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Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959. American businesswoman Ruth Handler is credited with the creation of the doll using a German doll called Bild Lilli as her inspiration. Barbie is the figurehead of a brand of Mattel dolls and accessories, including other family members and collectible dolls. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for over fifty years, has been the subject of numerous controversies and lawsuits involving parodies of the doll and her lifestyle. Mattel has sold over a billion Barbie dolls, making it the company's largest and most profitable line. However, sales have declined since 2014; the doll transformed the toy business in affluent communities worldwide by becoming a vehicle for the sale of related merchandise. She had a significant impact on social values by conveying characteristics of female independence, with her multitude of accessories, an idealized upscale life-style that can be shared with affluent friends.

Starting in 1987, Barbie has expanded into a media franchise, including animated films, television specials, video games, music. Ruth Handler watched her daughter Barbara play with paper dolls, noticed that she enjoyed giving them adult roles. At the time, most children's toy dolls were representations of infants. Realizing that there could be a gap in the market, Handler suggested the idea of an adult-bodied doll to her husband Elliot, a co-founder of the Mattel toy company, he was unenthusiastic about the idea. During a trip to Europe in 1956 with her children Barbara and Kenneth, Ruth Handler came across a German toy doll called Bild Lilli; the adult-figured doll was what Handler had in mind, so she purchased three of them. She took the others back to Mattel; the Lilli doll was based on a popular character appearing in a comic strip drawn by Reinhard Beuthin for the newspaper Bild. Lilli was a blonde bombshell, a working girl who knew what she wanted and was not above using men to get it; the Lilli doll was first sold in Germany in 1955, although it was sold to adults, it became popular with children who enjoyed dressing her up in outfits that were available separately.

Upon her return to the United States, Handler redesigned the doll and the doll was given a new name, after Handler's daughter Barbara. The doll made its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York on March 9, 1959; this date is used as Barbie's official birthday. The first Barbie doll wore a black and white zebra striped swimsuit and signature topknot ponytail, was available as either a blonde or brunette; the doll was marketed as a "Teen-age Fashion Model," with her clothes created by Mattel fashion designer Charlotte Johnson. The first Barbie dolls were manufactured in Japan, with their clothes hand-stitched by Japanese homeworkers. Around 350,000 Barbie dolls were sold during the first year of production. Louis Marx and Company sued Mattel in March 1961. After licensing Lilli, they claimed that Mattel had “infringed on Greiner & Hausser's patent for Bild-Lilli’s hip joint, claimed that Barbie was "a direct take-off and copy" of Bild-Lilli; the company additionally claimed that Mattel "falsely and misleadingly represented itself as having originated the design".

Mattel counter-claimed and the case was settled out of court in 1963. In 1964, Mattel bought Greiner & Hausser's copyright and patent rights for the Bild-Lilli doll for $21,600. Ruth Handler believed that it was important for Barbie to have an adult appearance, early market research showed that some parents were unhappy about the doll's chest, which had distinct breasts. Barbie's appearance has been changed many times, most notably in 1971 when the doll's eyes were adjusted to look forwards rather than having the demure sideways glance of the original model. Barbie was one of the first toys to have a marketing strategy based extensively on television advertising, copied by other toys, it is estimated that over a billion Barbie dolls have been sold worldwide in over 150 countries, with Mattel claiming that three Barbie dolls are sold every second. The standard range of Barbie dolls and related accessories are manufactured to 1/6 scale, known as playscale; the standard dolls are 11½ inches tall.

Barbie products include not only the range of dolls with their clothes and accessories, but a large range of Barbie branded goods such as books, apparel and video games. Barbie has had a media franchise starting in 1987, when she began appearing in a series of animated films. Barbie's direct-to-DVD animated films have sold over 110 million units worldwide, as of 2013. In addition, the brand has had two television specials and the Rockers: Out of This World and Barbie and the Sensations: Rockin' Back to Earth, as well as a hit song, "Barbie Girl" by Aqua, she is a supporting character in the Pixar films Toy Story 2 and Toy Story 3. Barbie has been given honors that are rare in the toy world. In 1974, a section of Times Square in New York City was renamed Barbie Boulevard for a week; the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris at the Louvre held a Barbie exhibit in 2016. The exhibit featured 700 Barbie dolls over two floors as well as works by contemporary artists and documents that contextualize Barbie.

