Indigenous peoples of the Great Basin
The Indigenous Peoples of the Great Basin are Native Americans of the northern Great Basin, Snake River Plain, upper Colorado River basin. The "Great Basin" is a cultural classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas and a cultural region located between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, in what is now Nevada, parts of Oregon, Idaho and Utah; the Great Basin region at the time of European contact was ~400,000 sq mi. There is little precipitation in the Great Basin area which affects the lifestyles and cultures of the inhabitants. Original inhabitants of the region may have arrived by 12,000 BCE. 9,000 BCE to 400 CE marks the Great Basin Desert Archaic Period, following by the time of the Fremont culture, who were hunter-gatherers, as well as agriculturalists. Numic language-speakers, ancestors of today's Western Shoshone and both Northern and Southern Paiute peoples entered the region around the 14th century CE; the first Europeans to reach the area was the Spanish Dominguez-Escalante Expedition, who passed far from present day Delta, Utah in 1776.
Great Basin settlement was free of non-Native settlers until the first Mormon settlers arrived in 1847. Within ten years, the first Indian reservation was established, in order to assimilate the native population; the Goshute Reservation was created in 1863. The attempted acculturation process included sending children to Indian schools and limiting the landbases and resources of the reservations; because their contact with European-Americans and African-Americans occurred comparatively late, Great Basin tribes maintain their religion and culture and were leading proponents of 19th century cultural and religious renewals. Two Paiute prophets and Wovoka, introduced the Ghost Dance in a ceremony to commune with departed loved ones and bring renewal of buffalo herds and precontact lifeways; the Ute Bear Dance emerged on the Great Basin. The Sun Dance and Peyote religion flourished in the Great Basin, as well. In 1930, the Ely Shoshone Reservation was established, followed by the Duckwater Indian Reservation in 1940.
Conditions for the Native American population of the Great Basin were erratic throughout the 20th century. Economic improvement emerged as a result of President Franklin Roosevelt's Indian New Deal in the 1930s, while activism and legal victories in the 1970s have improved conditions significantly; the communities continue to struggle against chronic poverty and all of the resulting problems: unemployment. Today self-determination, beginning with the 1975 passage of the Indian Self-determination and Education Assistance Act, has enabled Great Basin tribes to develop economic opportunities for their members. Different ethnic groups of Great Basin tribes share certain common cultural elements that distinguish them from surrounding groups. All but the Washoe traditionally speak Numic languages, tribal groups, who lived peacefully and shared common territories, have intermingled considerably. Prior to the 20th century, Great Basin peoples were predominantly gatherers. "Desert Archaic" or more "The Desert Culture" refers to the culture of the Great Basin tribes.
This culture is characterized by the need for mobility to take advantage of seasonally available food supplies. The use of pottery was rare due to its weight, but intricate baskets were woven for containing water, cooking food, winnowing grass seeds and storage—including the storage of pine nuts, a Paiute-Shoshone staple. Heavy items such as metates would be cached rather than carried from foraging area to foraging area. Agriculture was not practiced within the Great Basin itself, although it was practiced in adjacent areas; the Great Basin tribes had no permanent settlements, although winter villages might be revisited winter after winter by the same group of families. In the summer, the largest group was the nuclear family due to the low density of food supplies. In the early historical period the Great Basin tribes were expanding to the north and east, where they developed a horse-riding bison-hunting culture; these people, including the Bannock and Eastern Shoshone share traits with Plains Indians.
Great Basin Native Artists, a collective of indigenous artists from the Great Basin Great Basin artwork in Infinity of Nations, National Museum of the American Indian
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. It became U. S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.
Forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the isolated Idaho Panhandle is linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone; the state's south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains; the United States Forest Service holds about 38 % of the most of any state. Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, mining and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, the state contains the Idaho National Laboratory, the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield; the official state nickname is the "Gem State".
The name's origin remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing claimed he had invented the name. Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs". However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity; the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860, it is unclear after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation; the word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down"; the second is "dah", the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark does in the English language; the Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain. An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́", used in reference to The Comanche. Idaho borders six U. S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west and Utah are to the south, Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
Idaho shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with scenic areas; the state has snow-capped mountain ranges, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls; the major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, the Payette River; the Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat.
