The Dongxiang people are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. Most of the Dongxiang live in the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, according to the 2010 census, their population numbers 621,500. The Dongxiang are closely related to other Mongolic peoples like the Monguor, scholars speculate that their identity as an independent ethnic group arose through contact with Central Asians, due to whom the Dongxiang converted to Sunni Islam in the 13th century. They are believed to be descendants of Mongolian troops posted in the Hezhou area by Genghis Khan during his journey westward, mixed with Sarts, another possibility is that they could be a mixture of many peoples including Mongolian and Tibetan groups. The American Asiatic Association published an account of the Dongxiangs origins in the Asia, a Muslim Mongol, Ma Chuanyuan, who was the supermagistrate of five districts, was interviewed, and gave a story on his peoples origins. The conversion to Islam by a clan descended from Genghis Khan angered their relatives and this occurred at the twilight of the Yuan dynasty.
East Linxia was described as a land of thorns and yellow earth, the author estimated a number of 100,000 Mongolian Muslims. They spoke Mongolian but were all illiterate, the account described them as a community of one hundred thousand, Mongol by race, Islam by religion and Chinese by culture. The majority of them were monolingual, Dongxiang were known as Santa people, it was reported that many of them served in the army of the Hui General Ma Fuxiang. It was even said that Ma Fuxiang himself was of Santa descent and their official name of Dōngxiāng meaning eastern villages stems from the fact that their settlements are east of the major Han Chinese settlements. Like other Muslims in China, the Dongxiang served extensively in the Chinese military and it was said that they and the Salars were given to eating rations, a reference to military service. Dongxiang and Hui troops served under Generals Ma Fulu and Ma Fuxiang in the Boxer Rebellion, defeating the invading Eight Nation Alliance at the Battle of Langfang.
Ma Fulu along with 100 Dongxiang and Hui troops died in combat at Zhengyang Gate in Beijing against the Alliance forces as they fought to the death to hold the Alliance at bay. Dongxiang, Hui and Tibetan troops served under Ma Biao in the Second Sino-Japanese War against the Japanese, the Dongxiang have Mongol, Han Chinese and Tibetan surnames. Dongxiang with Han Chinese surnames such as Wang, Zhang and those with surnames such as Ma and Mu are descended from Hui. Some Dongxiang have said that, in the instances that they do marry with other people, it is only with Hui and Han. A town called Tangwangchuan in Gansu had a multiethnic populace, the Tang and Wang families being the two major families, people in the area have changed their ethnicity by marrying members of other groups or converting to their religion. The Tang and Wang families are now composed of all three different ethnic groups, with Han Chinese and Dongxiang people, the Dongxiang and Hui are Muslims
The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya, the other large city is Benghazi, which is located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age, the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, and ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire, Libya was an early center of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was mostly occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 18th and 19th centuries, Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1943.
During the Second World War Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign, the Italian population went into decline. Libya became an independent kingdom in 1951, a military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I, beginning a period of sweeping social reform. Since then, Libya has experienced a period of instability, the European Union is involved in an operation to disrupt human trafficking networks exploiting refugees fleeing from wars in Africa for Europe. At least two political bodies claim to be the government of Libya, the Council of Deputies is internationally recognized as the legitimate government, but it does not hold territory in the capital, instead meeting in the Cyrenaica city of Tobruk. Parts of Libya are outside of either governments control, with various Islamist, the United Nations is sponsoring peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli-based factions. An agreement to form an interim government was signed on 17 December 2015. Under the terms of the agreement, a nine-member Presidency Council, the leaders of the new government, called the Government of National Accord, arrived in Tripoli on 5 April 2016.
