Richmond, North Yorkshire
Richmond is a market town and civil parish in North Yorkshire and the administrative centre of the district of Richmondshire. Historically in the North Riding of Yorkshire, it is situated on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park, Richmond is the most duplicated UK placename, with 57 occurrences worldwide. The Rough Guide describes the town as an absolute gem, betty James wrote that without any doubt Richmond is the most romantic place in the whole of the North East. Richmond was named UK town of the year in 2009, the Georgian Theatre Royal in Richmond, built in 1788, is the UKs most complete 18th century theatre. The town of Richemont in Normandy was the origin of the placename Richmond, Richmond in North Yorkshire was the eponymous honour of the Earls of Richmond, a dignity normally held by the Duke of Brittany from 1136 to 1399. Richmond was founded in 1071 by the Breton Alan Rufus, on lands granted to him by William the Conqueror, Richmond Castle, completed in 1086, had a keep and walls encompassing the area now known as the Market Place.
Richmond was part of the lands of the earldom of Richmond, when John V, Duke of Brittany died in 1399 Henry IV took possession. In 1453, the earldom was conferred on Edmund Tudor, and was merged with the crown when Edmunds son Henry became king, as Henry VII in 1485. During the English Civil War, the Covenanter Army led by David Leslie, Lord Newark, took over the castle and conflict between local Catholics and Scottish Presbyterians ensued. The prosperity of the town and centre of the Swaledale wool industry greatly increased in the late 17th and 18th centuries with the burgeoning lead mining industry in nearby Arkengarthdale. It is from this period that the towns Georgian architecture originates, one of Europes first gas works was built in the town in 1830. A permanent military presence was established in the town with the completion of Richmond Barracks in 1877, Richmond Castle in the town centre overlooks the River Swale and is a major tourist attraction. Scollands Hall is the gatehouse and was staffed by the Lords of Bedale, such as Bryan FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan, other staff residences were Constable Burton and Thornton Steward.
Also, Richmond had an extended Wensleydale castlery initially consisting of Middleham Castle, the Conyers, Gascoigne and Lovell families were all notable gentry. The cobbled market place is one of the largest in England, the Green Howards Regimental Museum is in the old Trinity Church in the centre of the towns market place, the town is home to the Richmondshire Museum. Swale House on Frenchgate, built around 1750, was home to the headmaster and students of the grammar school. For many years, it was the headquarters of Richmondshire District Council, before being closed, the Georgian Theatre Royal, founded in 1788 by the actor Samuel Butler, is off the market place. A decline in the fortunes of theatre led to its closure in 1848, in 1963 the theatre was restored and reopened, with a theatre museum added in 1979
Rokeby is a narrative poem in six cantos by Walter Scott. It is set in Teesdale during the English Civil War and Matilda, through the efforts of Redmond, are able to escape the blaze. It emerges that Redmond, now in Oswalds hands, is the long-lost son of Philip, Oswald tries to force Lord Rokeby to accept a marriage between Wilfrid and Matilda, but this is prevented by Wilfrids death. Bertram kills his master Oswald to avoid bloodshed, but is killed in his turn. Philip is reunited with his son, and the lovers marry. The poem grew out of Scotts friendship with J. B. S. Morritt, with Rokeby he attempted to remedy this fault. Scott claimed that the character of Matilda was drawn from his first love, Williamina Belsches, whom he had first met twenty years earlier, canto 1 had to be rewritten when Scott deliberately burned the first version, saying he had corrected the spirit out of it. The last instalment of the manuscript was sent off to the printer on 31 December 1812, and the book was published on 10 January 1813. J. G.
