Barnes, London

Barnes is a district in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It takes up the extreme northeast of the borough, as such is the closest part of the borough to central London, it is centred 5.3 miles west south-west of Charing Cross in a bend of the River Thames. Its built environment includes a wide variety of convenience and arts shopping on its high street and a high proportion of 18th- and 19th-century buildings in the streets near Barnes Pond. Together they make up the Barnes Village conservation area where along with its west riverside, most of the mid-19th century properties are concentrated. On the east riverside is the WWT London Wetland Centre adjoining several fields for the three main national team sports. Barnes has retained woodland on the "Barnes Trail", a short circular walk taking in the riverside, commercial streets and conservation area, marked by silver discs set in the ground and with QR coded information on distinctive oar signs; the Thames Path National Trail provides a public promenade along the entire bend of the river, on the Championship Course in rowing.

Barnes is served by bus routes towards central London and Richmond. Barnes is in south west London, bounded to the west and east by a meander in the River Thames. Barnes is not on the London Underground network. However, it is served directly by two National Rail stations, both of which are in London's Travelcard Zone 3: Barnes railway station Barnes Bridge railway stationBoth stations are served by trains operated by South Western Railway, with trains terminating in Central London at Waterloo via Clapham Junction. Trains from Barnes and Barnes Bridge both run eastwards providing Barnes with a direct connection to Chiswick and Hounslow. Barnes railway station is served by trains running southwest towards Teddington and Kingston. Barnes railway station saw 2.548 million passenger exits last year. Barnes Bridge was quieter, with only 0.863 passengers beginning or ending their journey at the station. Nearby railway stations can be found at Putney and Mortlake. There are London Underground connections in neighbouring Hammersmith, where two stations serve four lines: the Circle and Hammersmith & City lines and the District and Piccadilly lines.

From Hammersmith, there are direct connections to the West End. There are direct connections to Heathrow Airport, the East End and Rayner's Lane. There is one River Thames crossing in Barnes for traffic and pedestrians. Hammersmith Bridge is closed indefinitely to traffic due to structural faults. Many of the roads in Barnes are residential, but several arterial routes pass through the district, carrying traffic across London and the South East; the South Circular Road passes through the southern end of Barnes. The South Circular carries traffic eastbound towards Wandsworth, the City of London and south east London. Westbound, the road carries traffic away from Central London, either towards Richmond and the M3, or directly to the M4 and the North Circular Road. Kew and Chiswick are en route to the M4; the A306 runs north-south through Barnes, carried by Rocks Lane. Leaving Barnes to the north, the A306 crosses Hammersmith Bridge towards Hammersmith, where traffic meets the Great West Road, which links to Earl's Court and the West End.

Southbound, the A306 meets the A3 towards Guildford and Portsmouth. Barnes High Street and Church Road carry the A3003, which runs between nearby Mortlake. Transport for London manages the South Circular Road and the A306. Other roads which cross the Thames nearby are Chiswick Bridge to Putney Bridge east; the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames carries out air pollution monitoring in Barnes, both kerbside and in the London Wetlands Centre. There are several sites in Barnes which measure the concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide and Particulate Matter in the air. A site along Castelnau recorded an annual mean concentration of NO2 at 31μgm-3 in 2017; the annual mean concentration of PM10 was 18μgm-3 at the same site in the same year. Both results show. Whilst Castelnau is on the kerbside, the Wetlands monitoring site recorded far lower results than Castelnau did in 2017, with an annual mean NO2 concentration at 21μgm-3, a mean reading of 15μgm-3 for PM10. A monitoring site on Barnes High Street recorded more polluted air than the other, with NO2 levels at 43.0μgm-3.

This site therefore failed to meet the UK National Air Quality Objective of 40μgm-3 for NO2. Barnes is served by London Buses 33, 72, 209, 265, 283, 378, 419, 485 and N22. Compared other districts in London, Barnes is poorly connected to London destinations via cycle paths or tracks. There are three key routes which pass through Barnes: National Cycle Route 4 – this signed cycle route from Greenwich to Fishguard, West Wales, runs on shared-use paths or residential streets but, in Barnes, the route follows Rocks Lane for a short distance. For cyclists in Barnes, the route provides an unbroken, albeit indirect, route towards Waterloo via Putney and Chelsea. To the West, NCR 4 passes through Richmond Park and Kingston-upon-Thames. London Cycle Network 37 – Many signs in Barnes still remain along this route, part of the discontinued London Cycle Network; the route runs eastbound towards Wandsworth and the City, or westbound towards Mortlake and Richmond. EuroVel

Territorial Abbey of Nonantola

Nonantola Abbey, dedicated to Saint Sylvester, is a former a Benedictine monastery and prelature nullius in the commune of Nonantola, c. 10 km north-east of Modena, in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. The abbey church is the co-cathedral of the diocese of Modena-Nonantola; the abbey was founded in 752 by Saint Anselm, Duke of Friuli and brother-in-law of the Lombard king Aistulf. The latter richly endowed the new abbey, starting its role as one of the main landed proprietors of northern Italy. Pope Stephen II appointed Anselm its first abbot, presented some relics of Saint Sylvester to the abbey, named in consequence S. Silvestro de Nonantula. After the death of Aistulf in 756, Anselm was banished to Monte Cassino by the new king, but was restored by Charlemagne after seven years. In 813 the abbot Peter of Nonantola was chosen as Imperial ambassador to Constantinople, his successor, held the same post in 828. In 883 the abbey was chosen as the place of a conference between Charles the Fat and Pope Marinus I.