In 1986, the artist Andy Warhol created a painting of Barbie. The painting sold at auction at London for $1.1 million. In 2015, The Andy Warhol Foundation teamed up with Mattel to create an Andy Warhol Barbie. Outsider artist Al Carbee took th

West Lothian College

West Lothian College is a further education institution in West Lothian, Scotland. It has been located in Livingston since July 2001, with its previous campus located in Bathgate from 1965 until 1999; the new campus was located just adjacent to Livingston's former MacArthur Glen centre, now simple known as'Livingston Designer Outlet' at a cost of £10 million. The college had announced ambitious plans to raise its 2006 enrollment level of 6000 students to nearly 10,000 students by 2010/11, but this was interrupted by council funding cuts, so places have been scaled back to 8,000 in the 2011/2012 year, a decrease of 1,000 places from the 2010/2011 year, it was announced in old plans that the number of placements had to be "racked up" to meet the new demand for courses, in response to the economic downturn, affecting otherwise employed people in the area. The Principal of the college is Mhairi Laughlin. West Lothian College is an incorporated College of Further Education, offering vocational and non-vocational courses to school leavers from S4 - S6, through an external partnership, S1 - S3 secondary students as well.

It is situated in the Central Belt of Scotland midway between Edinburgh and Glasgow. The College delivers SQA accredited qualifications from Access 2, Access 3 and Intermediate 1 for Adult returners and special needs learners, to NQ Intermediate 2, Higher and HNC/D Level, in Computing, Care and Design, Business Management, the Social Sciences, amongst others. Plans are being rolled out, in partnership with Napier University and University of Edinburgh, to confer BAs through part-time courses to students wishing to further their education the first being awarded in the subject of Business Administration; the principal subjects supported by West Lothian college are – Healthcare and Care Social Science Computing Electronics Retail Hospitality Business Management Creative Industries - Art, Design Image and Beauty – Beauty Therapy, Hairdressing Sport and Fitness Core Skills – Communication, Numeracy, ICT Assisted Learning Construction Motor Vehicle MaintenanceIn recognition of the many social barriers that restrict individuals from accessing education and training, West Lothian College has developed a number of initiatives that promote wider access to vocational training.

The College works in partnership with a number of voluntary organisations. In relation to young, unemployed people, they are engaged with West Lothian Council, Employment Services, Scottish Enterprise and West Lothian Youth Forum, in developing training and education programmes for excluded young people. Programmes include New Deal, a national training programme run by Jobcentre Plus, Modern Apprenticeships and Get Ready For Work for Skills Development Scotland, Step Up with West Lothian Council, the promotion of community learning centres with West Lothian Council; the Schools College partnership is an initiative by West Lothian College to introduce a taste of'adult education lifestyle' to student yet to have left S4 - S6, starting from S3 Course levels range from NQ Intermediates to NQ Higher with additional Units only taken at Further Education institutions in Scotland. It is promoted as a great addition to the development of one's education by the College. West Lothian College

Affoltern (Z├╝rich)