Lockhart reported that bookshops in Oxford were besieged by customers wanting to read the poem, byron himself wrote urgently from Italy asking his publisher John Murray to send him a copy. Critics in contemporary periodicals praised the poems characterization, but found fault with the complicated plot. Thomas Moore sarcastically wrote that Scotts works were turning into a tour of Britains stately homes. In the 20th century John Buchan thought the plot too intricate for a poem, comparing Rokeby with Scotts earlier works he found the landscape not as beguiling, but the character-drawing more subtle, and the songs superior to all of his former lyrics. Andrew Lang admired the songs, but considered the poem as an inferior to its predecessors. In Edgar Johnsons opinion the structure of the poem was strikingly innovative, a. N. Wilson noted that most readers today think of it as a failure. He himself, while agreeing that it fell below the standard of vintage Scott, over a hundred musical adaptations or settings of lines from Rokeby are known.
The actor-manager William Macready wrote and starred in a version of Rokeby in 1814. Another adaptation by George John Bennett, a play called Retribution. The artist J. M. W. Turner produced a watercolour of the river Greta at Rokeby in 1822, the Wizard of the North, The Life of Sir Walter Scott
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty fire and rescue services, many FRS were previously known as brigades or county fire services, but almost all now use the standard terminology. They are distinct from and governed by an authority, which is the legislative and administrative body. Fire authorities in England and Wales, and therefore fire and rescue services and Northern Ireland have centralised fire and rescue services, and so their authorities are effectively committees of the devolved parliaments. The total budget for services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. The devolved government in Scotland has an agency, HMFSI Scotland. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain,1947, Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed entirely in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire,1959, Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act, it dealt with pensions, staffing arrangements and provision of services by other authorities.
It was repealed in England and Wales along with the 1947 Act,1999, Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of fire strikes. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the action still ongoing. Bains report ultimately led to a change in the relating to firefighting. 2002, Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004, Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, generally only applying to England and it came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises,2006, The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on Fire, promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation. But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries, There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association.
The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee, in June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report. For example, where FRSs were historically inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office, Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Select Committee heard evidence on the Fire Control project. Called to give evidence were Cllr Brian Coleman and Cllr James Pearson from the Local Government Association, giving evidence Matt Wrack from the Fire Brigades Union and John Bonney Chief Fire Officers Association
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of late 18th and early 19th centuries and throughout his career was a commentator. Immensely successful in his lifetime, Goya is often referred to as both the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns and he was one of the great portraitists of modern times. He was born to a modest family in 1746 in the village of Fuendetodos in Aragon and he studied painting from age 14 under José Luzán y Martinez and moved to Madrid to study with Anton Raphael Mengs. He married Josefa Bayeu in 1773, the couples life together was characterised by an almost constant series of pregnancies and miscarriages, Goya was a guarded man and although letters and writings survive, little is known about his thoughts. He suffered a severe and undiagnosed illness in 1793 which left him completely deaf, after 1793 his work became progressively darker and more pessimistic. His easel and mural paintings and drawings appear to reflect a bleak outlook on personal and political levels and he was appointed Director of the Royal Academy in 1795, the year Manuel Godoy made an unfavorable treaty with France.
In 1799 Goya became Primer Pintor de Cámara, the then-highest rank for a Spanish court painter, in the late 1790s, commissioned by Godoy, he completed his La maja desnuda, a remarkably daring nude for the time and clearly indebted to Diego Velázquez. In 1801 he painted Charles IV of Spain and His Family, in 1807 Napoleon led the French army into Spain. Goya remained in Madrid during the Peninsular War, which seems to have affected him deeply. Although he did not vocalise his thoughts in public, they can be inferred from his Disasters of War series of prints and his 1814 paintings The Second of May 1808 and The Third of May 1808. Goya eventually abandoned Spain in 1824 to retire to the French city of Bordeaux, accompanied by his much younger maid and companion, Leocadia Weiss, there he completed his La Tauromaquia series and a number of other, canvases. Following a stroke left him paralyzed on his right side. His body was re-interred in Spain, Francisco Goya was born in Fuendetodos, Aragón, Spain, on 30 March 1746 to José Benito de Goya y Franque and Gracia de Lucientes y Salvador.
