The Basic Laws of Israel are the constitutional laws of the State of Israel, some of them can only be changed by a supermajority vote in the Knesset. Many of these laws are based on the individual liberties that were outlined in the Israeli Declaration of Independence; the Basic Laws deal with the formation and role of the principal institutions of the state, with the relations between the state's authorities. They protect the country's civil rights, although some of these rights were earlier protected at common law by the Supreme Court of Israel; the Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty enjoys super-legal status, giving the Supreme Court the authority to disqualify any law contradicting it, as well as protection from Emergency Regulations. The Basic Laws were intended to be draft chapters of a future Israeli constitution, postponed since 1950. Israel is one of 6 countries that functions according to an uncodified constitution consisting of both material constitutional law, common law, the provisions of these formal statutes.
The State of Israel has an unwritten constitution. Instead of a formal written constitution, in accordance with the Harari Decision of 13 June 1950 adopted by the Israeli Constituent Assembly, the State of Israel has enacted several Basic Laws of Israel dealing with government arrangements and with human rights; the Israeli Supreme Court President Aharon Barak ruled that the Basic Laws should be considered the state's constitution, that became the common approach throughout his tenure. Opponents of this approach include Judge of the Supreme Court Mishael Cheshin. According to Israel's proclamation of independence of May 14, 1948, a constituent assembly should have prepared a constitution by October 1, 1948; the delay and the eventual decision on June 13, 1950 to legislate a constitution chapter by chapter, resulted from the inability of different groups in Israeli society to agree on the purpose of the state, on the state's identity, on a long-term vision. Another factor was the opposition of David Ben-Gurion.
Various bodies in Israel have called for the enactment of a formal constitution as a single document, have submitted ideas and drafts for consideration. The Israeli Declaration of Independence stated that a formal constitution would be formulated and adopted no than 1 October 1948; the deadline set in the declaration of independence proved unrealistic in light of the war between the new state and its Arab neighbors. General elections took place on 25 January 1949 in order to elect a Constituent Assembly which would approve the new state's constitution; the Constituent Assembly convened on February 1949. It held several discussions about the constitution without reaching an agreement. For a number of reasons, Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, did not wish to develop a constitution. After only four meetings, the Constituent Assembly adopted on 16 February 1949 the Transition Law, by which means it became the "First Knesset"; the Knesset is, one of three sovereign parliaments in the world that are not bound by a codified constitution.
Because the Constituent Assembly did not prepare a constitution for Israel, the Knesset is the heir of the Assembly for the purpose of fulfilling this function. The Basic Laws do not cover all constitutional issues, there is no deadline set for the completion of the process of merging them into one comprehensive constitution. There is no clear rule determining the precedence of Basic Laws over regular legislation, in many cases such issues are left to interpretation by the judicial system. In 1950 the First Knesset came to. Rather than draft a full constitution they would postpone the work, charging the Knesset's Constitution and Justice Committee with drafting the document piecemeal; each chapter would be called a Basic Law, when all had been written they would be compiled into a complete constitution. Between 1958 and 1988 the Knesset passed nine Basic Laws, all of which pertained to the institutions of state. In 1992 the Knesset passed the first two Basic Laws that related to human rights and to the basis of the Supreme Court's recently-declared powers of judicial review.
These are "Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty" and "Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation". These were passed by votes of 23 -- 0 respectively. In 1992 Aharon Barak, President of the Supreme Court, declared a "constitutional revolution" and attached constitutional ascendancy to the Basic Laws of Israel; the Knesset enjoys de jure parliamentary supremacy, can pass any law by a simple majority one that might arguably conflict with a Basic Laws of Israel, unless the basic law has specific conditions for its modification. Basic laws which include specific conditions include: article 4 of the Basic Law of the Knesset article 44 several other Basic Laws, which include an instruction regarding their permanence and protection from changes by means of emergency regulationsA majority of
As of 2018 in Nigeria, the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15–49 was 1.4 percent.<https://nigeriahealthwatch.com/results-of-naiis-the-largest-hiv-survey-ever-done-are-in-nigeria-not-doing-as-badly-as-we-thought/#. XIxS7xNKhTZ> The HIV prevalence in Nigeria is complex and varies by region. In some states, the epidemic is more concentrated and driven by high-risk behaviors, while other states have more generalized epidemics that are sustained by multiple sexual partnerships in the general population. Youth and young adults in Nigeria are vulnerable to HIV, with young women at higher risk than young men. There are many risk factors that contribute to the spread of HIV, including prostitution, high-risk practices among itinerant workers, high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, clandestine high-risk heterosexual and homosexual practices, international trafficking of women, irregular blood screening. Nigeria is emerging from a period of military rule that accounted for 28 of the 57 years since independence in 1960.
