St Hilda's College, Oxford
St Hilda's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. The college is named after the Anglo-Saxon Saint, Hilda of Whitby and was founded in 1893 as a hall for women. St Hilda’s was the last single-sex college in the university as Somerville College had admitted men in 1994; the college now has equal numbers of men and women at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. The current Principal is Sir Gordon Duff, who took up the post in 2014; as of 2018, the college had an endowment of £ total assets of £ 113.4 million. St Hilda's was founded as St Hilda's Hall, it was founded as a women's college, a status it retained until 2008. Whilst other Oxford colleges became co-educational, no serious debate at St Hilda's occurred until 1997, according to a former vice-principal, the debate applied to the issue of staff appointments. After a vote on 7 June 2006 by the Governing Body and women can be admitted as fellows and students; this vote was pushed through with a narrow margin and followed previous unsuccessful votes which were protested by students because of the "high-handed" manner in which they were held.
The change was met with some dismay from alumnae. In October 2007 a supplemental charter was granted and in 2008 male students were admitted to St Hilda's for the first time; the College now has equal numbers of men and women at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. In August 2018, the interim Norrington Table showed that 98 per cent of St Hilda's finalist undergraduates obtained at least a 2.i in their degree. St Hilda's was the first women's college in Oxford and Cambridge to create a women's VIII in 1911, it was St Hilda's student H. G. Wanklyn who formed OUWBC and coxed in the inaugural Women's Boat Race of 1927, with five Hilda's rowers. In 1969, the St Hilda's Eight made Oxford history when they became the first female crew to row in the Summer Eights, they placed 12th. St Hilda's students were the subject of the Channel 4 documentary series College Girls, broadcast in 2002; the college is located at the eastern end of the High Street, over Magdalen Bridge, in Cowley Place, making it the only University of Oxford college lying east of the River Cherwell.
Its grounds include six major buildings, which contain student accommodation, teaching areas, dining hall, the library and administration blocks: Hall, Milham Ford, Wolfson and the Christina Barratt Building. The college owns a number of properties on Iffley Road, in the Cowley area, it is the most conveniently situated Oxford college for the Iffley Road Sports Complex, a focus for Oxford University Sport. The Jacqueline Du Pré Music Building is a concert venue named after the famous cellist, an honorary fellow of the college; the JdP was the first purpose-built concert hall to be built in Oxford since the Holywell Music Room in 1742. Built in 1995 by van Heyningen and Haward Architects, it houses the Steinway-equipped Edward Boyle Auditorium and a number of music practice rooms. In 2000 the architects designed a enlarged foyer space. In addition to frequent recitals presented by the St Hilda's Music Society, the JdP hosts concerts by a number of world-renowned performers. Musicians who have performed in the JdP in recent years include Steven Isserlis, the Jerusalem Quartet, the Chilingirian Quartet and the Belcea Quartet.
The building has been used for amateur dramatic performances, since 2008 St Hilda's College Drama Society have been producing several plays a year in the Edward Boyle Auditorium. The college grounds stretch along the banks of the River Cherwell, with many college rooms overlooking the river and playing fields beyond; the college has its own fleet of punts, which students of the college may hire for free in summer months. This location has at times led to problems with flooding in Milham Ford building. Mary Bennett William Boyd, author Gordon Duff Helen Gardner Elspeth Kennedy Barbara Levick Beryl Smalley Helen Waddell Kathy Wilkes Jacqueline Du Pré Doris Odlum Rosalyn Tureck St Hilda's College Junior Common Room Middle Common Room St Hilda's College Ball
Jane and Prudence
Jane and Prudence is a novel by Barbara Pym, first published in 1953 and, according to the novelist Jilly Cooper, her finest work - "full of wit, plotting and miraculous observation". Jane, a vicar's wife, lives a different kind of life from her friend, the single and independent Prudence; the book details the period in Nicholas and Jane’s life when they take over a new parish in an English village and encounter the widower Fabian Driver, who Jane decides will make an excellent husband for Prudence. Prudence has an imponderable attraction to her older and impervious employer, the head of an unspecified academic foundation. There is, competition for Fabian - Jessie Morrow, another spinster in the parish who seeks escape from her low-paid job as a companion to the domineering Miss Doggett. Miss Morrow and Miss Doggett appear in Pym's posthumously-published novel, Crampton Hodnet, written in the late 1930s. Jane a good hearted Vicar’s wife in her 40th year Nicholas, her mild mannered husband Flora, their despairing teenage daughter Prudence 29 a beautiful and elegant spinster Fabian, a vain and self-obsessed widower Miss Doggett, a tyrannical old lady Miss Morrow, her outwardly meek but calculating companion Jane and Prudence was adapted for radio and first broadcast in 2008.