The family had moved that year from the city of Zaragoza, José was the son of a notary and of Basque origin, his ancestors being from Zerain, earning his living as a gilder, specialising in religious and decorative craftwork. He oversaw the gilding and most of the ornamentation during the rebuilding of the Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar, Francisco was their fourth child, following his sister Rita, brother Tomás and second sister Jacinta. There were two sons and Camilo. His mothers family had pretensions of nobility and the house, a modest brick cottage, was owned by her family and, perhaps fancifully, about 1749 José and Gracia bought a home in Zaragoza and were able to return to live in the city
John Balliol, known derisively as Toom Tabard was King of Scots from 1292 to 1296. Little is known of his early life, after the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, Scotland entered an interregnum during which several competitors for the Crown of Scotland put forward claims. Balliol was chosen from them as the new King of Scotland by a group of selected noblemen headed by King Edward I of England. Edward used his influence over the process to subjugate Scotland and undermined Balliols personal reign by treating Scotland as a vassal of England, edwards influence in Scottish affairs tainted Balliols reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. This council signed a treaty with France known as the Auld Alliance, in retaliation, Edward invaded Scotland, starting the Wars of Scottish Independence. After a Scottish defeat in 1296, Balliol abdicated and was imprisoned in the Tower of London, Balliol was sent to France, and retired into obscurity, taking no more place in politics.
Scotland was left without a monarch until Robert the Bruce ascended in 1306, John Balliols son Edward Balliol would exert a claim to the Scottish throne against the Bruce claim during the minority of Roberts son David. In Norman French his name was Johan de Bailliol, in Middle Scots it was Jhon Ballioun, in Scots he was known by the nickname Toom Tabard, usually understood to mean empty coat, with the word coat referring to coat of arms. Little of Balliols early life is known and he was born between 1248 and 1250 at an unknown location, possibilities include Galloway and Barnard Castle, County Durham. He was the son of John, 5th Baron Balliol, Lord of Barnard Castle, in 1284 Balliol had attended a parliament at Scone, which had recognised Margaret, Maid of Norway, as heir presumptive to her grandfather, King Alexander III. He submitted his claim to the Scottish auditors with King Edward I of England as the arbitrator, Edward I, who had coerced recognition as Lord Paramount of Scotland, the feudal superior of the realm, steadily undermined Johns authority.
He treated Scotland as a vassal state and repeatedly humiliated the new king. They went on to conclude a treaty of assistance with France – known in years as the Auld Alliance. In retaliation, Edward I invaded, commencing the Wars of Scottish Independence, the Scots were defeated at Dunbar and the English took Dunbar Castle on 27 April 1296. John abdicated at Stracathro near Montrose on 10 July 1296, here the arms of Scotland were formally torn from Johns surcoat, giving him the abiding name of Toom Tabard. John was imprisoned in the Tower of London until allowed to go to France in July 1299. When his baggage was examined at Dover, the Royal Golden Crown and Seal of the Kingdom of Scotland, with vessels of gold and silver. Edward I ordered that the Crown be offered to St. Thomas the Martyr, but he kept the Seal himself
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick KG, known as Warwick the Kingmaker, was an English nobleman and military commander. The son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, Warwick was the wealthiest and most powerful English peer of his age, through fortunes of marriage and inheritance, Warwick emerged in the 1450s at the centre of English politics. Originally he was a supporter of King Henry VI, from this conflict he gained the strategically valuable post of Captain of Calais, a position that benefited him greatly in the years to come. The political conflict turned into rebellion, where in battle York was slain. Yorks son, triumphed with Warwicks assistance, and was crowned King Edward IV, Edward initially ruled with Warwicks support, but the two fell out over foreign policy and the kings choice of Elizabeth Woodville as his wife. After a failed plot to crown Edwards brother, Duke of Clarence, the triumph was short-lived however, on 14 April 1471 Warwick was defeated by Edward at the Battle of Barnet, and killed.
