Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of their debts. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order initiated by the debtor. Bankrupt is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency; the word bankruptcy is derived from Italian banca rotta, meaning "broken bench", which may stem from a widespread custom in the Republic of Genoa of breaking a moneychanger's bench or counter to signify their insolvency, or which may be only a figure of speech. In Ancient Greece, bankruptcy did not exist. If a man owed and he could not pay, he and his wife, children or servants were forced into "debt slavery", until the creditor recouped losses through their physical labour. Many city-states in ancient Greece limited debt slavery to a period of five years. However, servants of the debtor could be retained beyond that deadline by the creditor and were forced to serve their new lord for a lifetime under harsher conditions.
An exception to this rule was Athens. The Statute of Bankrupts of 1542 was the first statute under English law dealing with bankruptcy or insolvency. Bankruptcy is documented in East Asia. According to al-Maqrizi, the Yassa of Genghis Khan contained a provision that mandated the death penalty for anyone who became bankrupt three times. A failure of a nation to meet bond repayments has been seen on many occasions. Philip II of Spain had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596. According to Kenneth S. Rogoff, "Although the development of international capital markets was quite limited prior to 1800, we catalog the various defaults of France, Prussia and the early Italian city-states. At the edge of Europe, Egypt and Turkey have histories of chronic default as well." The principal focus of modern insolvency legislation and business debt restructuring practices no longer rests on the elimination of insolvent entities, but on the remodeling of the financial and organizational structure of debtors experiencing financial distress so as to permit the rehabilitation and continuation of the business.
For private households, some argue that it is insufficient to dismiss debts after a certain period. It is important to assess the underlying problems and to minimize the risk of financial distress to re-occur, it has been stressed that debt advice, a supervised rehabilitation period, financial education and social help to find sources of income and to improve the management of household expenditures must be provided during this period of rehabilitation. In most EU Member States, debt discharge is conditioned by a partial payment obligation and by a number of requirements concerning the debtor's behavior. In the United States, discharge is conditioned to a lesser extent; the spectrum is broad in the EU, with the UK coming closest to the US system. The Other Member States do not provide the option of a debt discharge. Spain, for example, passed a bankruptcy law in 2003 which provides for debt settlement plans that can result in a reduction of the debt or an extension of the payment period of maximally five years, but it does not foresee debt discharge.
In the US, it is difficult to discharge federal or federally guaranteed student loan debt by filing bankruptcy. Unlike most other debts, those student loans may be discharged only if the person seeking discharge establishes specific grounds for discharge under the Brunner test, under which the court evaluates three factors: If required to repay the loan, the borrower cannot maintain a minimal standard of living. If a debtor proves all three elements, a court may permit only a partial discharge of the student loan. Student loan borrowers may benefit from restructuring their payments through a Chapter 13 bankruptcy repayment plan, but few qualify for discharge of part or all of their student loan debt. Bankruptcy fraud is a white-collar crime. While difficult to generalize across jurisdictions, common criminal acts under bankruptcy statutes involve concealment of assets, concealment or destruction of documents, conflicts of interest, fraudulent claims, false statements or declarations, fee fixing or redistribution arrangements.
Falsifications on bankruptcy forms constitute perjury. Multiple filings are not in and of themselves criminal, but they may violate provisions of bankruptcy law. In the U. S. bankruptcy fraud statutes are focused on the mental state of particular actions. Bankruptcy fraud is a federal crime in the United States. Bankruptcy fraud should be distinguished from strategic bankruptcy, not a criminal act since it creates a real bankruptcy state. However, it may still work against the filer. All assets must be disclosed in bankruptcy schedules whether or not the debtor believes the asset has a net value; this is because once a bankruptcy petition is filed, it is for the creditors, not the debtor, to decide whether a particular asset has value. The future ramifications of omitting assets from schedules can be quite serious for the offending debtor. In the United States, a closed bankruptcy may be reopened by motion of a credit
Never Mind the Buzzcocks is a British comedy panel game, themed on pop music, that aired between 1996 and 2015. It first starred Phill Jupitus and Sean Hughes as team captains, with Hughes being replaced by Bill Bailey from the eleventh series, Bailey replaced by Noel Fielding from series 21 onward; the show was produced by Talkback for the BBC, aired on BBC Two. The title plays on the names of punk rock band Sex Pistols' Never Mind the Bollocks album, the punk band Buzzcocks; the series was first hosted by Mark Lamarr by Simon Amstell, by a number of guest presenters, with Rhod Gilbert hosting the final series. The show was noted and known for its dry, sarcastic humour and scathing, provocative attacks on other people and objects, it had some controversial guests throughout its 18-year run. On 26 May 2015, it was announced that the BBC had decided not to re-commission the show, in order to "create space for new entertainment formats"; the show ran from 1996 until 2015. From its inception until December 2005, it was presented by Mark Lamarr.