Affoltern is a quarter in the district 11 in Zürich, located in the Glatt Valley. Affoltern was first mentioned in 870 as Affaltrahe, in the 9th century it was reigned by the St. Gallen Abbey, in the 12th/13th century by the House of Regensberg who built their ancestral seat Altburg nearby, followed in 1468 by the city of Zürich as part of the Obervogtei Regensberg ending in 1798. Affoltern was after a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into the city Zürich in 1934; as today, Affoltern consists of the former settlements Ober- und Unter-Affoltern. The quarter has a population of 22'972 distributed on an area of 6.04 km², is separated by the Käferberg from the inner city. The bath/lido Strandbad Katzensee is popular. Zürich Affoltern railway station is a stop of the S-Bahn Zürich on the line S6. Präsidialdepartement der Stadt Zürich, Statistik Stadt Zürich: Quartierspiegel Affoltern. Zürich 2011 Media related to Affoltern at Wikimedia Commons Quartierverein Affoltern Affoltern bei Zürich in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland

Riders in the Sky (TV series)

Riders in the Sky is an American live-action/animated children's television series starring western/comedy band Riders in the Sky. It aired on CBS in 1991. Riders in the Sky – themselves: Douglas B. Green – Ranger Doug Paul Chrisman – Woody Paul Fred LaBour – Too Slim Joey Miskulin – Joey The Cow-Polka King Al Rodrigo – Senor Senor Patrick BristowSourdough Riders in the Sky was pitched as a sitcom in which the Riders moved from a frontier town in the American west to Hollywood, with most of the humor of the series coming from the trio being "fish out of water"; the idea was unappealing to television executives due to the premise sounding too similar to that of The Beverly Hillbillies, the show was passed on. Producer Alan Sacks developed the idea of a children's show starring the Riders and pitched it to CBS executives, who after seeing the Riders perform, were interested. CBS assigned George McGrath to write the series, although Sacks would say, "that was a big mistake, we should have had the Riders writing."

The series began taping on July 17 and wrapped up on September 14, 1991, the same day it premiered. Puppets by the Puppet Studio Producers - Chris Plourde, George McGrath, Alan Sacks Costume Designers – Jacqueline Saint Anne, Roberta Samet Camera Operator – Keeth Lawrence Animatronic Puppeteer – Kirk Skodis Sound Mixer- Laura King Sound Effects Editor – Chris Trent A few weeks before the series premiered, Riders in the Sky released Harmony Ranch, their second children's album and their first on the Columbia Records label; the album features characters from the show on the cover and takes its name from the Riders' home in the series. Saddle Pals Harmony Ranch Horsenapped Save the Buffalo Cook Out Sourdough's Surprise Muley's Revenge Trail Weevils Fool's Gold Bad Brothers Curse of the Mine The Contraption Mail Order Brides The series has never been released on any home media, either physical or digital, due to rights issues; this was revealed while answering a question for the "Youth Wants To Know" article on the Riders in the Sky website, with "Ranger Doug" Green stating that "far too many people have a little piece of that series to make a video viable".

Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Achievement in Costume Design – Won

639 Latona

639 Latona is a minor planet orbiting the Sun, discovered by German astronomer Karl Lohnert on July 19, 1907, at Heidelberg. Photometric observations of this asteroid at Palmer Divide Observatory in Colorado Springs, during 2007 gave a light curve with a period of 6.139 ± 0.002 hours and a brightness variation of 0.08 ± 0.01 in magnitude. This confirms period measurements of about 6.2 hours reported in 1987 and 2001. This is a member of the dynamic Eos family of asteroids that most formed as the result of a collisional breakup of a parent body. Lightcurve plot of 639 Latona, Palmer Divide Observatory, B. D. Warner Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 639 Latona at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 639 Latona at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

Chick Webb

William Henry "Chick" Webb was an American jazz and swing music drummer as well as a band leader. Webb was born in Maryland, to William H. and Marie Webb. When an infant, he fell down some stair steps in his family's home, crushing several vertebrae and requiring surgery, from which he never regained full mobility; the injury progressed to tuberculosis of the spine, leaving him with short stature and a badly deformed spine which caused him to appear hunchbacked. The idea of playing an instrument was suggested by his doctor to "loosen up" his bones, he supported himself as a newspaper boy to save enough money to buy drums, first played professionally at age 11. Webb had three sisters: Bessie and Ethel. Mabel married Wilbur Porter around 1928. At the age of 17 he by 1926 was leading his own band in Harlem. Jazz drummer Tommy Benford said, he alternated between band residencies at New York City clubs through the late 1920s. In 1931, his band became the house band at the Savoy Ballroom, he became one of the best-regarded drummers of the new "swing" style.