The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho's highest point is 12,662 ft, in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest poi
The bighorn sheep is a species of sheep native to North America. The species is aptly named for its large horns. A pair of horns might weigh up to 14 kg. Recent genetic testing indicates three distinct subspecies of Ovis canadensis, one of, endangered: O. c. sierrae. Sheep crossed to North America over the Bering land bridge from Siberia. By 1900, the population had crashed to several thousand, due to diseases introduced through European livestock and overhunting. Ovis canadensis is one of three species of mountain sheep in North Siberia. Wild sheep crossed the Bering land bridge from Siberia into Alaska during the Pleistocene and subsequently spread through western North America as far south as Baja California and northwestern mainland Mexico. Divergence from their closest Asian ancestor occurred about 600,000 years ago. In North America, wild sheep diverged into two extant species—Dall sheep, which occupy Alaska and northwestern Canada, bighorn sheep, which range from southwestern Canada to Mexico.
However, the status of these species is questionable given that hybridization has occurred between them in their recent evolutionary history. In 1940, Ian McTaggart-Cowan split the species into seven subspecies, with the first three being mountain bighorns and the last four being desert bighorns: Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, O. c. canadensis, found from British Columbia to Arizona. Badlands bighorn sheep or Audubon's bighorn sheep, O. c. auduboni, occurred in North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Nebraska. This subspecies has been extinct since 1925. California bighorn sheep, O. c. californiana, found from British Columbia south to California and east to North Dakota. The definition of this subspecies has been updated. Nelson's bighorn sheep, O. c. nelsoni, the most common desert bighorn sheep, ranges from California through Arizona. Mexican bighorn sheep, O. c. mexicana, ranges from Arizona and New Mexico south to Sonora and Chihuahua. Peninsular bighorn sheep O. c. cremnobates, occur in the Peninsular Ranges of California and Baja California Weems' bighorn sheep, O. c. weemsi, found in southern Baja California.
Starting in 1993, Ramey and colleagues, using DNA testing, have shown this division into seven subspecies is illusory. Most scientists recognize three subspecies of bighorn; this taxonomy is supported by the most extensive genetics study to date which found high divergence between Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, that these two subspecies both diverged from desert bighorn prior to or during the Illinoian glaciation. Thus, the three subspecies of O. canadensis are: Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep – occupying the U. S. and Canadian Rocky Mountains, the Northwestern United States. Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep – California bighorn sheep, a genetically distinct subspecies that only occurs in the Sierra Nevada in California. However, historic observer records suggest that bighorn sheep may have ranged as far west as the California Coastal Ranges which are contiguous to the Sierra Nevada via the Transverse Ranges. An account of "wild sheep" in the vicinity of the Mission San Antonio near Jolon and the mountains around San Francisco Bay dates to circa 1769.
Desert bighorn sheep – occurring throughout the desert regions of the Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. The 2016 genetics study suggested more modest divergence of this desert bighorn sheep into three lineages consistent with the earlier work of Cowan: Nelson's, Peninsular; these three lineages occupy desert biomes that vary in climate, suggesting exposure to different selection regimens. In addition, two populations are considered endangered by the United States government: Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, Peninsular bighorn sheep, a distinct population segment of desert bighorn sheep Bighorn sheep are named for the large, curved horns borne by the rams. Ewes have horns, but they are shorter with less curvature, they range in color from light brown to grayish or dark, chocolate brown, with a white rump and lining on the backs of all four legs. Males weigh 58–143 kg, are 90–105 cm tall at the shoulder, 1.6–1.85 m long from the nose to the tail. Females are 34–91 kg, 75–90 cm tall, 1.28–1.58 m long.
Male bighorn sheep have large horn cores, enlarged cornual and frontal sinuses, internal bony septa. These adaptations serve to protect the brain by absorbing the impact of clashes. Bighorn sheep have preorbital glands on the anterior corner of each eye, inguinal glands in the groin, pedal glands on each foot. Secretions from these glands may support dominance behaviors. Bighorns from the Rocky Mountains are large, with males that exceed 230 kg and females that exceed 90 kg. In contrast, Sierra Nevada bighorn males weigh up to females to 60 kg. Males' horns can weigh up to 14 kg, as much as the rest of the bones in the male's body; the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep occupy the cooler mountainous regions of Canada and the United States. In contrast, the desert bighorn sheep subspecies are indigeno
The Snake River is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest region in the United States. At 1,078 miles long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, in turn the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean; the Snake River rises in western Wyoming flows through the Snake River Plain of southern Idaho, the rugged Hells Canyon on the Oregon–Idaho border and the rolling Palouse Hills of Washington, emptying into the Columbia River at the Tri-Cities, Washington. The Snake River drainage basin encompasses parts of six U. S. is known for its varied geologic history. The Snake River Plain was created by a volcanic hotspot which now lies underneath the Snake River headwaters in Yellowstone National Park. Gigantic glacial-retreat flooding episodes that occurred during the previous Ice Age carved out canyons and waterfalls along the middle and lower Snake River. Two of these catastrophic flooding events, the Missoula Floods and Bonneville Flood affected the river and its surroundings.