Penelope Wilton was the narrator, Emma Fielding played Susie Blake Jane. Miss Doggett was played by Elizabeth Spriggs. Http://www.st-gabriels.com http://www.barbara-pym.org
Excellent Women is a novel by Barbara Pym, first published in 1952, her second published novel and acclaimed as the funniest and most successful of her comedies of manners. The phrase "excellent women" is used as a condescending reference to the kind of women who perform menial duties in the service of churches and voluntary organisations; the book details the everyday life of Mildred Lathbury, a spinster in her thirties in 1950s England. Perpetually self-deprecating, but with the sharpest wit, Mildred is a part-time voluntary worker who occupies herself by attending and helping at the local church. Mildred's life grows more exciting with the arrival of new neighbours, anthropologist Helena Napier and her handsome, dashing husband, Rocky - with whom Mildred fancies herself in love. Through the Napiers, she meets another anthropologist, Everard Bone, it is with him that Mildred will form a relationship. A sub-plot revolves around the activities of the local vicar, Julian Malory, who becomes engaged to a glamorous widow, Allegra Gray.
Allegra proceeds to ease out Winifred, a close friend of Mildred's. Matters come to a head and Allegra leaves the vicarage after a quarrel. In the meantime, on the verge of leaving Rocky for Everard, accepts that Everard does not care for her and leaves the neighbourhood, along with Rocky; as with most of Pym's books, the plot is less important than the precise drawing of the comic characters and situations. Mildred Lathbury Helena Napier Rockingham Napier Julian Malory Winifred Malory Everard Bone Mrs Bone Allegra Gray Dora Caldicote William Caldicote Mrs Morris Miss Jessop Sister Blatt Other anthropologists Rockingham Napier has been flag lieutenant to an admiral in Italy where his wife says he'hasn't had to do anything much but be charming to a lot of dreary Wren officers.' Barbara Pym had been a WRN officer in Italy during World War II. During the 1960s and early 1970s when Pym's writing was somewhat overlooked, the poet Philip Larkin exchanged letters with her. In a 14 July 1964 letter, having just re-read Excellent Women, he told her it was "better than I remembered it, full of a harsh kind of suffering it's a study of the pain of being single,- time and again one senses not only that Mildred is suffering but that nobody can see why she shouldn't suffer, like a Victorian cabhorse.
" And again in a letter of 1971 he praised the book, - "what a marvellous set of characters it contains! My only criticism is that Mildred is a tiny bit too humble at times, but she's satirising herself. I never see any Rockys, but every young academic wife has something of Helena."In Jane and Prudence, one of the characters mentions that "nice Miss Lathbury" has married an anthropologist. In Less than Angels, Everard reappears as a character. Esther Clovis remembers that "Everard had married a rather dull woman, a great help to him in his work. Pym writes "Everard's wife Mildred would do the typing."
The Booker Prize for Fiction is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the United Kingdom. The winner of the Man Booker Prize is assured international renown and success. From its inception, only novels written by Commonwealth and South African citizens were eligible to receive the prize. A high-profile literary award in British culture, the Booker Prize is greeted with anticipation and fanfare, it is a mark of distinction for authors to be selected for inclusion in the shortlist or to be nominated for the "longlist". The prize was known as the Booker–McConnell Prize, after the company Booker, McConnell Ltd began sponsoring the event in 1969; when administration of the prize was transferred to the Booker Prize Foundation in 2002, the title sponsor became the investment company Man Group, which opted to retain "Booker" as part of the official title of the prize. The foundation is an independent registered charity funded by the entire profits of Booker Prize Trading Ltd, of which it is the sole shareholder.
