordinary people by means of practices such as human sacrifice and dictatorship. This part contains 28 different scenes. Philosophers Greeks, are introduced into the epic poem here. Plato is hailed by Akadiel as the one who perceives most God's overall plan for humanity and the coming of Christ; some of the Jewish sects are introduced, such as the Pharisees and the Sadducees. In the end, the prophet Mika foretells the coming of Christ; this part tells how Wergeland envisioned the difference between the unblessed.
Characters from the "power and deceit" section are introduced again. In Wergeland's spirit-world, hell is a personal state of circumstances; this third main part concentrates on Jesus and the story afterwards. Jesus is introduced mourning the history of their toils. Under Akadiel's guidance, Jesus walks out to his task, in a sequence based on the gospels. During this section, Jesus delivers a speech, based loosely on the Sermon on the Mount, where he tells the human spirit to acknowledge itself as what it is, through love; this last section of the poem was written for the revised version of 1845. The ironic title of this section refers to the Roman Empire`s transition to Christianity in the fourth century. Wergeland states that the Roman emperor