Prehistoric Native Americans lived along the Snake starting more than 11,000 years ago. Salmon from the Pacific Ocean spawned by the millions in the river, were a vital resource for people living on the Snake downstream of Shoshone Falls. By the time Lewis and Clark explored the area, the Nez Perce and Shoshone were the dominant Native American groups in the region. Explorers and fur trappers further changed and used the resources of the Snake River basin. At one point, sign language used by the Shoshones representing weaving baskets was misinterpreted to represent a snake, giving the Snake River its name. By the middle 19th century, the Oregon Trail had become well established, bringing numerous settlers to the Snake River region. Steamboats and railroads moved agricultural products and minerals along the river throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Starting in the 1890s, fifteen major dams have been built on the Snake River to generate hydroelectricity, enhance navigation, provide irrigation water.
However, these dams blocked salmon migration above Hells Canyon and have led to water quality and environmental issues in certain parts of the river. The removal of several dams on the lower Snake River has been proposed, in order to restore some of the river's once-tremendous salmon runs. Formed by the confluence of three tiny streams on the southwest flank of Two Oceans Plateau in Yellowstone National Park, western Wyoming, the Snake starts out flowing west and south into Jackson Lake, its first 50 miles run through Jackson Hole, a wide valley between the Teton Range and the Gros Ventre Range. Below the tourist town of Jackson, the river turns west and flows through Snake River Canyon, cutting through the Snake River Range and into eastern Idaho, it receives the Hoback and Greys Rivers before entering Palisades Reservoir, where the Salt River joins at the mouth of Star Valley. Below Palisades Dam, the Snake River flows through the Snake River Plain, a vast arid physiographic province extending through southern Idaho south-west of the Rocky Mountains and underlain by the Snake River Aquifer, one of the most productive aquifers in the United States.
Southwest of Rexburg, the Snake is joined from the north by Henrys Fork. The Henrys Fork is sometimes called the North Fork of the Snake River, with the main Snake above their confluence known as the "South Fork". From there it turns south, flowing through downtown Idaho Falls past the Fort Hall Indian Reservation and into American Falls Reservoir, where it is joined by the Portneuf River; the Portneuf River Valley is an overflow channel that in the last glacial period carried floodwaters from pluvial Lake Bonneville into the Snake River altering the landscape of the Snake River Plain through massive erosion. From there the Snake resumes its journey west, it is interrupted by several major cataracts, the largest being 212-foot Shoshone Falls, which marked the upriver limit of migrating salmon. A short distance downstream. Near Twin Falls, the Snake approaches the southernmost point in its entire course, after which it starts to flow west-northwest; the Snake continues through its canyon, receiving the Malad River from the east near Bliss and the Bruneau River from the south in C.
J. Strike Reservoir, it passes through an agricultural valley about 30 miles southwest of Boise and flows west into Oregon, before turning north to define the Idaho–Oregon border. Here the Snake River doubles in size as it receives several major tributaries – the Owyhee from the southwest the Boise and Payette rivers from the east, further downstream the Malheur River from the west and Weiser River from the east. North of Boise, the Snake enters Hells Canyon, a steep, rapid-strewn gorge that cuts through the Salmon River Mountains and Blue Mountains of Idaho and Oregon. Hells Canyon is one of the most rugged and treacherous portions of the course of the Snake River, posing a major obstacle for 19th-century American explorers. Here the Snake is impounded by Hells Canyon and Brownlee Dams, which together make up the Hells Canyon Hydroelectric Project. At the halfway point in Hells Canyon, in one of the most remote and inaccessible sections of its course, the Snake River is joined from the east by its largest tributary, the Salmon River.