The prize money awarded with the Booker Prize was £21,000, was subsequently raised to £50,000 in 2002 under the sponsorship of the Man Group, making it one of the world's richest literary prizes. In 1970, Bernice Rubens became the first woman to win the Booker Prize, for The Elected Member; the rules of the Booker changed in 1971. In 1971 the year of eligibility was changed to the same as the year of the award; the Booker Prize Foundation announced in January 2010 the creation of a special award called the "Lost Man Booker Prize," with the winner chosen from a longlist of 22 novels published in 1970. Alice Munro's The Beggar Maid was shortlisted in 1980, remains the only short story collection to be shortlisted. John Sutherland, a judge for the 1999 prize, has said, There is a well-established London literary community. Rushdie doesn't get shortlisted now; that is not a good game plan. Norman Mailer has found the same thing in the US – you have to "be a citizen" if you want to win prizes; the real scandal is.
In fact, he has only been shortlisted once and, for Time's Arrow, not one of his strongest books. That is suspicious, he pissed people off with Dead Babies and that gets lodged in the culture. There is the feeling that he has always looked towards America. In 1972, the winning writer John Berger, known for his Marxist worldview, protested during his acceptance speech against Booker McConnell, he blamed Booker's 130 years of sugar production in the Caribbean for the region's modern poverty. Berger donated half of his £5,000 prize to the British Black Panther movement, because they had a socialist and revolutionary perspective in agreement with his own. In 1980, Anthony Burgess, writer of Earthly Powers, refused to attend the ceremony unless it was confirmed to him in advance whether he had won, his was one of two books considered to win, the other being Rites of Passage by William Golding. The judges decided only 30 minutes before the ceremony. Both novels had been seen as favourites to win leading up to the prize, the dramatic "literary battle" between two senior writers made front-page news.
In 1981, nominee John Banville wrote a letter to The Guardian requesting that the prize be given to him so that he could use the money to buy every copy of the longlisted books in Ireland and donate them to libraries, "thus ensuring that the books not only are bought but read — a unique occurrence."Judging for the 1983 award produced a draw between J. M. Coetzee's Life & Times of Michael K and Salman Rushdie's Shame, leaving chair of judges Fay Weldon to choose between the two. According to Stephen Moss in The Guardian, "Her arm was bent and she chose Rushdie" only to change her mind as the result was being phoned through. In 1993, two of the judges threatened to walk out; the novel would receive critical acclaim, is now considered Welsh's masterpiece. The choice of James Kelman's book How Late It Was, How Late as 1994 Booker Prize winner proved to be one of the most controversial in the award's history. Rabbi Julia Neuberger, one of the judges, declared it "a disgrace" and left the event deeming the book to be "crap".
In 1994, Guardian literary editor Richard Gott, citing the lack of objective criteria and the exclusion of American authors, described the prize as "a significant and dangerous iceberg in the sea of British culture that serves as a symbol of its current malaise."In 1997, the decision to award Arundhati Roy's The God of Small Things proved controversial. Carmen Callil, chair of the previous year's Booker judges, called it an "execrable" book and said on television that it shouldn't have been on the shortlist. Booker Prize chairman Martyn Goff said Roy won because nobody objected, following the rejection by the
Lord David Cecil
Lord Edward Christian David Gascoyne-Cecil, CH, was a British biographer and academic. He held the style of "Lord" as a younger son of a marquess. David Cecil was the youngest of the four children of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, the former Lady Cicely Gore, his siblings were Lady Beatrice Edith Mildred Cecil, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury and Lady Mary Alice Cecil. Cecil was a delicate child, suffering from a tubercular gland in his neck at the age of 8 years, after an operation he spent a great deal of time in bed, where he developed his love of reading; because of his delicate health his parents sent him to Eton College than other boys, he survived the experience by spending one day a week in bed. After school he went on to Oxford, as an undergraduate. Cecil in 1924 obtained first-class honours. From 1924 to 1930 he was a Fellow of Oxford. With his first publication, The Stricken Deer, a sympathetic study of the poet Cowper, he made an immediate impact as a literary historian.
