James Clair Flood
James Clair Flood was an American businessman who made a fortune thanks to the Comstock Lode in Nevada. His mining operations are recounted to this day as an example of what may be done with a rich ore body. Flood piled up millions as one of the famed Bonanza Kings and is considered to have one of the 100 wealthiest Americans. He is famous for two mansions, the James C, Flood Mansion at 1000 California St. in San Francisco, and Linden Towers located in Menlo Park, torn down in 1936. James Clair Flood was born on Staten Island, N. Y. to Irish immigrant parents and he had an eighth grade education, and was apprenticed to a New York carriage maker. In 1849 he sailed for San Francisco and the Gold Rush, after some success in the mines, he returned east to marry Mary Emma Leary of County Wexford, Ireland. They were back in San Francisco by 1854, Flood had two children, Jennie who never married, and James L. born in 1857. James L. had a son, James Flood born in 1900, as a tribute to his father, James L.
built the Flood Building on San Franciscos Market Street, which in 2003 was still owned by the Flood family. In 1857 James Flood opened a saloon with partner William S. OBrien on Washington street in San Francisco, in 1858 they sold the saloon and went into business as stockbrokers. After the discovery of silver in Nevada in 1859, the partners began investing in mining stocks, the following year, Flood and OBrien formed a partnership with fellow Irishmen James Graham Fair, a mine superintendent, and John William Mackay, a mining engineer. Mackay and Fair had the knowledge and Flood and OBrien raised the money. The purchase price of the claims, to become fabulously a source of wealth, was about $100,000, the original stock issue was 10,700 shares, selling for between $4 and $5 a share. The new firm gained control of the Consolidated Virginia Mining Company stock in 1873, the ore body was more than 1,200 feet deep, which yielded in March of that year as much as $632 per ton. A little while after uncovering the big bonanza the price of the stock went skyward, Flood is traditionally credited with having directed the subsequent proceedings so far as stock market operations were concerned.
San Francisco and the mining world were hurtled into a fever of excitement by proof of early reports of richness of the mining claims. The first stock issue was converted into two issues of 108,000 shares each, and by the middle of 1875 the speculative value of the two mines were close to $1,000,000,000, shares went as high as $710. It was said that in the first six months of 1875 the output of the mines averaged $1,500,000 monthly, seats on the San Francisco Stock and Exchange Board jumped to $25,000 each as a result of the excitement. Varied interests sought to obtain control of the rich properties
Angel Island (California)
Angel Island is an island in San Francisco Bay offering expansive 360° views of the San Francisco skyline, the Marin County Headlands and Mount Tamalpais. The entire island is included within Angel Island State Park and is administered by California State Parks, Angel Island is the second largest island in area of the San Francisco Bay. The island is so large that on a day and Napa can be seen from the north side of the island. The highest point on the island, almost exactly at its center, is Mount Caroline Livermore at a height of 788 feet, the island is separated from the mainland of Marin County by Raccoon Strait, the depth of the water approximately 90 feet. The United States Census Bureau reported an area of 3.107 km². Until about ten years ago, Angel Island was connected to the mainland. From about two years ago the island was a fishing and hunting site for Coast Miwok Native Americans. Similar evidence of Native American settlement is found on the mainland of the Tiburon Peninsula upon Ring Mountain.
In 1775, the Spanish naval vessel San Carlos made the first European entry to the San Francisco Bay under the command of Juan de Ayala, Ayala anchored off Angel Island, and gave it its modern name, the bay where he anchored is now known as Ayala Cove. In his book Two Years Before the Mast, published in 1840, Richard Henry Dana, like much of the California coast, Angel Island was subsequently used for cattle ranching. In 1863, during the American Civil War, the U. S. Army was concerned about Confederate naval raiders attacking San Francisco and it decided to construct artillery batteries on Angel Island, first at Stuart Point and Point Knox. Col. René Edward De Russy was the Chief Engineer, James Terry Gardiner was the engineer tasked with designing and supervising the work. The Army established a camp on the island, and it became an infantry garrison during the US campaigns against Native American peoples in the West. In the 19th century, the designated the entire island as Fort McDowell and developed further facilities there.