From there, the Snake begins to form the Washington–Idaho border, receiving the Grande Ronde River from the west before receiving the Clearwater River from the east at Lewiston, which marks the head of navigation on the Snake. The river leaves Hells Canyon and turns west, winding through the Palouse Hills of eastern Washington; the Lower Snake River Project's four dams and
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
Frederic Sackrider Remington was an American painter, illustrator and writer who specialized in depictions of the American Old West concentrating on scenes from the last quarter of the 19th century in the Western United States and featuring images of cowboys, American Indians, the U. S. Cavalry, among other figures from Western culture. Remington was born in Canton, New York in 1861 to Seth Pierrepont Remington] and Clarissa "Clara" Bascom Sackrider, his paternal family owned hardware stores and emigrated from Alsace-Lorraine in the early 18th century. His maternal family of the Bascom line was of French Basque ancestry, coming to America in the early 1600s and founding Windsor, Connecticut. Remington's father was a Union army officer, a colonel, in the American Civil War whose family had arrived in America from England in 1637, he was a newspaper editor and postmaster, the family was active in local politics and staunchly Republican. One of Remington's great-grandfathers, Samuel Bascom, was a saddle maker by trade, the Remingtons were fine horsemen.
Frederic Remington was related by family bloodlines to Indian portrait artist George Catlin and cowboy sculptor Earl W. Bascom. Another noted western artist related to Remington through the Bascom family is Frank Tenney Johnson, the "father of western moonlight painting."Frederic Remington was a cousin to Eliphalet Remington, founder of the Remington Arms Company, considered America's oldest gunmaker. He was related to three famous mountain men—Jedediah Smith, Jonathan T. Warner and Robert "Doc" Newell. Through the Warner side of his family, Remington was related to General George Washington, America's first president. Remington's ancestors fought in the French and Indian War, the American Revolution, the War of 1812 and the American Civil War. Colonel Remington was away at war during most of the first four years of his son's life. After the war, he moved his family to Bloomington, Illinois for a brief time and was appointed editor of the Bloomington Republican, but the family returned to Canton in 1867.
Remington was the only child of the marriage, received constant attention and approval. He was an active child and strong for his age, who loved to hunt, ride, go camping, he was a poor student though in math, which did not bode well for his father's ambitions for his son to attend West Point. He began to make sketches of soldiers and cowboys at an early age; the family moved to Ogdensburg, New York when Remington was eleven and he attended Vermont Episcopal Institute, a church-run military school, where his father hoped discipline would rein in his son's lack of focus and lead to a military career. Remington took his first drawing lessons at the Institute, he transferred to another military school where his classmates found the young Remington to be a pleasant fellow, a bit careless and lazy, good-humored, generous of spirit, but not soldier material. He enjoyed making silhouettes of his classmates. At sixteen, he wrote to his uncle of his modest ambitions, "I never intend to do any great amount of labor.
I have but one short life and do not aspire to wealth or fame in a degree which could only be obtained by an extraordinary effort on my part". He imagined a career for himself with art as a sideline. Remington attended the art school at Yale University. Remington was the only male student in his freshman year, he found that football and boxing were more interesting than the formal art training drawing from casts and still life objects. He preferred action drawing and his first published illustration was a cartoon of a "bandaged football player" for the student newspaper Yale Courant. Though he was not a star player, his participation on the strong Yale football team was a great source of pride for Remington and his family, he left Yale in 1879 to tend to his ailing father. His father died a year at age fifty, receiving respectful recognition from the citizens of Ogdensburg. Remington's Uncle Mart secured a good paying clerical job for his nephew in Albany, New York and Remington would return home on weekends to see his girlfriend Eva Caten.
After the rejection of his engagement proposal to Eva by her father, Remington became a reporter for his Uncle Mart's newspaper went on to other short-lived jobs. Living off his inheritance and modest work income, Remington refused to go back to art school and instead spent time camping and enjoying himself. At nineteen, he made his first trip west, going to Montana, at first to buy a cattle operation a mining interest but realized he did not have sufficient capital for either. In the American West of 1881, he saw the vast prairies, the shrinking buffalo herds, the still unfenced cattle, the last major confrontations of U. S. Cavalry and Native American tribes, scenes he had imagined since his childhood, he hunted grizzly bears with Montague Stevens in New Mexico in 1895. Though the trip was undertaken as a lark, it gave Remington a more authentic view of the West than some of the artists and writers who followed in his footsteps, such as N. C. Wyeth and Zane Grey, who arrived twenty-five years when much of the mythic West had slipped into history.
