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Barrio

Barrio is a Spanish word meaning "quarter" or "neighborhood." In the modern Spanish language, “barrio” is defined as each area of a city differentiated by functional, architectural or morphological features. In Spain, several Latin American countries and the Philippines, the term is used to denote a division of a municipality. In Argentina and Uruguay, a barrio is a division of a municipality delineated by the local authority at a time, it sometimes keeps a distinct character from others; the word does not have a special socioeconomic connotation unless it is used in contrast to the centro. The expression barrio cerrado is employed for small, upper-class, residential settlements, planned with an exclusive criterion and literally enclosed in walls. In Colombia, the term is used to describe any urban area neighborhood whose geographical limits are determined locally; the term can be used to refer to all classes within society. The term barrio de invasión or comuna is more used to refer to shanty towns, but the term "barrio" has a more general use.

In Cuba, El Salvador and Spain, the term barrio is used to denote a subdivision of a municipio. In Puerto Rico, the term barrio is used to denote a subdivision of a municipio and its lowest recognized administrative unit. A barrio in Puerto Rico is not vested with political authority, it may, or may not, be further subdivided into sectors, urbanizaciones, or a combination of these, but such further subdivisions, though popular and common, are unofficial. In the Philippines, the term barrio once referred to a rural village, but it was changed by law in 1975 to the term barangay, the basic unit of government with an average population of 2,500 people, it is still used informally to refer to small rural towns and villages, as opposed to barangay which can be used for both rural settlements and urban municipal districts. It is alternatively spelled as baryo; the United States usage of the term barrio is found in Venezuela and the Dominican Republic, where the term is used to describe slums in the outer rims of big cities such as Caracas and Santo Domingo as well as lower- and middle-class neighborhoods in other cities and towns.

Well-known localities in the United States containing a sector called "Barrio" include Manhattan, East Los Angeles, California. Some of them are referred to as just "El Barrio" by nearby residents. Gina M. Pérez notes that barrios are "precious spaces that affirm cultural identities, nurture popular cultural production, provide sanctuary for people with long histories of displacement, land loss and collective struggle." Over the centuries, selectness in the Spanish Empire evolved as a mosaic of the various barrios, surrounding the central administrative areas. As they matured, the barrios functionally and symbolically reproduced the city and in some way tended to replicate it; the barrio reproduced the city through providing occupational, social and spiritual space. With the emergence of an enlarged merchant class, some barrios were able to support a wide range of economic levels; this led to new patterns of social class distribution throughout the city. Those who could afford to locate in and around the central plazas relocate.

The poor and marginal groups still occupied the spaces at the city's edge. The desire on the part of the sector popular to replicate a barrio was expressed through the diversity of the populace and functions and the tendency to form social hierarchies and to maintain social control; the limits to replication were social. Any particular barrio could not expand territorially into other barrios, nor could it export its particular social identity to others. Different barrios provided different products and services to the city, e.g. one might make shoes while another made cheese. Integration of daily life could be seen in the religious sector, where a parish and a convento might serve one or more neighborhoods; the mosaic formed by the barrios and the colonial center continued until the period of independence in Mexico and Latin America. The general urban pattern was one where the old central plaza was surrounded by an intermediate ring of barrios and emerging suburban areas linking the city to the hinterland.

The general governance of the city was in the hands of a city councilors. Public posts were funds given to the local government and the royal bureaucracy. Fairness and equity were not high on the list of public interests. Lands located on the periphery were given to individuals by local authorities if this land was designated for collective uses, such as farming or grazing; this practice of peripheral land expansion laid the groundwork for suburbanization by immigrants from outside the region and by real estate agents. At the edge of Hispanic American colonial cities there were places where work, social interaction and symbolic spiritual life occurred; these barrios were created to meet the space needs of local craftsman and the shelter needs of the working class. At times they were designed to meet municipal norms, but they responded to functional requirements of the users. Barrios were built over centuries of sociocultural interaction within

Frozen River

Frozen River is a 2008 American crime drama film written and directed by Courtney Hunt. The screenplay focuses on two working-class women who smuggle illegal immigrants from Canada to the United States, it received two Oscar nominations: Best Original Screenplay. The film is set shortly before Christmas in the North Country of Upstate New York, near the Akwesasne St. Regis Mohawk Reservation and the border crossing to Cornwall, Ontario. Ray Eddy is a discount store clerk struggling to raise two sons with her husband, a compulsive gambler who has disappeared with the funds she had earmarked to finance the purchase of a double-wide mobile home. While searching for him, she encounters Lila Littlewolf, a Mohawk bingo-parlor employee, driving his car, which she claims she found abandoned with the keys in the ignition at the local bus station; the two women, who have both fallen on hard economic times, form a desperate and uneasy alliance and begin trafficking illegal immigrants from Canada into the United States across the frozen St. Lawrence River for $1,200 each.