A quarantine station was opened in Ayala Cove in 1891, during the Spanish–American War the island served as a discharge depot for returning troops. It continued to serve as a transit station throughout the first half of the 20th century, at the end of World War I the disembarkation center was commanded by William P. Burnham, who had commanded the 82nd Division in France during the war. In 1938, hearings concerning charges of membership in a political party against labor leader Harry Bridges were held on Angel Island before Dean James Landis of Harvard Law School. After eleven weeks of testimony that filled nearly 8,500 pages, the decision was accepted by the United States Department of Labor and Bridges was freed
Virginia City, Nevada
Virginia City is a census-designated place that is the county seat of Storey County, Nevada. It is part of the Reno–Sparks Metropolitan Statistical Area, Virginia City sprang up as a boomtown with the 1859 discovery of the Comstock Lode, the first major silver deposit discovery in the United States, with numerous mines opening. At the citys peak of population in the mid-1870s, it had an estimated 25,000 residents, the mines output declined after 1878, and the city itself declined as a result. As of the 2010 Census the population of Virginia City was about 855, peter ORiley and Patrick McLaughlin are credited with the discovery of the Comstock Lode. Henry T. P. Comstocks name was associated with the discovery through his own machinations. Finney was the best judge of placer ground in Gold Canyon, locating the quartz footwall of the Ophir on 22 Feb.1858,1859, and the placers below Ophir in 1857. After the discovery of the Comstock Lode in 1859, the town developed seemingly overnight on the slopes of Mount Davidson.
Below the town were dug intricate tunnels and shafts for silver mining, the Comstock Lode discovery and subsequent growth of Virginia City was unequaled by the history of other precious metal discoveries. By 1876 Nevada produced over half of all the metals in the United States. The Comstock produced silver and gold ore valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars, the wealth supported the Northern cause during the American Civil War and flooded the world monetary markets, resulting in economic changes. Virginia Citys silver ore discoveries were not part of the California Gold Rush, at the time of the discovery of the Comstock Lode, silver was considered the monetary equal of gold, and all production was purchased by the federal government for use in coinage. In 1873, silver was demonetized by the government, in part due to the flood of silver into international markets from the silver mines of Virginia City. Technical problems plagued the early mining efforts, requiring the development of new mining technology to support the challenge, German engineer Philip Deidesheimer created a timbering system for mining tunnels called square sets, which enabled the retrieval of huge amounts of silver ore in a safe manner.
As technological advancements, these were used many times over in mining applications. In 1876 one observer reported that in Virginia City, “every activity has to do with the mining, transportation, or reduction of ore, or the melting and assaying of silver bullion. ”Like many cities and towns in Nevada, Virginia City was a mining boomtown. But, Virginia City far surpassed all others for its peak of population, technological advancements developed there, the riches of the Comstock Lode inspired men to hunt for silver mines throughout Nevada and other parts of the American West. Virginia City population increased from 4,000 in 1862 to over 15,000 in 1863 and it fluctuated depending on mining output. US Census figures do not reflect all of these frequent changes, the city included gas and sewer lines, the one hundred room International Hotel with elevator, three theatres, the Maguire Opera House, four churches, and three daily newspapers
Louis McLane was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County and Baltimore, Maryland. He was a veteran of the War of 1812 and a member of the Federalist Party and the Democratic Party. Senator from Delaware, U. S. Secretary of the Treasury, U. S. Secretary of State, Minister Plenipotentiary to the United Kingdom, as a member of President Andrew Jacksons Cabinet, McLane was a prominent figure during the Bank War. He helped draft the Force Bill in 1833, named for the King of France, Louis McLane was born in Smyrna, son of Allen and Rebecca Wells McLane. Allen McLane was a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and long time tax collector for the port of Wilmington and he was well-known and a fervently loyal Federalist. In fact, he held the office until the administration of Andrew Jackson, much of his income came from the seizure of contraband and Louis McLane inherited much of this wealth, along with legal issues that lasted well beyond the death of his father. Louis McLane attended private schools and served as a midshipman on the USS Philadelphia for one year before he was 18 and he attended Newark College, the University of Delaware, and studied law under James A.