The elder of his two daughters, married George, Duke of Clarence and his younger daughter Anne had a short-lived marriage to King Henrys son Edward of Westminster, who died in battle at the age of 17. She married King Edwards younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, Warwicks historical legacy has been a matter of much dispute. Historical opinion has alternated between seeing him as self-centred and rash, and regarding him as a victim of the whims of an ungrateful king. It is generally agreed, that in his own time he enjoyed popularity in all layers of society. The Nevilles, an ancient Durham family, came to prominence in Englands fourteenth-century wars against the Scots, in 1397 King Richard II made Ralph Neville Earl of Westmorland. Ralphs son Richard, the Earl of Warwicks father, was a son by a second marriage. He received a settlement and became jure uxoris Earl of Salisbury through his marriage to Alice and heiress of Thomas Montacute. Salisburys son Richard, the Earl of Warwick, was born on 22 November 1428, at the age of six, Richard was betrothed to Anne Beauchamp, daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, and of his wife Isabel Despenser.
This made him not only to the earldom of Salisbury, but to a substantial part of the Montague, Beauchamp. Circumstances would, increase his fortune even further, Beauchamps son Henry, who had married the younger Richards sister Cecily, died in 1446. When Henrys daughter Anne died in 1449, Richard found himself jure uxoris Earl of Warwick, Richards succession to the estates did not go undisputed, however. A protracted battle over parts of the inheritance ensued, particularly with Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, the dispute centred on land, not on the Warwick title, as Henrys half-sisters were excluded from the succession
Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the worlds best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era and his works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the twentieth century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories enjoy lasting popularity, born in Portsmouth, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors prison. Dickenss literary success began with the 1836 serial publication of The Pickwick Papers, within a few years he had become an international literary celebrity, famous for his humour and keen observation of character and society. His novels, most published in monthly or weekly instalments, pioneered the publication of narrative fiction. The instalment format allowed Dickens to evaluate his audiences reaction, and he modified his plot. For example, when his wifes chiropodist expressed distress at the way Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield seemed to reflect her disabilities and his plots were carefully constructed, and he often wove elements from topical events into his narratives.
Masses of the poor chipped in hapennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up. Dickens was regarded as the literary colossus of his age and his 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol, remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. Oliver Twist and Great Expectations are adapted, like many of his novels. His 1859 novel, A Tale of Two Cities, set in London, Dickens has been praised by fellow writers—from Leo Tolstoy to George Orwell and G. K. Chesterton—for his realism, prose style, unique characterisations, and social criticism. On the other hand, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, and Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of depth, loose writing. The term Dickensian is used to something that is reminiscent of Dickens and his writings. Charles John Huffam Dickens was born on 7 February 1812, at 1 Mile End Terrace, Landport in Portsea Island and his father was a clerk in the Navy Pay Office and was temporarily stationed in the district. He asked Christopher Huffam, rigger to His Majestys Navy, Huffam is thought to be the inspiration for Paul Dombey, the owner of a shipping company in Dickenss eponymous Dombey and Son.
In January 1815 John Dickens was called back to London, when Charles was four, they relocated to Sheerness, and thence to Chatham, where he spent his formative years until the age of 11. His early life seems to have been idyllic, though he himself a very small. Charles spent time outdoors but read voraciously, including the novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding, as well as Robinson Crusoe
The Bowes Museum has a nationally-renowned art collection and is situated in the town of Barnard Castle, County Durham, England. The early works of French glassmaker Émile Gallé were commissioned by Joséphine, a great attraction is the 18th-century Silver Swan automaton, which periodically preens itself, looks round and appears to catch and swallow a fish. The Bowes Museum was purpose-built as an art gallery for John Bowes and his wife Joséphine Chevalier, Countess of Montalbo. Bowes was the son of John Bowes, the 10th Earl of Strathmore. It was designed with the collaboration of two architects, the French architect Jules Pellechet and John Edward Watson of Newcastle, the building, in a grand French style within landscaped gardens, an early account described it as. Some 500 feet in length by 50 feet high, and is designed in the French style of the First Empire, among those with less favourable opinions was Nikolaus Pevsner, who considered it to be. Big and incongruous, looking exactly like the hall of a major provincial town in France.