Ray's older son T. J. wants to find a job and help support the family so they can afford to eat something more substantial than popcorn and Tang. He and his mother clash over whether he should remain in high-school and look after his little brother Ricky or drop out to work. To make matters worse, T. J. sets an outside corner of the trailer afire with a torch in an attempt to unfreeze the water pipe. Lila longs for the day she will be able to reclaim and live with her young son, taken from her by her mother-in-law after his birth; because the women's route takes them from an Indian reservation in the US to an Indian reserve in Canada, they hope to avoid detection by local law-enforcement. However, their problems escalate when they are asked to smuggle a Pakistani couple and Ray, fearful their duffel bag might contain explosives, leaves it behind in sub-freezing temperatures, only to discover it contained their infant baby when they arrive at their destination, she and Lila retrace their route and find the bag and the baby, which Lila insists is dead, but which she revives moments before being reunited with the baby's parents.

The experience leaves her shaken, she announces she no longer wants to participate in the smuggling operation. But Ray, needing just one more crossing to finance the down payment on her mobile home, coerces her into joining her for one last journey, they pick up two Asian women from a strip club for crossing. When the club owner tries to short them, Ray threatens him with a gun; when she is re-entering her car, the irate club owner retaliates by shooting Ray in the ear. Shaken, her fast and erratic driving catches the attention of the provincial police. Ray tries to elude capture by crossing the frozen river where one of the wheels of the car breaks through the ice; the four women take refuge at the Indian reservation. Because the police are demanding a scapegoat, the tribal head decides to excommunicate Lila for five years due to her smuggling history which involved the death of her Mohawk husband. Surprised saddened by the news, Ray gives in to Lila's pleas to go free for the sake of her children.

However, running through the woods, Ray has a fit of conscience and returns. Ray gives her share of money to Lila with instructions for taking care of her sons and seeing through the purchase plans for a mobile home. Ray and the illegal immigrants are surrendered to the police and a trooper speculates she will have to serve four months in jail. Ray calls her son T. J. to explain. Lila reclaims her infant son, she and the baby show up at the Eddy trailer while T. J. is still on the phone with his jailed mother. In a day scene, T. J. completes the welding of a bicycle-propelled carousel bearing his younger brother and Lila's strapped in baby. He pedals the carousel. A truck nears carrying the new mobile home. Melissa Leo as Ray Eddy Misty Upham as Lila Littlewolf Charlie McDermott as Troy "T. J." Eddy, Jr. Michael O'Keefe as State Trooper Finnerty Mark Boone Junior as Jacques Bruno James Reilly as Ricky Eddy Dylan Carusona as Jimmy Jay Klaitz as Guy Versailles Michael Sky as Billy Three Rivers John Canoe as Bernie Littlewolf In an interview screenwriter/director Courtney Hunt conducted shortly before the film's release, she discussed its prevalent theme of a mother's love for her children being a culturally universal trait.

She stated the most important moment in her life was the birth of her daughter and how that event made all her other goals lesser priorities. By showing how such intimacy knows no bounds, culturally or Hunt said she hoped her film would enable audiences to break down their assumptions about others around them. Hunt's husband is from New York. Whenever the two visited his family they heard stories about Mohawks smuggling cigarettes by driving across the Saint Lawrence River when it freezes, she thought the concept was an interesting subject for a film but had a hard time getting any financial backers because so few people knew about the issue. She met cinematographer Marc Blandori and actress Melissa Leo at the FilmColumbia 2003 Film Festival in Chatham, New York and both agreed to join the project, which prompted some interest from investors; the first effort was a short film shot at Akwesasne near New York. Hunt showed it at several festival screenings and shopped it to producers until she acquired enough funding for a feature film.