The policy environment is not democratized. Civil society was weak during the military era, its role in advocacy and lobbying remains weak; the size of the population and the nation pose logistical and political challenges due to the political determination of the Nigerian government to achieve health care equity across geopolitical zones. The necessity to coordinate programs at the federal and local levels introduces complexity into planning; the large private sector is unregulated and, more has no formal connection to the public health system where most HIV interventions are delivered. Training and human resource development is limited in all sectors and will hamper program implementation at all levels. Care and support is limited because existing staff are overstretched and most have insufficient training in key technical areas to provide complete HIV services. AIDS pandemic Health care in Nigeria HIV/AIDS in Africa
"Only Women Bleed" is a song written by Alice Cooper and Dick Wagner. It is a ballad about a woman in an abusive marriage; the song is mistakenly presumed to be about menstruation, that has limited its play on radio and in other public forums. As a single by Cooper, it was released as just "Only Women", it is one of Cooper's biggest hits, reaching number 1 on the Canadian RPM national singles chart and number 12 on the US Billboard Hot 100 singles chart in 1975. It is from his album Welcome to My Nightmare, it was the first of several ballad releases by Cooper that reached the top 20 of the Hot 100 singles chart. Prior to the release of Welcome to My Nightmare in the US, a shortened version of the song was released as a single and was alternatively titled "Only Women" by Atlantic Records due to protests by feminist groups; the album version of the song features more orchestral movements than the single, runs longer than the 45 at 5:49. According to co-writer Dick Wagner, the song's musical riff and vocal melody were developed several years earlier during his tenure with the late-60s Michigan-based band the Frost, but Wagner had never liked his lyrics and the song was never recorded.
He played the riff for Cooper, the two developed new lyrics for the eventual Welcome to My Nightmare recording. Guns N' Roses uses an excerpt of this song in concert as an intro to their cover of Bob Dylan's "Knockin' on Heaven's Door"; the song was featured on the soundtrack to Rob Zombie's remake of Halloween. It was featured on, was the title of, the season 1 finale of Pamela Adlon's series, Better Things. Cover versions of the song have been recorded by notable artists including: Ike & Tina Turner on the 1980 album The Edge. Carmen McRae on her 1976 album Can't Hide Love. Julie Covington on her eponymous 1978 album. Etta James on her 1978 album Deep in the Night Ruby Turner on her 1986 album Women Hold Up Half the Sky Elkie Brooks on her 1986 album No More the Fool Lita Ford on her 1990 album Stiletto Slash on their Use Your Illusion Tour John Farnham on his 1993 album Then Again Dick Wagner on his 1995 solo album Rock HitStory Glenn Hughes, Paul Gilbert, Bob Kulick, Mike Porcaro, Steve Ferrone & Paul Taylor on the 1999 tribute album Humanary Stew: A Tribute to Alice Cooper Etta James on her 1999 album Heart of a Woman Tori Amos as a B-side to her 2001 single "Strange Little Girl" Luna B-side on the Lovedust single 2002 The Chris Farlowe Band on his 2004 album Rock N Roll Soldier Wednesday on her 2007 Album Torch Rock and a video based on her performance at Alice Cooper's 2006 Christmas Pudding Benefit Madeleine Martin for 2007 Californication Tina Arena on her 2008 album Songs of Love & Loss II Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Juan Álvarez was a judge and historian born in Gualeguaychú, province of Entre Ríos, Argentina. Álvarez was born at a time of massive immigration in Argentina. His father, Serafín Álvarez, was an exiled Republican Spaniard, he studied at the Faculty of Law in Buenos Aires. His doctoral thesis was evaluated by Bartolomé Mitre. Since 1902, he worked at the Tribunals of Rosario, as a secretary, attorney and judge, he lived most of his life in this dynamic and growing city of the province of Santa Fe, made friends within the professional and business elite, as well as firm links with other Argentine intellectuals. He was of a liberal mindset, opposed to the tendency to worship tradition, his first books argued that the roots of a nationality should not be sought in the old times, but in the future. This topic was relevant due to the wave of nationalistic pride sweeping Argentina near the centennial of its liberation from Spain. In his Essay on the history of Santa Fe he went as far as claiming that Argentine history is nonexistent before 1853.