In scale it is just as gloriously inappropriate for the town to which it belongs as in style, the building was begun in 1869 and was reputed to have cost £100,000. Bowes and his left an endowment of £125,000. Their collection of European fine and decorative arts amounted to 15,000 pieces, a major redevelopment of the Bowes Museum began in 2005. To date, improvements have made to visitor facilities, galleries. The three art galleries, on the floor of the museum, we updated. The museum hosts a significant programme of exhibitions, recently featuring works by Monet, Turner, Gallé, William Morris. The BBC announced in 2013 that a Portrait of Olivia Boteler Porter was a previously unknown Anthony van Dyck painting and it had been found in the Bowes Museum storeroom by art historian Dr. Bendor Grosvenor who had observed it on-line at the Your Paintings web site. The painting itself was covered in layers of varnish and dirt and it was originally thought to be a copy, and valued at between £3,000 to £5,000.
Christopher Brown, director of the Ashmolean Museum, confirmed it was a van Dyck after it had been restored
County Durham is a county in North East England. The county town is Durham, a cathedral city, the largest settlement is Darlington, closely followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west, the county included southern Tyne and Wear, including Gateshead and Sunderland. The county has a mixture of mining and farming heritage, as well as a railway industry. Its economy was based on coal and iron mining. It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination, in the centre of the city of Durham, Durham Castle and Durham Cathedral are a UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site. Many counties are named after their town, and the expected form here would be Durhamshire. Thus County Durham is a form of County of Durham. The situation regarding the name with regards to present-day local government is less clear. The structural change legislation which in 2009 created the present unitary council refers to the county of County Durham, the former postal county was named County Durham to distinguish it from the post town of Durham.
The ceremonial county of Durham is administered by four unitary authorities, the ceremonial county has no administrative function, but remains the area to which the Lord Lieutenant of Durham and the High Sheriff of Durham are appointed. The Borough of Hartlepool, until 1 April 1996 the borough was one of four districts in the relatively short-lived county of Cleveland, the part of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees that is north of the centre of the River Tees. Stockton was part of Cleveland until that countys abolition in 1996, the remainder of the borough is part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. Durham Constabulary operate in the area of the two districts of County Durham and Darlington. Ron Hogg was first elected the Durham Police and Crime Commissioner for the force on 15 November 2012, the other areas in the ceremonial county fall within the police area of the Cleveland Police. Air Ambulance services are provided by the Great North Air Ambulance, the charity operates 3 helicopters including one at Durham Tees Valley Airport covering the County Durham area.
Teesdale and Weardale Search and Mountain Rescue Team, based at the Durham Constabulary base in Barnard Castle, respond to search, Cuthbert between Tyne and Tees or the Liberty of Haliwerfolc. The bishops special jurisdiction rested on claims that King Ecgfrith of Northumbria had granted a substantial territory to St Cuthbert on his election to the see of Lindisfarne in 684
Barnard Castle (castle)
Barnard Castle is a ruined medieval castle situated in the town of the same name in County Durham. It is a Scheduled Ancient Monument, and was designated as a Grade I listed building in 1950, the remains of the medieval chapel of St Margaret in the outer ward are listed as Grade II. A stone castle was built on the site of a defended position from around 1095 to 1125 by Guy de Balliol. Between 1125 and 1185 his nephew Bernard de Balliol and his son Bernard II extended the building, in 1216 the castle was besieged by Alexander II, King of Scotland. It was still held by the Balliol family although its ownership was disputed by the Bishops of Durham, when John Balliol was deposed as King of Scotland in 1296 the castle was passed to the Bishop of Durham. Around 1300 Edward I granted it to the Earl of Warwick, in the 15th century the castle passed by marriage to the Neville family. In 1477 during the Wars of the Roses, Duke of Gloucester took possession of the castle, over the next two centuries the Nevilles enlarged and improved the estate and created a substantial and impressive castle.
