A stottie cake or stotty is a type of bread that originated in North East England. It is a flat and round loaf about 30 centimetres in diameter and 4 centimetres deep, with an indent in the middle produced by the baker. Elsewhere in the world, bread considered similar to the stottie is known as'oven bottom bread', though this term is a relative newcomer, given that, prior to the widespread use of cast iron ovens with shelves, ovens were built of brick and only had the bottom available to bake on. One chief characteristic is the dough-like texture of the bread. Though leavened, its taste and mouth-feel is heavy and reminiscent of dough, it is dense because it was only been allowed to prove once rather than the usual twice. This indicates that its origins lie in the breads used to'test' ovens, and, may be related to similar breads baked elsewhere in Europe for the same reason. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some stotties were made with the offcuts of dough when all of the required loaves had been baked.
Stotties tend to be filled. Common fillings include ham and pease pudding, but bacon and sausage; the heavy texture of the bread gives it its name. To "stott" means "to bounce" in Northumbrian, because if dropped it would bounce. Stotting is used by biologists to describe the jumping behaviour of antelopes in response to predators. Though originating in the North East, stotties can be found in most parts of Britain, although in the south, have been offered for sale in branches of Greggs and Waitrose. Stotties sold by supermarkets tend to resemble stotties only in shape. List of bread rolls List of British breads Brief description and recipe, CooksInfo.com
A plain loaf, slices of which are known in Scots as plain breid, is a traditional style of loaf made chiefly in Scotland and Ireland. It has a well-fired crust on the top and bottom of the bread. There is no crust on the sides due to the unbaked loaves being stuck together in batches, baked together torn into individual loaves afterwards; the term batch loaf is sometimes used. This style of bread does not fit well in most modern toasters due to the greater height of the loaf; this was once the more available style of loaf in comparison to the now more common pan loaf. List of breads List of British breads
A scone is a British baked good made of wheat, or oatmeal with baking powder as a leavening agent and baked on sheet pans. A scone is lightly sweetened and glazed with egg wash; the scone is a basic component of the cream Devonshire tea. It differs from other types of sweets that are made with yeast; the pronunciation of the word within the English-speaking world varies. According to one academic study, two-thirds of the British population pronounce it with the preference rising to 99% in the Scottish population. According to another survey, 51 % of the British people pronounce it; the difference in pronunciation is regional in Britain, with those who rhyme it with "gone" predominating in Scotland, Northern Ireland and the north of England, those who rhyme it with "cone" dominating in southern England and the Midlands. The pronunciation is favoured among Australians and Canadians. Natives of the Republic of Ireland and the United States use the pronunciation. British dictionaries show the /ˈskɒn/ form as the preferred pronunciation, while recognising the /ˈskoʊn/ form.
The Oxford Dictionaries explain that there are regional and class differences in England connected with the different pronunciations: There are two possible pronunciations of the word scone: the first rhymes with gone and the second rhymes with tone. In US English, the pronunciation rhyming with tone is more common. In British English, the two pronunciations traditionally have different regional and class associations, with the first pronunciation associated with the north of England, while the second is associated with the south; the difference in pronunciation is alluded to in a delightful little rhyme: The Oxford English Dictionary reports that the first mention of the word was in 1513. Origin of the word scone may, in fact, derive from different sources; that is, the classic Scottish scone and the Dutch schoonbrood or "spoonbread". Thus, scone may derive from the Middle Dutch schoonbrood, from schoon and brood, or it may derive from the Scots Gaelic term sgonn meaning a shapeless mass or large mouthful.
The Middle Low German term schöne meaning fine bread may have played a role in the origination of this word. And if the explanation put forward by Sheila MacNiven Cameron be true, the word may be based on the town of Scone in Scotland, the ancient capital of that country – where Scottish monarchs were still crowned after the capital was moved to Perth to Edinburgh; the original scone was round and flat as large as a medium-sized plate. It was made and baked on a griddle cut into triangular sections for serving. Today, many would call the large round cake a bannock, call the triangles scones. In Scotland, the words are used interchangeably; when baking powder became available to the masses, scones began to be the oven-baked, well-leavened items we know today. Modern scones are available in British bakeries, grocery stores, supermarkets. A 2005 market report estimated the UK scone market to be worth £64m, showing a 9% increase over the previous five years; the increase is due to an increasing consumer preference for impulse and convenience foods.