From that first trip, Harper's Weekly printed Remington's first published commercial effort, a re-drawing of a quick sketch on wrapping paper that he had mailed back East. In 1883, Remington went to rural Kansas, south of the city of Peabody near the tiny community of Plum Grove, to try his hand at the booming sheep ranching and wool trade, as one of the "holiday stockmen", rich young Easterners out to make a quick
Northern Paiute people
The Northern Paiute people is a Numic tribe that has traditionally lived in the Great Basin in eastern California, western Nevada, southeast Oregon. The Northern Paiutes' pre-contact lifestyle was well adapted to the harsh desert environment in which they lived; each tribe or band occupied a specific territory centered on a lake or wetland that supplied fish and water-fowl. Communal hunt drives, which involved neighboring bands, would take rabbits and pronghorn from surrounding areas. Individuals and families appear to have moved among the bands. Northern Paiutes lived a nomadic lifestyle, moving from place to place following animal migration patterns and seasonal foods, they lived in independent groups that consisted of a handful or so of different family units. Upon arrival of foreigners into western Nevada, the Northern Paiutes became sedentary in order to protect themselves and handle negotiations with the new settlers; because of their change from nomadic to sedentary lifestyle, women were relied upon more for both their full-time employment and at-home work.
This is true today. In some modern Northern Paiute tribes, men work in “seasonal jobs on the ranches, in the mines, as caretakers in the nearby motels,” and women work “in the laundry, the bakery, in homes and motels as domestics, in the country hospital.”They gathered Pinyon nuts in the mountains in the fall as a critical winter food source. Women gathered grass seeds and roots as important parts of their diet; the name of each band was derived from a characteristic food source. For example, the people at Pyramid Lake were known as the Cui Ui Ticutta; the people of the Lovelock area were known as the Koop Ticutta. The Kucadikadi of Mono County, California are the "brine fly eaters." Relations among the Northern Paiute bands and their Shoshone neighbors were peaceful. There is no sharp distinction between Sosone. Relations with the Waasseoo or Washoe people, who were culturally and linguistically different, were not so peaceful; these differences in lifestyle and language could be because Northern Paiutes may have moved from southern regions to the Nevada/California area in which they reside.
They may have overthrown and destroyed other Indian tribes in order to inhabit their current lands. The Paiutes, for example, were “continually at war” with the Klamath south and west of them. "The Achomawi, south of the Klamath were enemies of the Northern Paiute, the earliest wars related in Achomawi oral tradition were Northern Paiute."Sustained contact between the Northern Paiute and Euro-Americans began in the early 1840s, although the first contact may have occurred as early as the 1820s. Although the Paiute had adopted the use of horses from other Great Plains tribes, their culture was otherwise largely unaffected by European influences; as Euro-American settlement of the area progressed, competition for scarce resources increased. Several violent confrontations took place, including the Pyramid Lake War of 1860, Owens Valley Indian War 1861-1864, Snake War 1864-1868; these incidents began with a disagreement between settlers and the Paiute regarding property, retaliation by one group against the other, counter-retaliation by the opposite party culminating in the armed involvement of the U.
S. Army. Fatalities were much higher among the Paiute due to newly introduced Eurasian infectious diseases, such as smallpox, which were endemic among the Europeans; the Natives had no acquired immunity. Sarah Winnemucca's book Life Among the Piutes; the government first established the Malheur Reservation for the Northern Paiute in eastern Oregon. It intended to concentrate the Northern Paiute there; because of the distance of the reservation from the traditional areas of most of the bands, because of its poor environmental conditions, many Northern Paiute refused to go there. Those that did, soon left, they clung to their traditional lifestyle as long as possible. When environmental degradation of their lands made that impossible, they sought jobs on white farms, ranches or in cities, they established small Indian colonies, where they were joined by many Shoshone and, in the Reno area, Washoe people. The government created larger reservations at Pyramid Lake and Duck Valley, Nevada. By that time the pattern of small de facto reservations near cities or farm districts with mixed Northern Paiute and Shoshone populations, had been established.
Starting in the early 20th century, the federal government began granting land to these colonies. Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, several individual colonies gained federal recognition as independent tribes, it is said that the Northern Paiute people have inhabited the area between the West and Northwest of the United States for over 11,000 years. Therefore, their history is old with many varying accounts of their origin. One version of how the Northern Paiute people came to be is that a bird, the Sagehen, was the only bird that survived a massive flood; the Sagehen cared for it until the fire grew bigger and bigger. The water from the flood dried, a man “happened.” This man was called Nűműzóho, a cannibal. The Cannibals killed all the Indians, except for a woman, able to escape; this woman kept herself alive by traveling from place to place in the region and staying with different characters