In 900 the monastery and church were destroyed by invading Hungarians, all who had not fled were killed. Reconstruction began immediately. Up to the 11th century Nonantola was an imperial monastery, its discipline suffered on account of imperial interference in the election of abbots: Nonantola was in fact one of the most powerful abbeys of Europe and control over it was considered a major issue by the emperors and popes, it had a famous scriptorium and the abbot Godeschalc had a new basilica built in 1058. At the beginning of the Investiture Conflict it sided with the emperor, until forced to submit to the pope by Matilda of Tuscany in 1083, it declared itself for the papal party in 1111. In that year the famous monk Placidus of Nonantola wrote his De honore Ecclesiæ, one of the most able and important defences of the papal position, written during the Investiture Conflict; the decline of the monastery can be dated to 1419, when it came under the jurisdiction of commendatory abbots. In 1514 abbot Gian Matteo Sertorio gave it to the Cistercians, but the abbey continued to decline until it was suppressed by Pope Clement XIII in 1768.

Alternatively it may have been replaced by Duke Francesco III d'Este in 1783, during the abbacy of Francesco Maria d'Este, with a collegiate foundation of canons. Pope Pius VII restored it as a monastery on 23 January 1821, with the provision that the prelature nullius attached to it should belong to the Archbishop of Modena, into which the exempt territory was absorbed in 1986 to form the Diocese of Modena-Nonantola; the monastery itself was appropriated by the Italian government in 1866. The Town Hall of Nonantola is now accommodated in some of the remaining monastic buildings, in one of which 11th-century frescoes have been discovered; the Museo Benedettino Nonantolano e Diocesano di Arte Sacra is now housed in the premises, as are the important abbey archives and library. The Basilica is a Romanesque edifice built during the tenure of abbot Damian, which in the early 20th century was restored to its original early 12th-century condition; the church has two aisles, with the presbytery. The crypt, with sixty-four columns, dates from the 8th century and contains relics of seven saints: Saint Anselm the founder.

Nonantola Abbey Official website Centro Studi Storici Nonantolani: The Saints of Nonantola Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Nonantola". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company

Answer to Job

Answer to Job is a 1952 book by Carl Gustav Jung that addresses the moral and psychological implications of the Book of Job. It was first published in English in 1954. Jung considers the Book of Job a landmark development in the "divine drama", for the first time contemplating criticism of God. Jung described Answer to Job as "pure poison", he did, feel an urge to write the book. The basic thesis of the book is that as well as having a good side, God has a fourth side - the evil face of God; this view is controversial, but Jung claimed it is backed up by references to the Hebrew Bible. Jung saw this evil side of God as the missing fourth element of the Trinity, which he believed should be supplanted by a Quaternity. However, he discusses in the book whether the true missing fourth element is the feminine side of God. Indeed, he saw the dogmatic definition of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary by Pope Pius XII in 1950 as being the most significant religious event since the Reformation. Another theme in the book is the inversion of the biblical assertion that God sent his son Christ to die for the sins of humanity.

Jung maintains that upon realizing his mistreatment of Job, God sends his son to humankind to be sacrificed in repentance for God's sins. Jung sees this as a sign of God's ongoing psychological development; the author Joyce Carol Oates, in her review "Legendary Jung", considers Answer to Job to be Jung's most important work. The Episcopal Bishop and humanist Christian author John Shelby Spong, in his book Re-Claiming the Bible for a Non-Religious World considers Answer to Job to be Jung's "most profound work". Jungian scholar Murray Stein claims Jung viewed the Book of Job as an example of a Scriptural religious experience: "In Jung’s interpretation, Job is innocent, he is a scrupulously pious man who follows all the religious conventions, for most of his life, he is blessed with good fortune. This is the expected outcome for a just man in a rationally ordered universe, but God allows Satan to work on him, bringing misfortune and misery. Being overwhelmed with questions and images of divine majesty and power, Job is silenced.

He realizes his inferior position vis-a-vis the Almighty. But he retains his personal integrity, this so impresses God that He is forced to take stock of Himself, he is not so righteous after all! And out of this astonishing self-reflection, induced in God by Job’s stubborn righteousness, He, the Almighty, is pushed into a process of transformation that leads to His incarnation as Jesus. God develops empathy and love through his confrontation with Job, out of it a new relationship between God and humankind is born." Rascher Walter Verlag ISBN 3-530-40768-2 Dtv ISBN 3-423-35121-7, ISBN 3-423-35171-3 trans. R. F. C. Hull, in Psychology and Religion, v.11, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, ISBN 0-691-01785-9 Online excerpt of Answer to Job Paul Bishop, Jung's Answer to Job: A Commentary, Brunner-Routledge ISBN 1-58391-240-1 Storr, A.. Jung. Fontana Modern Masters Series. Review of Jung¬ís Answer to Job: A Commentary by Paul Bishop