Simon Amstell started hosting in October 2006. Regular team captains include Phill Jupitus, Sean Hughes, Bill Bailey, Noel Fielding, the guest captains. Bill Bailey had appeared as a guest in series 4 on Phill Jupitus's team and series 5 on Sean Hughes's team. At the end of 2005, it was announced that Mark Lamarr was to take a break from the show after 150 episodes, to concentrate on other projects; the series that aired in early 2006 was hosted by guest presenters, before being permanently handed over to Simon Amstell, who had appeared twice as a panellist, once as a guest presenter. The first time Amstell appeared as a panellist under Lamarr's tenure, Lamarr jokingly accused him of "stealing his act". Following series 20, a highlights show was broadcast, presented by Alan Yentob as a parody of his own arts series Imagine; the highlights programme was sub-titled Imagine… A Mildly Amusing Panel Show. From on, every series included a compilation highlights show including some mockumentary-style "behind the scenes" footage.
Series 20 of Never Mind the Buzzcocks concluded on 7 March 2007. The show began its 21st series on 15 November 2007 with Simon Amstell as host and Phill Jupitus and Bill Bailey as team captains, although Noel Fielding temporarily replaced Bill Bailey for three episodes of series 21. Series 21 concluded on 14 February 2008. On 18 September 2008, the BBC announced that Bill Bailey would be leaving the show, after eleven series, to concentrate on other commitments. While Simon Amstell and Phill Jupitus returned for the show's 22nd series, Bailey was replaced by a series of guest captains, including comedians Bob Mortimer, Jack Dee, Frank Skinner, Stephen Fry, James Corden, Mark Watson, Russell Brand, producer Mark Ronson and television presenters Dermot O'Leary and Davina McCall. On 25 April 2009, Amstell announced via his internet mailing list that he would not be hosting another series of Never Mind the Buzzcocks because of his desire to concentrate on his live tours and performances instead.
The new series began 1 October with Noel Fielding as a new permanent captain. Guest hosts included Alex James, Dermot O'Leary, Jack Whitehall, Rhod Gilbert, David Walliams, Claudia Winkleman, Frank Skinner, Frankie Boyle, James Corden, Mark Watson, Martin Freeman and David Tennant. In 2010, guest hosts continued to present the show's 24th series, including Mark Ronson, Jack Dee, Josh Groban, Terry Wogan, Tim Minchin, Robert Webb, Tim Westwood, Catherine Tate, Frankie Boyle and David O'Doherty, who hosted a compilation show transmitted on 11 January 2011. On 16 July 2011, the first live Never Mind the Buzzcocks special was hosted at Latitude, it lasted two hours, was hosted by David O'Doherty, had the team captains Phil Jupitus and Noel Fielding, featured guests Seann Walsh, Charlie Baker, Paloma Faith and Robert Milton. On 9 July 2014, it was confirmed that Rhod Gilbert had been named the next permanent host, beginning with series 28 in autumn 2014. Between 3 June and 22 July 2013, a special eight-part retrospective programme called What a Load of Buzzcocks was aired, with narration by Alex James.
The show revisited key years and events through classic moments and clips from the show's 16-year history. Phill Jupitus is the only performer to have appeared in every episode of Never Mind the Buzzcocks, missing only the recording of series 25, episode 6, where Frankie Boyle filled in as team captain, a special episode filmed as part of Comic Relief's 24 Hour Panel People; the show consisted of four rounds. The first round has changed multiple times over the course of the show. In early series it was Freeze Frame or I Fought The Law, it consists of the teams being asked a question concerning a unique fact about a musical artist or artists, such as "Why did Girls Aloud once have to cancel a show?" or "What have we pixelated in this still from a music video?" Sometimes the teams are given options to pick from. Alternatively, the first round was'Connections' in which the teams are asked to identify the connection between two bands or artists. Series 25 introduced se
Shinobu Sekine was a Japanese middleweight judoka. He won a gold medal at his only Olympics in 1972. Sekine was born in Ōarai and entered the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department after graduating from Chuo University, he sought a spot on the Olympic judo team after seeing Isao Okano, a rival judoka from Ibaraki Prefecture, win gold at the 1964 Summer Olympics. However, judo was not included in the program for the 1968 Summer Olympics, Sekine entered the Olympics for the first time in 1972 as a 28-year-old veteran after winning the All-Japan Judo Championships that year. Sekine lost to Oh Seung-Lip of South Korea in the 5th round of the tournament, but won the repechage to face Oh for the second time in the Olympic final. Sekine was forced to fight defensively for most of the match, but in the few remaining seconds, he tried a Tai Otoshi which put his opponent down onto the mat; the two assistant referees were split on the outcome, but the main referee from the Netherlands ruled in favor of Sekine to award him an close decision win.
Oh had been leading in points for most of the match. Sekine retired shortly after winning the Olympic gold medal, served as a coach and advisor for the All-Japan Judo Federation, as a referee during the 1996 Summer Olympics, he worked as an instructor for the Tokyo Police Department, Heisei International University. Sekine died on 18 December 2018 at the age of 75. List of judoka List of Olympic medalists in judo