Since the GNC, one of the two governments, has disbanded to support the new GNA. The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the name for Northwest Africa. The name was based on use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911
Discounts and allowances
Discounts and allowances are reductions to a basic price of goods or services. They can occur anywhere in the channel, modifying either the manufacturers list price. Some discounts and allowances are forms of sales promotion, the most common types of discounts and allowances are listed below. Trade Discounts are deductions in price given by the wholesaler or manufacturer to the retailer at the list price or catalogue price, cash Discounts are reductions in price given by the creditor to the debitor to motivate the debitor to make payment with in specified time. These discounts are intended to speed payment and thereby provide liquidity to the firm and they are sometimes used as a promotional device. We explain that discount is relaxation in price, 2/10 net 30 - this means the buyer must pay within 30 days of the invoice date, but will receive a 2% discount if they pay within 10 days of the invoice date. 3/7 EOM - this means the buyer will receive a discount of 3% if the bill is paid within 7 days after the end of the month indicated on the invoice date.
If an invoice is received on or before the 25th day of the month, if a proper invoice is received after the 25th day of the month, payment is due on the 7th day of the second calendar month. 3/7 EOM net 30 - this means the buyer must pay within 30 days of the invoice date, if an invoice is received on or before the 25th day of the month, payment is due on the 7th day of the next calendar month. If a proper invoice is received after the 25th day of the month, 2/15 net 40 ROG - this means the buyer must pay within 40 days of receipt of goods, but will receive a 2% discount if paid in 15 days of the invoice date. Some retailers offer discounts to customers paying cash, to avoid paying fees on credit card transactions. Similar to the Trade discount, this is used when the seller wishes to improve cash flow or liquidity, a partial discount for whatever payment the buyer makes helps the sellers cash flow partially. A discount offered based on ability to pay. More common with non-profit organizations than with for-profit retail and this is where the purchaser doesn’t pay for the goods until well after they arrive.
The date on the invoice is moved forward - example, purchase goods in November for sale during the December holiday season and these are price reductions given when an order is placed in a slack period. On a shorter scale, a happy hour may fall in this category. Generally, this discount is referred to as X-Dating or Ex-Dating, bargaining is where the seller and the buyer negotiate a price below the original asking price. Trade discounts, called functional discounts, are payments to distribution channel members for performing some function, examples of these functions are warehousing and shelf stocking
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions and other goods. In different parts of the world, a place may be described as a souk, bazaar. Some markets operate on most days, others may be once a week. The term, market comes from the Latin mercatus, the exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun, ” which roughly translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town. ”Markets have existed since ancient times. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria and these markets were typically situated in the towns centre where they were surrounded by alleyways occupied by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, in ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, and in ancient Rome the forum. In the Graeco-Roman world, the market primarily served the local peasantry. They would sell small surpluses from their farming activities, purchase minor farm equipment.
Major producers such as the estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates. The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting, the nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. At Pompeii multiple markets served the population of approximately 12,000, produce markets were located in the vicinity of the Forum, while livestock markets were situated on the citys perimeter, near the amphitheatre. A long narrow building at the north-west corner of the Forum was some type of market, on the opposite corner stood the macellum, thought to have been a meat and fish market. Market stall-holders paid a tax for the right to trade on market days. Some archaeological evidence suggests that markets and street vendors were controlled by local government, a graffito on the outside of a large shop documents a seven-day cycle of markets, Saturn’s day at Pompeii and Nuceria, Sun’s day at Atella and Nola, Moon’s day at Cumae. etc.
The presence of an official commercial calendar suggests something of the importance to community life. Markets were important centres of social life, in early Western Europe, markets developed close to monasteries, castles or royal residences. Priories and aristocratic manorial households created considerable demand for goods and services - both luxuries and necessities and these centres of trade attracted sellers and would stimulate the growth of the town. A charter would protect trading privileges in return for an annual fee, from the 11th and 12th century, the number of markets and fairs burgeoned
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
Retail markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity. Retailing involves the process of selling goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand is identified through a supply chain, Once the strategic retail plan is in place, retailers devise the retail mix which includes product, place, promotion and presentation. In the digital age, a number of retailers are seeking to reach broader markets by selling through multiple channels. Digital technologies are changing the way that consumers pay for goods. Retailing support services may include the provision of credit, delivery services. Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products, sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing, sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping and browsing, it not always result in a purchase. Retail shops occur in a range of types and in many different contexts - from strip shopping centres in residential streets through to large.