Scones sold commercially are round, although some brands are hexagonal as this shape may be tessellated for space efficiency. When prepared at home, they may take various shapes including triangles and squares. Baking scones at home is closely tied to heritage baking, they tend to be made using family recipes rather than recipe books, since it is a family member who holds the "best" and most-treasured recipe. British scones are lightly sweetened, but may be savoury, they include raisins, cheese or dates. In Scotland and Ulster, savoury varieties of scone include soda scones known as soda farls, potato scones known as tattie scones, which resemble small, thin savoury pancakes made with potato flour. Potato scones are most served fried in a full Scottish breakfast or an Ulster fry; the griddle scone is a variety of scone, cooked on a griddle on the stove top rather than baked in the oven. This usage is common in New Zealand where scones of all varieties form an important part of traditional colonial New Zealand cuisine.
Other common varieties include the dropped scone, or drop scone, like a pancake, after the method of dropping the batter onto the griddle or frying pan to cook it, the lemonade scone, made with lemonade and cream instead of butter and milk. There is the fruit scone or fruited scone, which contains currants, sultanas and glacé cherries, just like a plain round scone with the fruit mixed into the dough. To achieve lightness and flakiness, scones may be made with cream instead of milk. In some countries one may encounter savoury varieties of scone which may contain or be topped with combinations of cheese, bacon, etc. Scones can be presented with various toppings and condiments butter and cream. Strawberries are sometimes used. Scones were chosen as the Republic of Ireland representative for Café Europe during the Austrian Presidency of the European Union in 2006, while the United Kingdom chose shortbread. In Hungary, a pastry similar to the Brit
Wigan is a town in Greater Manchester, England, on the River Douglas, 10 miles south-west of Bolton, 12 miles north of Warrington and 17 miles west-northwest of Manchester. Wigan is the largest settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan and is its administrative centre; the town has a population of 103,608, whilst the wider borough has a population of 318,100. In Lancashire, Wigan during classical antiquity was in the territory of the Brigantes, an ancient Celtic tribe that ruled much of what is now northern England; the Brigantes were subjugated in the Roman conquest of Britain during the 1st century, it is asserted that the Roman settlement of Coccium was established where Wigan lies. Wigan is believed to have been incorporated as a borough in 1246 following the issue of a charter by King Henry III of England. At the end of the Middle Ages, it was one of four boroughs in Lancashire established by Royal charter. During the Industrial Revolution Wigan experienced dramatic economic expansion and a rapid rise in population.
Although porcelain manufacture and clock making had been major industries, Wigan became known as a major mill town and coal mining district. A coal mine was recorded in 1450 and at its peak, there were 1,000 pit shafts within 5 miles of the town centre. Mining was so extensive that a town councillor remarked that "a coal mine in the backyard was not uncommon in Wigan". Coal mining ceased during the latter part of the 20th century. Wigan Pier, a wharf on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, was made famous by the writer George Orwell. In his book, The Road to Wigan Pier, Orwell highlighted the poor working and living conditions of the inhabitants during the 1930s. Following the decline of heavy industry in the region, Wigan Pier's warehouses and wharves became a local heritage centre and cultural quarter; the DW Stadium is home to Wigan Athletic Football Club and Wigan Warriors Rugby League Football Club. The name Wigan has been dated to at least the 7th century and originally meant a "village" or "settlement".
It has been suggested that the name is Celtic, named after a person called Wigan, a name corresponding to Gaulish Vicanus, Old Welsh Uuicant or Old Breton Uuicon. This may have been linked with Tre to give an original name of Trewigan. Derivation from Brittonic *wig,'dwelling', plus the nominal suffix -an has been suggested; the name of the town has been recorded variously as Wigan in 1199, Wygayn in 1240, Wygan in numerous historical documents. There is little evidence of prehistoric activity in the area pre-Iron Age; the first people believed to have settled in the Wigan area were the Brigantes, a Celtic tribe who controlled most of northern Britain. In the 1st century, the area was conquered by the Romans; the late 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary mentions a Roman settlement called Coccium 17 miles from the Roman fort at Manchester and 20 miles from the fort at Ribchester. Although the distances are out, it has been assumed that Coccium is Roman Wigan. Possible derivations of Coccium include from the Latin coccum, meaning "scarlet in colour, scarlet cloth", or from cocus, meaning "cook".
Over the years chance finds provided clear indications that a Roman settlement existed at Wigan, although its size and status remained unknown. In 2005 investigations ahead of the Grand Arcade development, in 2008 at the Joint Service Centre development, have proven that Wigan was a significant Roman site in the late first and second centuries AD; the excavated remains of ditches at Ship Yard off Millgate were consistent with use by the Roman military and formed part of the defences for a fort or a temporary camp. More remains were excavated to the south, in the area of McEwen's Yard, where foundations of a large and important building were discovered, together with many other Roman features; the building is 36 by 18 metres in size with a tiled roof. It contained around ten rooms including three with hypocausts, it had a colonnaded portico on the northern side, which formed the main entrance. The structure's ground-plan and the presence of the hypocausts show. A timber building excavated at the Joint Service Centre has been interpreted as a barrack block.