Bayard. Admitted to the bar in 1807, he began a practice in Wilmington, during the War of 1812, McLane joined the Wilmington Artillery Company, formed for the purpose of defending Wilmington. When Baltimore was threatened, they marched to its defense, but were sent back due to lack of provisions for them in Baltimore, they saw no action, and McLane left the unit as a 1st Lieutenant. Following the War of 1812 Delaware was unique in continuing to have a viable Federalist Party, New Castle County manufacturers joined most of the old Federalist Party leadership in making the Whigs the new majority in the state. This included McLane’s mentor, James A. Bayard and various members of the Clayton family, especially Thomas Clayton and his cousin, from on the Clayton cousins became McLane’s principle political opponents in Delaware. Nevertheless, McLane was elected six times as a Federalist to the U. S. House of Representatives and he had a most distinguished career in the U. S. House, serving five full terms from March 4,1817 to March 3,1827.
In spite being a Federalist, he was Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, during these sessions the Federalist Party was so small and weak that partisan divisions mattered much less than the personal relationships that developed among the members. McLane quickly became a friend and admirer of William H. Crawford and Martin Van Buren and these friendships were based more on personality than policy agreement, and were so important that McLane was one of Crawford’s strongest proponents in the presidential election of 1824. Once Crawford returned to Georgia, McLane, Van Buren, and this was all the easier for him given his existing friendship with Martin Van Buren, who became his mentor and advocate. McLane moved to the U. S. Senate and served there from March 4,1827 until April 29,1829, leading up to the presidential election of 1828, he worked very hard in a losing effort to win Delaware for Andrew Jackson. In doing so he cut his ties to the Claytons. Clearly he would have little hope of reelection to the U. S.
Senate or any future in Delaware politics, all his considerable hopes for a prestigious position rested with an appointment from the new president
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Tokio Marine Holdings, Inc. is a multinational insurance holding company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is the largest property/casualty insurance group in Japan in terms of revenue and is the parent company for the Tokio Marine Group which employs 36,000 people in 38 countries worldwide, founded in 1879 as Tokio Marine Insurance, it is the oldest insurance company in Japan. Tokio Marine acquired the Philadelphia Insurance Companies for $4.7 billion in 2008, in June 2015, Tokio Marine announced it would be acquiring HCC Insurance Holdings for $7.5 billion. Tokio Marine forecast that 46% of its profits would come from outside Japan following the HCC acquisition, Domestic Non-Life Insurance Business Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co. E. design Insurance Tokio Marine Millea SAST Domestic Life Insurance Business Tokio Marine & Nichido Life Insurance Co, Tokio Marine & Nichido Financial Life Insurance Co. Millea Real-Estate-Risk Management Tokio Marine & Nichido Facilities Millea Mondial Tokio Marine Nichido Samuel Tokio Marine Holdings - Annual Report 2011 Company website Company website
Gold Hill, Nevada
Gold Hill is an unincorporated community in Storey County, located just south and downhill of Virginia City. Incorporated December 17,1862, in order to prevent its annexation by its larger neighbor, prosperity was sustained for a period of 20 years between 1868 and 1888 by mining the Comstock Lode, a major deposit of gold and silver ore. Mines such as the Yellow Jacket, Crown Point, and Belcher brought in over $10 million each in dividends, the Gold Hill post office remained in operation until 1943. Today Gold Hill exists as a shell of its former self and it is part of the Reno–Sparks Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population of Gold Hill was largely Cornish and was one of their settlements in the Comstock area. Just under a million dollars worth of ore was extracted after 1930. Active mining has returned to lower Gold Hill, with the start of production at Comstock Minings Lucerne, Hartford and he laid track on that right of way and began operating a steam-powered tourist railroad. Today Gold Hill is a stop on this tourist railroad, which operates steam trains attracting thousands of tourists each year.