Shopping streets may restrict traffic to pedestrians only, forms of non-shop retailing include online retailing and mail order. Retail comes from the Old French word tailler, which means to cut off, pare and it was first recorded as a noun with the meaning of a sale in small quantities in 1433. Like in French, the retail in both Dutch and German refers to the sale of small quantities of items. Also see History of merchants, History of the market place, open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria. These markets typically occupied a place in the towns centre, surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied premises in alley ways that led to the open market-place. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, in ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, and in ancient Rome the forum. In antiquity, exchange involved direct selling, merchants or peddlers, the Phoenicians, noted for their seafaring skills, plied their ships across the Mediterranean, becoming a major trading power by 9th century BCE.
The Phoenicians imported and exported wood, textiles and produce such as wine, dried fruit, the Phoenicians extensive trade networks necessitated considerable book-keeping and correspondence. In around 1500 BCE, the Phoenicians developed an alphabet which was much easier to learn that the complex scripts used in ancient Egypt
Tripoli is the capital city and the largest city of Libya. Tripoli, with its area, has a population of about 1.1 million people. The city is located in the part of Libya on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean. Tripoli includes the Port of Tripoli and the countrys largest commercial and it is the site of the University of Tripoli. The vast Bab al-Azizia barracks, which includes the family estate of Muammar Gaddafi, is located in the city. Colonel Gaddafi largely ruled the country from his residence in this barracks, Tripoli was founded in the 7th century BC by the Phoenicians, who named it Oea. Due to the long history, there are many sites of archaeological significance in Tripoli. Tripoli may refer to the shabiyah, the Tripoli District, Tripoli is known as Tripoli-of-the-West, to distinguish it from its Phoenician sister city Tripoli, Lebanon known in Arabic as Ṭarābulus al-Sham meaning Levantine Tripoli. It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean, describing its turquoise waters, Tripoli English pronunciation, /ˈtrɪpəli/ is a Greek name that means Three Cities, introduced in Western European languages through the Italian Tripoli.
In Arabic, طرابلس it is called Ṭarābulus, compare Sanskrit, tri meaning the number 3, and pura meaning a fortress, city or town. Hence, in Sanskrit Tripura means Three Cities, the city passed into the hands of the rulers of Cyrenaica, although the Carthaginians wrested it from the Greeks. By the half of the 2nd century BC it belonged to the Romans, who included it in their province of Africa, and gave it the name of Regio Syrtica. Around the beginning of the 3rd century AD, it known as the Regio Tripolitana. It was probably raised to the rank of a province by Septimius Severus. In spite of centuries of Roman habitation, the only visible Roman remains, apart from scattered columns, the fact that Tripoli has been continuously inhabited, unlike e. g. Following the conquest, Tripoli was ruled by dynasties based in Cairo, for some time it was a part of the Berber Almohad empire and of the Hafsids kingdom. It was part of the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries, finding themselves in very hostile territory, the Knights enhanced the citys walls and other defenses.
Though built on top of a number of buildings, much of the earliest defensive structures of the Tripoli castle are attributed to the Knights of St John
The concept is named after Vilfredo Pareto, Italian engineer and economist, who used the concept in his studies of economic efficiency and income distribution. The concept has applications in fields such as economics, engineering. The Pareto frontier is the set of all Pareto efficient allocations, an allocation is defined as Pareto efficient or Pareto optimal when no further Pareto improvements can be made. The notion of Pareto efficiency can be applied to the selection of alternatives in engineering, each option is first assessed under multiple criteria and a subset of options is identified with the property that no other option can categorically outperform any of its members. Pareto optimality is a defined concept used to determine when an allocation is optimal. If there is a transfer that satisfies this condition, the reallocation is called a Pareto improvement, when no further Pareto improvements are possible, the allocation is a Pareto optimum. A formal definition for an economy is as follows, Consider an economy with i agents and j goods.