Drummer Buddy Rich cited Webb's powerful technique and virtuoso performances as influential on his own drumming, referred to Webb as "the daddy of them all". Webb was unable to read music, instead memorized the arrangements played by the band and conducted from a platform in the center, he used custom-made pedals, goose-neck cymbal holders, a 28-inch bass drum and other percussion instruments. Although his band was not as influential, it was feared in the battle of the bands; the Savoy featured "Battle of the Bands" where Webb's band would compete with other top bands, such as the Benny Goodman Orchestra or the Count Basie Orchestra. By the end of the night's battles the dancers seemed always to have voted Webb's band as the best. Webb lost to Duke Ellington in 1937. Although a judge declared Webb's band the official winner in 1938 over Count Basie's, Basie himself said he was relieved to come away from the contest without embarrassing himself, surviving musicians continued to dispute the ruling for decades.

Webb married Martha Loretta Ferguson, in 1935 he began featuring a teenaged Ella Fitzgerald as a vocalist. Together Chick and Ella would electrify the Swing Era of jazz with hits such as "A-Tisket a Tasket", composed by Van Alexander at Fitzgerald's request. Despite rumors to the contrary, "Ella was not adopted by Webb, nor did she live with him and his wife, Sally," according to Stuart Nicholson in his Fitzgerald biography. In November 1938, Webb's health began to decline, he disregarded his own discomfort and fatigue, which found him passing out from physical exhaustion after finishing sets. He had a major operation at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore in 1939. Webb died from Pott disease on June 1939, in Baltimore, his last words were, "I'm sorry, I've got to go." He was 34 years old. Webb was buried in Arbutus Memorial Park, in Arbutus, Maryland. Webb's death hit the jazz/swing community hard. After his death, Fitzgerald led the Chick Webb band until she left to focus on her solo career in 1942 and caused the band to disband.

Art Blakey and Ellington both credited Webb with influencing their music. Gene Krupa credited Webb with raising drummer awareness and paving the way for drummer-led bands like his own. Webb's thundering solos created a complexity and an energy that paved the way for Rich and Louie Bellson. On February 12, 1940, a crowd of about 7,500 people attended a Chick Webb Benefit in Baltimore, Maryland. In attendance were Sally Webb, Chick's widow, his mother Marie Webb, his sister Mabel Porter, Governor Herbert R. O'Conor and boxing champion Joe Louis. Jelly Roll Morton, Louis Armstrong, Earl Hines and Coleman Hawkins are among several early jazz musicians whose birthdates have been disputed. Webb's birthday was believed to be February 10, 1909, however research has proven this to be incorrect; the Encyclopædia Britannica Online had given two possible years for his birthdate: 1902 and 1909. However, they have now tentatively adopted 1905. Still other publications claim other years. During Webb's lifetime a December 1937 Down Beat magazine article, "The Rise of a Crippled Genius", stated he was born in 1909, a book entitled Rhythm on Record by Hilton Schleman stated his birth year was 1907.

The New York Times reported in 1939 that Webb was born in 1907. Despite these conflicting dates, Eric B. Borgman has proven that Webb was born in 1905, using the 1910 and 1920 United States censuses and newspaper articles; the confusion regarding his birth year can be seen on his death certificate, which has "1907" overwritten with "1909". Webb's grave marker gives the wrong birth year of "1909". Chick Webb: A Legend, Vol. 1 Spinnin' the Webb, Chick Webb, The Little Giant. Centerstream Publications, 2014, ISBN 978-1574243093 Chick Webb: Baltimore's Jazz Giant "Drop Me Off in Harlem", Kennedy Center tribute to Webb