SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Debt bondage

Debt bondage known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is the pledge of a person's services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where the terms of the repayment are not or reasonably stated, the person, holding the debt and thus has some control over the laborer. Freedom is assumed on debt repayment; the services required to repay the debt may be undefined, the services' duration may be undefined, thus allowing the person owed the debt to demand services indefinitely. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation. Debt bondage is the most common method of enslavement with an estimated 8.1 million people bonded to labour illegally as cited by the International Labour Organization in 2005. Debt bondage has been described by the United Nations as a form of "modern day slavery" and the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery seeks to abolish the practice; the practice is still prevalent in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, although most countries in these regions are parties to the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery.

It is predicted. Lack of prosecution or insufficient punishment of this crime are the leading causes of the practice as it exists at this scale today. Though the Forced Labour Convention of 1930 by the International Labour Organization, which included 187 parties, sought to bring organised attention to eradicating slavery through forms of forced labor, formal opposition to debt bondage in particular came at the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery in 1956; the convention in 1956 defined debt bondage under Article 1, section:"Debt bondage, to say, the status or condition arising from a pledge by a debtor of his personal services or of those of a person under his control as security for a debt if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not limited and defined. When the bonded labourer dies, debts are passed on to children. Although debt bondage, forced labour, human trafficking are all defined as forms or variations of slavery, each term is distinct.

Debt bondage differs from forced labour and human trafficking in that a person consciously pledges to work as a means of repayment of debt without being placed into labor against will. Debt bondage only applies to individuals who have no hopes of leaving the labor due to inability to pay debt back; those who offer their services to repay a debt and the employer reduces the debt accordingly at a rate commensurate with the value of labor performed are not in debt bondage. Important to both East and West Africa, defined by Wilks as "the use of people in transferring their rights for settlement of debt," was common during the 17th century; the system of pawnship occurred with the slave trade in Africa. Though the export of slaves from Africa to the Americas is analyzed, slavery was rampant internally as well. Development of plantations like those in Zanzibar in East Africa reflected the need for internal slaves. Furthermore, many of the slaves that were exported were male as brutal and labor-intensive conditions favored the male body build.

This created gender implications for individuals in the pawnship system as more women were pawned than men and sexually exploited within the country. After the abolition of slavery in many countries in the 19th century, Europeans still needed laborers. Moreover, conditions for emancipated slaves were harsh. Discrimination was rampant within the labor market, making attainment of a sustainable income for former slaves tough; because of these conditions, many freed slaves preferred to live through slavery-like contracts with their masters in a manner parallel to debt bondage. During the colonial history of the United States, persons bonded themselves to an owner who paid their passage to the New World, they worked until the debt of passage was paid off for years. In Peru, a peonage system existed from the 16th century until land reform in the 1950s. One estate in Peru that existed from the late 16th century until it ended had up to 1,700 people employed and had a prison, they were expected to work for their landlord a minimum of three days a week and more if necessary to complete assigned work.

Workers were paid a symbolic two cents per year. Workers were unable to travel outside their assigned lands without permission and were not allowed to organise any independent community activity. In the Peruvian Amazon, debt peonage is an important aspect of contemporary Urarina society. In the 19th century, people in Asia were bonded to labor due to a variety of reasons ranging from farmers mortgaging harvests to drug addicts in need for opium in China; when a natural disaster occurred or food was scarce, people willingly chose debt bondage as a means to a secure life. In the early 20th century in Asia, most laborers tied to debt bondage had been born into it. In certain regions, such as in Burma, debt bondage was far more common than slavery. Many went into bondage to pay off interest on a loan or to pay taxes, as they worked on farms, lodging and clothing fees were added to the existing debt causing overall debt and interest to increase; these continued added loan values made leaving servitude unattainable.

Moreover, after the development of the international economy, more workers were needed for the pre-industrial economies of Asia during the 19th century. A greater demand for

Harden, New South Wales

Harden–Murrumburrah is a township and community in the Hilltops Region and is located in the South West Slopes of New South Wales in Australia and is adjacent to both the Canberra region of the Australian Capital Territory and the Riverina Region in the southwest area of NSW. The town is a twin town between Murrumburrah; the town is traversed by the Burley Griffin Way, the major link from and between the Riverina and the Hume Highway near Yass, Sydney and the coast. Cunningham Creek runs along the edge of the town; the Olympic Highway traverses the western end of the shire and is the major link through the central west to the Blue Mountains and from there to the Sydney region. Harden is 3½ hours away by road from Sydney, 1½ hours from Canberra and Wagga Wagga. Before European settlement the Harden area was inhabited by the Wiradjuri people. Hume and Hovell passed nearby in 1824. In the late 1820s, the'Murrumburra' was established, its superintendent, James Kennedy, established an inn on the townsite in the late 1840s.

Gold was found in the area in the 1850s. Harden railway station was opened one km east of Murrumburrah on the Main Southern line in 1877 as Murrumburrah, but changed its name to Harden a year after the opening of a new station in Murrumburrah in 1879. Harden has remained as the main station and, as a result, became the main town. Harden Post Office opened on 1 January 1870; the first Australian Lighthorse was founded in Harden–Murrumburrah, with the Lighthorse festival occurring annually. From 1906 until 2016 Harden–Murrumburrah was the seat of its own local council, but was amalgamated in 2016 to form Hilltops Council; the town's rugby league team competed for the Maher Cup. Harden has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Main Southern railway: Harden railway station According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 2,030 people in Harden. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 8.4% of the population. 86.5% of people were born in Australia and 91.9% of people only spoke English at home.

The most common responses for religion were Catholic 35.5%, Anglican 31.0% and No Religion 13.3%. The Main Southern railway line passes through Harden, it became an important railway town with the line to Blayney branching off a few kilometres beyond Harden at Demondrille. Harden railway station is served by two daily NSW TrainLink XPT services between Melbourne and Sydney in each direction and the twice weekly Xplorer service between Griffith and Sydney. NSW TrainLink trial road coach services 703 and 704 between Wagga Wagga and Canberra via Cootamundra pass through Harden, but as at September 2019 do not pick up or drop off passengers there. Busabout Wagga Wagga have a depot in the town. List of reduplicated Australian place names Media related to Harden, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons Hilltops Council Hilltops Region Visitor Information Harden-Murrumburrah Website

Lombardi (film)

Lombardi is a 2010 documentary film surrounding Pro Football Hall of Fame head coach Vince Lombardi produced by NFL Films and HBO. The documentary is one of three productions detailing Lombardi, along with a Broadway theatre and ESPN feature film. Besides focusing on his coaching career with the Green Bay Packers, it details his playing days at Fordham University and being part of the Seven Blocks of Granite offensive line, along with being a high school coach and teacher at Englewood, New Jersey's St. Cecilia High School. Among the people interviewed are Lombardi's children and Hall of Famers Sam Huff, Frank Gifford, Bart Starr and Sonny Jurgensen. HBO found many of the clips in the documentary at the UCLA Television Archive; the documentary was aired at Lambeau Field on November 18, the Pro Football Hall of Fame on November 27, the College Football Hall of Fame on December 1 before airing on HBO on December 11. The documentary won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Sports Documentary; the documentary was re-edited into two episodes, as part of season three of the NFL Network documentary series, A Football Life.

Although the same exact footage and interviews were used from the documentary, A Football Life, instead used the dialogue of its regular narrator, Josh Charles, in place of Liev Schreiber's narration from the HBO adaptation. Lombardi Official website