However, when Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland was attainted for his role in the Rising of the North the Neville estates were sequestered. In 1626 the Crown sold the castle and the Neville property at Raby Castle to Sir Henry Vane, Vane decided to make Raby his principal residence and Barnard Castle was abandoned and its contents and much of its masonry was removed for the maintenance and improvement of Raby. The castle is in the custody of English Heritage and is open to the public, of particular interest are the ruins of the 12th-century cylindrical tower and the 14th-century Great Hall and Great Chamber
Bishop Auckland (UK Parliament constituency)
Bishop Auckland is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2005 by Helen Goodman of the Labour Party. Most housing, many towns and most facilities were built in the prosperous era of coal mining which brought thousands of workers to live in Bishop Auckland town. Manufacturing, including processing and packaging, public sector employment, retail. Within the seat are Auckland Castle and Park, Lartington Hall, Windlestone Hall, Raby Castle, Binchester Roman Fort and enclosures, 1885-1918, Part of the Sessional Division of Bishop Auckland. 1918-1950, The Urban Districts of Bishop Auckland and Shildon, 1950-1955, The Urban Districts of Barnard Castle, Bishop Auckland, and Shildon, and the Rural District of Barnard Castle. 1974-1983, The Urban Districts of Barnard Castle, Bishop Auckland, and Shildon, the constituency is located in an upland, southern part of County Durham in the North East of England. On a more local level it was formed of the whole of the former Teesdale district, parts of former Wear Valley district, endorsed by the Coalition Government General Election 1914/15, Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915
Richard III of England
Richard III was King of England from 1483 until his death in 1485, at the age of 32, in the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty and his defeat at Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the subject of the historical play Richard III by William Shakespeare, when his brother King Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edwards son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. As the young king travelled to London from Ludlow, Richard met and escorted him to lodgings in the Tower of London, on 25 June, an assembly of Lords and commoners endorsed the claims. The following day, Richard III began his reign, and he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes were not seen in public after August, and accusations circulated that the boys had been murdered on Richards orders, there were two major rebellions against Richard.
The first, in October 1483, was led by allies of Edward IV and Richards former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. In August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor, Henry Tudor landed in southern Wales with a small contingent of French troops and marched through his birthplace, recruiting soldiers. Henrys force engaged Richards army and defeated it at the Battle of Bosworth Field in Leicestershire, Richard was struck down in the conflict, making him the last English king to die in battle on home soil and the first since Harold Godwinson. Henry ascended the throne as Henry VII, after the battle Richards corpse was taken to Leicester and buried without pomp. His original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the Reformation, in 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on a city council car park on the site once occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church. Richards remains were reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015 and they returned to England following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton and participated in the coronation of Richards eldest brother as King Edward IV in June 1461.
At this time Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made a Knight of the Garter and Knight of the Bath, by the age of seventeen, he had an independent command. With some interruptions, Richard stayed at Middleham either from late 1461 until early 1465, while at Warwicks estate, he probably met Francis Lovell, a strong supporter in his life, and Warwicks younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville. As the relationship between the king and Warwick became strained, Edward IV opposed the match, during Warwicks lifetime, George was the only royal brother to marry one of his daughters, the eldest, Isabel, on 12 July 1469, without the kings permission. George joined his father-in-laws revolt against the king, while Richard remained loyal to Edward, in 1468, Richards sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, and the brothers could expect a welcome there. Although only eighteen years old, Richard played crucial roles in the battles of Barnet, during his adolescence, Richard developed idiopathic scoliosis.
Following a decisive Yorkist victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury, Richard married Anne Neville, by the end of 1470 Anne had previously been wedded to Edward of Westminster, only son of Henry VI, to seal her fathers allegiance to the Lancastrian party