Here in this economy, feasibility refers to an allocation where the total amount of each good that is allocated sums to no more than the total amount of the good in the economy. It is important to note that a change from a generally inefficient economic allocation to an efficient one is not necessarily a Pareto improvement, even if there are overall gains in the economy, if a single agent is disadvantaged by the reallocation, the allocation is not Pareto optimal. For instance, if a change in economic policy eliminates a monopoly and that subsequently becomes competitive. However, since the monopolist is disadvantaged, this is not a Pareto improvement, thus, in practice, to ensure that nobody is disadvantaged by a change aimed at achieving Pareto efficiency, compensation of one or more parties may be required. However, in the world, such compensations may have unintended consequences. They can lead to incentive distortions over time as agents anticipate such compensations, under certain idealized conditions, it can be shown that a system of free markets, called a competitive equilibrium, will lead to a Pareto efficient outcome.
This is called the first welfare theorem and it was first demonstrated mathematically by economists Kenneth Arrow and Gérard Debreu. However, the result only holds under the assumptions necessary for the proof. In the absence of information or complete markets, outcomes will generally be Pareto inefficient. In addition to the first welfare theorem linking the concepts of Pareto optimal allocations and free markets, the second welfare theorem is essentially the reverse of the first welfare theorem. It states that under similar ideal assumptions, any Pareto optimum can be obtained by some competitive equilibrium, or free market system, a weak Pareto optimum is an allocation for which there are no possible alternative allocations whose realization would cause every individual to gain
In mainstream economics, economic surplus, known as total welfare or Marshallian surplus, refers to two related quantities. In Marxian economics, the surplus may refer to surplus value, surplus product. In the mid-19th century, engineer Jules Dupuit first propounded the concept of economic surplus, on a standard supply and demand diagram, consumer surplus is the area above the equilibrium price of the good and below the demand curve. Yet they in fact pay just the price for each unit they buy. Likewise, in the diagram, producer surplus is the area below the equilibrium price. Yet they in fact receive the equilibrium price for all the units they sell, consumer surplus is the difference between the maximum price a consumer is willing to pay and the actual price they do pay. If a consumer would be willing to pay more than the current asking price, an example of a good with generally high consumer surplus is drinking water. People would pay very high prices for drinking water, as they need it to survive, the difference in the price that they would pay, if they had to, and the amount that they pay now is their consumer surplus.
Note that the utility of the first few liters of drinking water is very high, typically these prices are decreasing, they are given by the individual demand curve. The consumers surplus is highest at the largest number of units for which, even for the last unit, the aggregate consumers surplus is the sum of the consumers surplus for all individual consumers. This can be represented graphically as shown in the graph of the market demand. The consumer surplus is the area under the curve and above a horizontal line at the actual price. For more general demand and supply functions, these areas are not triangles and this shows that if we see a rise in the equilibrium price and a fall in the equilibrium quantity, consumer surplus falls. When supply of a good expands, the falls and consumer surplus increases. Consider an example of linear supply and demand curves, for an initial supply curve S0, consumer surplus is the triangle above the line formed by price P0 to the demand line. If supply expands from S0 to S1, the consumers surplus expands to the triangle above P1, the change in consumers surplus is difference in area between the two triangles, and that is the consumer welfare associated with expansion of supply.