Gold Hill is the birthplace of Marion Jones Farquhar, Olympic bronze medal winner, picture of Gold Hill as a sprawling town circa 1875 The Virginia and Truckee Railroad and its history. Gold Hill Hotel 360 Walk through - The Haunted Explorers
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Mitsubishi Corporation is Japans largest trading company and a member of the Mitsubishi keiretsu. Mitsubishi Corporation employs over 60,000 people and has seven segments, including finance, energy, chemicals. The company traces its roots to the Mitsubishi conglomerate founded by Yataro Iwasaki, Iwasaki was originally employed by the Tosa clan of modern-day Kōchi Prefecture, who posted him to Nagasaki in the 1860s. During this time, Iwasaki became close to Sakamoto Ryōma, a figure in the Meiji Restoration that ended the Tokugawa shogunate. Iwasaki was placed in charge of the Tosa clans trading operation, Tsukumo Shokai and this company changed its name in the following years to Mitsukawa Shokai and to Mitsubishi Shokai. Around 1871, the company was renamed Mitsubishi Steamship Company and began a service between Yokohama and Shanghai with government sponsorship. Under Iwasakis leadership in the late 1800s, Mitsubishi diversified its business into insurance, in 1918, the groups international trading business was spun off to form Mitsubishi Shoji Kaisha.
After the war, the administration of Douglas MacArthur called for the dissolution of the corporations that dominated the Japanese economy. Mitsubishi was the major zaibatsu to initially refuse this request, at the orders of president Kotaya Iwasaki. Mitsubishi eventually dissolved in 1947, and under restrictive rules imposed by the occupation authorities, beginning in 1950, the restrictions on re-consolidation of the zaibatsu were eased, and by 1952 most of the former Mitsubishi Shoji had coalesced into three companies. It changed its name to Mitsubishi Corporation in 1971, by 1960, Mitsubishi had fifty-one overseas offices. Mitsubishis first large-scale investment outside Japan was a natural gas project in Brunei. By 2015 Mitsubishi was again the general trading company by net earnings. Mitsubishi Corporation has its office in Marunouchi, Tokyo. The head office is located in two buildings in Marunouchi, Mitsubishi Shoji Building and Marunouchi Park Building, Mitsubishi Corporation businesses are divided into eight business sections, Business Service Group, Focuses on information technology.
Mitsubishi is the Japanese partner of Tata Consultancy Services and operates a center in Mitaka. Global Environmental & Infrastructure Business Group, Handles transportation, water and its infrastructure projects include airports in Mandalay and Ulaanbataar, urban railways in Cairo and Dubai, and power projects under the Diamond Generating and Diamond Transmission names. In 2015, Mitsubishi announced an alliance with Turkeys Çalık Enerji to boost its infrastructure business in Turkey
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation is a Japanese multinational electronics and electrical equipment manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is one of the companies of Mitsubishi. Mitsubishi Electric manufactures electric and architectural equipment, and is a worldwide producer of photovoltaic panels. The corporation was established on 15 January 1921, in the United States, products are manufactured and sold by Mitsubishi Electric United States headquartered in Cypress, California. Malaysia Singapore South Korea Thailand Mitsubishi Electric Saudi Ltd, televisions The companys most notable products in the United States come from the large-screen HDTV division. Competitors in this market are Sony, Panasonic, JVC, Daewoo, LG, the company manufactured direct-view CRT televisions until 2001. The last notable size in this field was a 40 tube size, Mitsubishi manufactured LCD TVs until 2008. Mitsubishi manufactured DLP High Definition TVs until December,2012, the company is now focusing on professional and home theater DLP projection applications, and is no longer manufacturing televisions for the consumer market.
Air conditioners EcoCute heat pump water heaters Dehumidifiers Uninterruptible Power Supply systems Mobile phones, Mitsubishi quit the mobile phone business in Apr 2008 after decrease in shipments. They estimated a loss of 17 billion Yen in income before income taxes. The Corporation claims to have achieved the worlds first transmission at 10 Gbit/s between relay equipment boards set at a distance of 500 mm apart, Mitsubishi previously made Video Cassette Recorders known as the Mitsubishi Black Diamond VCR