Frozen River was shot in sub-freezing temperatures on location in Clinton County and Beekmantown and in the area around Plattsburgh over a period of twenty-four days in M

Baptiste Pierre Bisson

Baptiste-Pierre-François Bisson joined the French army and rose in rank during the French Revolutionary Wars. He served as a division commander in the Grande Armée of Emperor Napoleon in 1805 and 1807, playing a leading role at the Battle of Friedland, he was captured by Tyrolean rebels in 1809. Known as a gourmand, he became fat before dying prematurely, his surname is one of the Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe. Bisson was born on 16 February 1767 at Montpellier in the south of France in what became the department of Hérault. On 23 May 1793, while a chef de bataillon, he led 60 grenadiers and 50 dragoons in the heroic defense of a village. On 19 September 1794, he was elevated in rank to chef de brigade of the 26th Demi-Brigade. On 23 May 1796, he transferred to command the 43rd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade, he led the 43rd at the Battle of Marengo on 14 June 1800. During the engagement his demi-brigade fought as part of Jacques-Antoine de Chambarlhac de Laubespin's division. Recognizing his intelligence and courage, Napoleon promoted Bisson to general of brigade on 5 July 1800.

On 1 February 1805, Bisson was named general of division. At the beginning of the War of the Third Coalition, he led an infantry division in Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout's III Corps. Command of the division passed to Marie-François Auguste de Caffarelli du Falga, who led it at the Battle of Austerlitz after Bisson was badly wounded during the pursuit at the passage of the Traun River, he became a Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur on 25 December 1805. At the end of the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon recalled Bisson to command one of Marshal Michel Ney's VI Corps infantry divisions. At the Battle of Guttstadt-Deppen on 5 and 6 June 1807, he led the 25th Light Infantry Regiment and the 27th, 50th, 59th Line Infantry Regiments, he directed his division at the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807. At 5:00 PM, Napoleon ordered the attack to begin and Ney's corps advanced with his two divisions formed in mass. With Jean Gabriel Marchand's division on the right and Bisson's on the left, the French pressed back the Russians opposing them.

However, as Ney's corps advanced deep into the enemy positions, it ran into intense artillery fire which caused heavy losses. When the Russian reserve cavalry counterattacked, the soldiers of both Marchand and Bisson headed for the rear in confusion. At this moment, Napoleon brought up Claude Victor-Perrin's I Corps and it smashed the Russian left flank; as their enemies recoiled, Ney's men rallied and returned to the assault, helping to drive the Russians from Pravdinsk around 8:00 PM. In 1808 Napoleon appointed Bisson a Count of the Empire. November 1808 found Bisson serving in the Peninsular War as governor of the fortress of Pamplona. By this time in his career, Bisson gained a reputation as a hard drinker; the beginning of the War of the Fifth Coalition found him leading a column of 2,050 conscripts from Italy to Bavaria over the Brenner Pass. The Tyrolean Rebellion broke out all around him; the rebels soon forced Bisson to surrender with his trapped soldiers and the eagle of the 3rd Line Infantry Regiment near Innsbruck between 11 and 13 April 1809.

Another source claimed. Bisson was a tall man but he became obese, he became renowned both for an astonishing capacity for eating and drinking. One observer claimed he could finish off eight bottles of wine for lunch while conversing pleasantly and issuing orders to his troops. Bisson died at Mantua in northern Italy on 26 July 1811. BISSON is inscribed on Column 16 of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Arnold, James R.. Marengo & Hohenlinden: Napoleon's Rise to Power. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. ISBN 1-84415-279-0. Arnold, James R.. Napoleon Conquers Austria. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94694-0. Broughton, Tony. "French Infantry Regiments and the Colonels who Led Them: 1791-1815: 41e-50e Regiments". The Napoleon Series. Retrieved 28 August 2014. Chandler, David G.. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York, N. Y.: Macmillan. Mullié, Charles. Biographie des célébrités militaires des armées de terre et de mer de 1789 a 1850. Paris. Oman, Charles. A History of the Peninsular War Volume I. La Vergne, Tenn.: Kessinger Publishing.

ISBN 1432636820. Petre, F. Loraine. Napoleon's Campaign in Poland 1806-1807. London: Lionel Leventhal Ltd. Smith, Digby; the Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill. ISBN 1-85367-276-9. Tarin, Jean-Pierre. "Des Bourguignons autour de Napoléon Bonaparte". Dijon: éditions Cléa