In 1913, Álvarez founded a public library in Rosario. This library, the largest in the city, carries at present the name of Biblioteca Argentina Dr. Juan Álvarez. In 1914, Álvarez wrote about the civil wars of Argentina from an economic point of view, explicitly looking to prevent similar wars in the future. World War I and the Russian Revolution of 1917 affected his liberal mindset, which led him to write a criticism of liberalism and its limitations. Similar crises came after the Sáenz Peña Law of secret and compulsory suffrage and the conservative revolution of 1930. Álvarez turned towards conservatism, unsure about the new developments in the relationship between citizens and the state. In 1943, he wrote Historia de Rosario, like other works that deal with the interaction of geography and politics, is considered a seminal work, which introduces the concept of the city as a subject matter, starting from its local identity, without a forced reference to national matters, his thesis about the asymmetric relationships between his adopted home town and the capital city of Santa Fe, opposes the dynamism of the former and the bureaucratic tradition of the latter.
This idea is still considered valid and continues to re-emerge in popular and intellectual discourse today. Álvarez was the Attorney General of the Nation between 1935 and 1946. He died in Rosario in 1954. News and comments at the online edition of La Capital newspaper of Rosario, 4 April 2004
Bonita Norris from Wokingham, England, was the youngest British woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest at the age of 22 from May 2010 until May 2012, when her record was broken by Leanna Shuttleworth, aged 19. In 2012, Bonita returned to the Himalayas for her fifth expedition, to attempt Mt. Lhotse, the world's fourth highest mountain, she summited on 28 May 2012, becoming the first British woman to do so. Mt. Manaslu, 8153m Mt. Everest, 8848m Last degree ski expedition to the geographic North Pole Mt. Ama Dablam, 6812m Mt. Imja Tse, 6189m Mt. Lhotse, 8450m Norris is a patron for the White Lodge Disability Centre in Chertsey, Surrey. In both 2011 and 2012, she led charity fund-raising teams to the summit of Kilimanjaro and has been asked to lead two more charity trips in 2013. During her Everest expedition, she raised £10,000 for the Global Angels Foundation and during her North Pole ski, £5,000 for the Forces Children's Trust, she subsequently presented television coverage of the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series on Dave.
She attended The Holt School, located in Wokingham, England. She went on to study at Royal Holloway, University of London, graduating in 2009 with a BA Media Arts. Leanna Shuttleworth Mount Everest Bonita Norris Interview
William Corwin Stuart was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa and a justice of the Iowa Supreme Court. Born in Knoxville, Stuart received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Iowa in 1941, a Juris Doctor from the University of Iowa College of Law in 1942, he was a Lieutenant in the United States Naval Air Corps during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. He was in private practice in Chariton, Iowa from 1946 to 1962, serving as a city attorney of Chariton from 1947 to 1949, he was a member of the Iowa Senate from 1953 to 1961. He became a justice of the Iowa Supreme Court on October 15, 1962, serving until he resigned November 8, 1971, following his appointment to the federal bench. On October 13, 1971, Stuart was nominated by President Richard Nixon to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa vacated by Judge Roy Laverne Stephenson. Stuart was confirmed by the United States Senate on October 28, 1971, received his commission on November 1, 1971.
He served as Chief Judge from 1977 to 1985, assuming senior status on April 30, 1986. Stuart died in Chariton on August 12, 2010 at the age of 90. William Corwin Stuart at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Iowa Judicial Branch Past Iowa Supreme Court Justices page for William Corwin Stuart