Some people were willing to pay the higher price P0, the second set of beneficiaries are consumers who buy more, and new consumers, those who will pay the new lower price but not the higher price. Their additional consumption makes up the difference between Q1 and Q0, the rule of one-half estimates the change in consumer surplus for small changes in supply with a constant demand curve
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term originates from the Persian word bāzār, from Middle Persian wāzār, from Old Persian vāčar, Souq is another word used in the Middle East for an open-air marketplace or commercial quarter. The term bazaar is used to refer to the network of merchants, bankers. Although the current meaning of the word is believed to have originated in native Zoroastrian Persia, its use has spread, the rise of large bazaars and stock trading centers in the Muslim World allowed the creation of new capitals and eventually new empires. New and wealthy cities such as Isfahan, Samarkand, Baghdad, street markets is the European and North American equivalents. The origin of the word Bazaar comes from Persian language, many languages have names for this concept, including Arabic and Urdu, بازار, Kurdish language has the same word bazaar meaning a marketplace. In South Korea, the word 바자회, composed of 바자 + 회 is used to describe the sort of rummage sale described above.
Although Turkey contains many famous markets known as bazaars in English, English place names usually translate çarşı as bazaar when they refer to an area with covered streets or passages. For example, the Turkish name for the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is Kapalıçarşı, the Armenian one does not include Bazaar of its own. Covered Market, England Gold Souq, a market trading in gold, shopping mall Souq Tabriz Bazaar, Iran, the largest covered bazaar in the world. Wet market, sells fresh meat and produce, the Persian Bazaar, Veiled Space of Desire by Mehdi Khansari The Morphology of the Persian Bazaar by Azita Rajabi. COMPARATIVE SUSTAINABILITY OF BAZAAR IN IRANIAN TRADITIONAL CITIES, CASE STUDIES IN ISFAHAN AND TABRIZ, international Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering. Iran Chamber Society on Architecture of the Bazaar at Isfahan 1911 Britannica article Bazaar
Pasar malam is an Indonesian and Malay word that literally means night market. A pasar malam is a market in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore that opens in the evening. It brings together a collection of stalls that sell goods such as fruits, snacks, clothes, alarm clocks. Unauthorized copies of DVDs, CDs and computer software are sold at a pasar malam. A pasar malam often takes place one to a few days of the week. Haggling over prices is a practice at such markets. In Indonesian archipelago, markets are held in different days with locations rotating among participating villages. This traditional economic custom is known as Hari Pasaran in Javanese, after being further developed, market was established more permanently like it is today. The night market is regarded as the continuation of this non-permanent market culture, night market are usually held during special occasion or festival, such as Sekaten festival in Java, or held in Ramadhan nights, approximately a week before Lebaran. After the discovery of electricity and lightbulb, the markets were held more frequently in colonial Dutch East Indies in early 20th century.
It has become the predecessor of the annual Jakarta Fair and Den Haags Tong Tong Fair which are actually a night market, during colonial Dutch East Indies the annual Pasar Malam was held in Pasar Gambir and become the predecessor of modern Jakartas annual Jakarta Fair. Today, several kecamatan in Jakarta and other provinces in Indonesia, hold weekly pasar malam, usually every Saturday night in a nearby alun-alun square, in Indonesia, pasar malam has become a weekly recreational place for local families. Other than selling variety of goods and foods, some pasar malam offer kiddy rides and carnival games, in Palembang, a popular pasar malam is located on front of Kuto Besak Fort on the bank of Musi River. This pasar malam sells local dishes and snacks such as pempek and tekwan, in Malaysia, Pasar Malam are often differentiated by ethnicity. A Malay pasar malam will often contain stalls selling Islamic books, kopiah hats, sarongs, a Chinese pasar malam may sell Mah Jong sets, joss sticks, joss paper and various Chinese prayer supplies.
An Indian pasar malam may contain Hindu prayer supplies, in Singapore, food hawkers at pasar malam are required to get a licence from local council to ensure health, cleanliness and to control numbers to avoid traffic congestion. A food handler is required to get a medical checkup and Typhim VI injections, in the Netherlands, a yearly Indo Eurasian festival is held in The Hague under the name Tong Tong Fair, formerly known as the Pasar Malam Besar. Due to the number of Indo-Eurasians and the successive success of this event since 1959