This suggests a Roman fort occupied the crest of the hill, taking advantage of the strategic position overlooking the River Douglas. The evidence gained from these excavations shows that Wigan was an important Roman settlement, was certainly the place referred to as Coccium in the Antonine Itinerary. In the Anglo-Saxon period, the area was under the control of the Northumbrians and the Mercians. In the early 10th century there was an influx of Scandinavians expelled from Ireland; this can be seen in place names such as Scholes—now a part of Wigan—which derives from the Scandinavian skali meaning "hut". Further evidence comes from some street names in Wigan. Although Wigan is not mentioned in the Domesday Book because it was included in the Neweton barony, it is thought that the mention of a church in the manor of Neweton is Wigan Parish Church; the rectors of the parish church were lords of the manor of Wigan, a sub-manor of Neweton, until the 19th century. Wigan was incorporated as a borough in 1246 following the issue of a charter by King Henry III to John Maunsell, the local church rector and lord of th
The Bath bun is a sweet roll made from a milk-based yeast dough with crushed sugar sprinkled on top after baking. Variations in ingredients include enclosing a lump of sugar in the bun or adding candied fruit peel, raisins or sultanas; the change from a light, shaped bun to a heavier fruited or sugared irregular one may date from the Great Exhibition of 1851 when a million were produced and consumed in five and a half months. References to Bath buns date from 1763, Jane Austen wrote in a letter of "disordering my stomach with Bath Bunns" in 1801; the original 18th-century recipe used a brioche or rich egg and butter dough, covered with caraway seeds coated in several layers of sugar, similar to French dragée. The bun's creation is attributed to William Oliver in the 18th century. Oliver created the Bath Oliver dry biscuit after the bun proved too fattening for his rheumatic patients; the bun may have descended from the 18th-century "Bath cake". The buns are still produced in the Bath area of England.
Although this is disputed, the 18th-century'"Bath cake" may have been the forerunner of the Sally Lunn bun, which originates from Bath. Fruit bun Hot cross bun Manchet Sally Lunn bun List of British breads List of buns Traditional Bath bun recipe Bath bun with fruit Bath bun containing sugar cube Dr. Oliver
Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy". Some consider Descartes' 1637 statement "I think" to have sparked the period. Others cite the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica. French historians traditionally date the Enlightenment from 1715 to 1789, from the beginning of the reign of Louis XV until the French Revolution. Most end it with the turn of the 19th century. Philosophers and scientists of the period circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffeehouses and in printed books and pamphlets; the ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church and paved the way for the political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment; the Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of knowledge and advanced ideals such as liberty, toleration, constitutional government and separation of church and state.
In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church. The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by the phrase Sapere aude; the Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and associated with the scientific revolution. Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes and Spinoza; the major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Hume, Montesquieu, Adam Smith, Voltaire. Some European rulers, including Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia, tried to apply Enlightenment thought on religious and political tolerance, which became known as enlightened absolutism. Benjamin Franklin visited Europe and contributed to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia.
Thomas Jefferson followed European ideas and incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence. One of his peers, James Madison, incorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in 1787; the most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie. Published between 1751 and 1772 in thirty-five volumes, it was compiled by Diderot, d'Alembert and a team of 150 scientists and philosophers, it helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond. Other landmark publications were Voltaire's Dictionnaire Letters on the English; the ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by the intellectual movement known as Romanticism. René Descartes' rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking, his attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied in philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter.
His skepticism was refined by John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding and David Hume's writings in the 1740s. His dualism was challenged by Spinoza's uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus and Ethics; these laid down two distinct lines of Enlightenment thought: first, the moderate variety, following Descartes and Christian Wolff, which sought accommodation between reform and the traditional systems of power and faith, second, the radical enlightenment, inspired by the philosophy of Spinoza, advocating democracy, individual liberty, freedom of expression and eradication of religious authority. The moderate variety tended to be deistic, whereas the radical tendency separated the basis of morality from theology. Both lines of thought were opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment, which sought a return to faith. In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines and dogmas.
The philosophic movement was led by Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who argued for a society based upon reason as in ancient Greece rather than faith and Catholic doctrine, for a new civil order based on natural law, for science based on experiments and observation. The political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept, enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. While the Philosophes of the French Enlightenment were not revolutionaries and many were members of the nobility, their ideas played an important part in undermining the legitimacy of the Old Regime and shaping the French Revolution. Francis Hutcheson, a moral philosopher, described the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words, "the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers". Much of what is incorporated in the scientific method