Studies followed on early Victorian novelists and Jane Austen. In 1939 he became a Fellow of New College, where he remained a Fellow until 1969, when he became an Honorary Fellow. In 1947 he became Professor of Rhetoric at Gresham College, for a year. There his pupils included Kingsley Amis, R. K. Sinha, John Bayley, the Milton scholar Dennis Burden, Ludovic Kennedy. Neil Powell describes Amis's relationship with him, or lack of a relationship, as follows: allocated supervisor was Lord David Cecil, who seemed disinclined to supervise anything at all; this caused much amusement at the porters' lodge, as if he had asked for the Shah of Persia:'Oh no, sir. Lord David? Oh, you'd have to get up early in the morning to get hold of him. Oh dear, oh dear. Lord David in college, well I never did.' During his academic career Cecil published studies of Hardy, Thomas Gray, Dorothy Osborne and Walter Pater. As well as his literary studies he published a two-volume historical biography of Lord Melbourne and appreciations of visual artists - Augustus John, Max Beerbohm, Samuel Palmer and Edward Burne-Jones.
In retirement he published further literary and biographic studies of Walter de la Mare, Jane Austen, Charles Lamb and Desmond MacCarthy, as well as a history of his own family, The Cecils of Hatfield House and an account of Some Dorset Country Houses. His anthology of writers who had given him special pleasure, Library Looking Glass, appeared in 1975. In 1932 Cecil married Rachel MacCarthy, daughter of the literary journalist Sir Desmond MacCarthy, they had three children - actor Jonathan Hugh, married to actress Anna Sharkey, a second son actor and journalist, Hugh Peniston and Alice Laura. Rachel Cecil died in 1982. Joyce Grenfell mentions; the Stricken Deer or The Life of Cowper Sir Walter Scott: The Raven Miscellany Early Victorian Novelists: essays in revaluation Jane Austen The Young Melbourne and the Story of his Marriage with Caroline Lamb The English Poets The Oxford Book of Christian Verse Men of the R. A. F. Hardy the Novelist: an Essay in Criticism Antony and Cleopatra, the fourth W. P. Ker memorial lecture delivered in the University of Glasgow, 4 May 1943 Poetry of Thomas Gray Two Quiet Lives Poets & Story-tellers Reading as One of the Fine Arts inaugural lecture delivered before the University of Oxford on 28 May 1949 Lord M, or the Later Life of Lord Melbourne Walter Pater--the Scholar Artist Rede Lecture Augustus John: Fifty-two Drawings The Fine Art of Reading and Other Literary Studies Modern Verse in English 1900-1950 Max The Bodley Head Beerbohm Max Beerbohm: Selected Prose Visionary and Dreamer: two poetic painters: Samuel Palmer and Edward Burne-Jones A Choice of Tennyson's Verse The Cecils of Hatfield House: a Portrait of an English Ruling Family Walter de la Mare A Victorian Album: Julia Margaret Cameron and her Circle Library Looking-Glass Lady Ottoline's Album A Portrait of Jane Austen A Portrait of Charles Lamb Desmond MacCarthy, the Man and His Writings Some Dorset Country Houses List of Gresham Professors of Rhetoric Glyer, Diana The Company They Keep: C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien as Writers in Community.
ISBN 978-0-87338-890-0 David Cecil - A Portrait by his Friends Collected And Introduced By Hannah Cranborne
Royal Society of Literature
The Royal Society of Literature is a learned society founded in 1820, by King George IV, to'reward literary merit and excite literary talent'. The society is a cultural tenant at London's Somerset House; the society's first president was Thomas Bishop of St David's. The society maintains its current level of about 500 Fellows of the Royal Society of Literature: 14 new fellows are elected annually, who are accorded the privilege of using the post-nominal letters FRSL. Past fellows include Samuel Taylor Coleridge, J. R. R. Tolkien, W. B. Yeats, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, George Bernard Shaw, Arthur Koestler, Chinua Achebe, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, Robert Ardrey, Sybille Bedford, Muriel Spark, P. J. Kavanagh. Present Fellows include Margaret Atwood, David Hare, Kazuo Ishiguro, Hilary Mantel, Paul Muldoon, Zadie Smith, Nadeem Aslam, Sarah Waters, Geoffrey Ashe and J. K. Rowling. A newly created fellow inscribes his or her name on the society's official roll using either Byron's pen, T. S. Eliot's fountain pen, which replaced Dickens's quill in 2013, or George Eliot's pen.
The society publishes an annual magazine, The Royal Society of Literature Review, administers a number of literary prizes and awards, including the RSL Ondaatje Prize, the RSL Jerwood Awards for Non-Fiction, the RSL Encore Award for best second novel of the year and the V. S. Pritchett Memorial Prize for short stories. From time to time it confers the honour and title of Companion of Literature to writers of particular note. Additionally the RSL can bestow its award of the Benson Medal for lifetime service in the field of literature; the RSL runs a membership scheme and offers a varied programme of events to members and the general public. Membership of the RSL is open to all; the RSL runs a schools outreach programme in collaboration with the literacy charity First Story. The RSL administers two annual prizes, two awards, two honours. Through its prize programmes, the RSL supports new and established contemporary writers; the RSL Christopher Bland Prize — £10,000 for debut prose writers over the age of 50.
The Encore Awards — £10,000 for best second novel of the year. The RSL took over the administration of this award in 2016; the RSL Giles St Aubyn Awards for Non-Fiction – annual awards, one of £10,000 and two of £5,000, to authors engaged on their first commissioned works of non-fiction. The RSL Ondaatje Prize – an annual award of £10,000 for a distinguished work of fiction, non-fiction or poetry, evoking the spirit of a place; the V. S. Pritchett Memorial Prize – an annual prize of £1,000 for the best unpublished short story of the year; the Benson Medal -- awarded to those. Companion of Literature – the highest honour that the Society can bestow upon a writer; the Council of the Royal Society of Literature is central to the election of new fellows, directs the RSL's activities through its monthly meetings. Patron Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall President Dame Marina Warner DBE Presidents Emeritus Sir Michael Holroyd CBE FRHistS C Lit Colin Thubron CBE Chair of Council Lisa Appignanesi OBE Vice-PresidentsAnne Chisholm OBE Maureen Duffy Maggie Gee OBE The Hon. Victoria Glendinning CBE Sir Ronald Harwood CBE Dame Hilary Mantel DBE Philip Pullman CBE Claire Tomalin Jenny Uglow OBE, Benson Medallist CouncilBernardine Evaristo MBE, Vice Chair Blake Morrison, Vice Chair Simon Armitage CBE Colin Chisholm, Hon Treasurer Jonathan Coe Imtiaz Dharker Sir Richard Eyre CH CBE Abdulrazak Gurnah Tessa Hadley Derek Johns Jonathan Keates FSA Dame Hermione Lee FBA Daljit Nagra Michèle Roberts 1820–1832 Bishop Thomas Burgess 1832–1833 The Lord Dover 1834–1845 The Earl of Ripon 1845–1849 Henry Hallam 1849–1851 The Marquess of Northampton 1851–1856 The Earl of Carlisle 1856–1876 The Rt Rev. Connop Thirlwall 1876–1884 The Prince Leopold 1885–1893 Sir Patrick Colquhoun 1893–1920 The Earl of Halsbury 1921–1945 The Marquess of Crewe 1946–1947 The Earl of Lytton 1947–1982 The Lord Butler of Saffron Walden 1982–1988 Sir Angus Wilson 1988–2003 The Lord Jenkins of Hillhead 2003–2008 Sir Michael Holroyd 2008–2017 Colin Thubron 2017–present Marina Warner The Royal Society of Literature comprises up to 500 fellows who are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSL.
New fellows of the Royal Society of Literature are elected by its current fellows. To be nominated for fellowship, a writer must have published two works of literary merit, nominations must be seconded by an RSL fellow. All nominations are presented to members of the Council of the Royal Society of Literature, who vote biannually to elect new fellows. Nominated candidates who have not been successful are reconsidered at every election for three years from the year in which they were proposed. Newly elected fellows are introduced at the Society's AGM and summer party. While the President reads a citation for each, they are invited to sign their names in the roll book which dates back to 1820, using either T. S. Eliot's fountain pen or Byron's pen. In 2013, Charles Dickens's quill was retired and replaced with Eliot's fountain pen, in 2018 George Eliot's pen was offered as a choice, the first time in the RSL's history that a pen that belonged to a woman writer was an option. In 2018 the RSL honoured the achievements of Britain's younger writers through the initiative "40 Under 40", which saw the election of 40 new fellows aged under 40.
The * before the name denotes an Honorary Fellow. The list is online at the RSL website; the Royal Society of Literature website RSL biannual magazine RSL literary prizes and awards Current RSL Fellows
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca