The Knesset is the unicameral national legislature of Israel. As the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset passes all laws, elects the President and Prime Minister, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government. In addition, the Knesset elects the State Comptroller, it has the power to waive the immunity of its members, remove the President and the State Comptroller from office, dissolve the government in a constructive vote of no confidence, to dissolve itself and call new elections. The Prime Minister may dissolve the Knesset. However, until an election is completed, the Knesset maintains authority in its current composition; the Knesset is located in Western Jerusalem. The Knesset was temporarily dissolved on 30 May 2019; the Knesset returned on 3 October 2019 following the swearing in of new members, though it was dissolved on 12 December 2019. The term "Knesset" is derived from the ancient Knesset HaGdola or "Great Assembly", which according to Jewish tradition was an assembly of 120 scribes and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets to the time of the development of Rabbinic Judaism – about two centuries ending c. 200 BCE.
There is, however, no organisational continuity and – aside from the number of members – little similarity, as the ancient Knesset was a religious unelected body. Members of the Knesset are known in Hebrew as חֲבֵר הַכְּנֶסֶת, if male, or חַבְרַת הַכְּנֶסֶת, if female; as the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset passes all laws, elects the president, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government through its committees. It has the power to waive the immunity of its members, remove the President and the State Comptroller from office, to dissolve itself and call new elections; the Knesset has de jure parliamentary supremacy, can pass any law by a simple majority one that might arguably conflict with the Basic Laws of Israel, unless the basic law includes specific conditions for its modification. In addition to the absence of a formal constitution, with no Basic Law thus far being adopted which formally grants a power of judicial review to the judiciary, the Supreme Court of Israel has since the early 1990s asserted its authority, when sitting as the High Court of Justice, to invalidate provisions of Knesset laws it has found to be inconsistent with a Basic Law.
The Knesset is presided over by a Deputy Speaker. The Knesset is divided into committees. Committee chairpersons are chosen by their members, on recommendation of the House Committee, their factional composition represents that of the Knesset itself. Committees may elect sub-committees and delegate powers to them, or establish joint committees for issues concerning more than one committee. To further their deliberations, they invite government ministers, senior officials, experts in the matter being discussed. Committees may request explanation and information from any relevant ministers in any matter within their competence, the ministers or persons appointed by them must provide the explanation or information requested. There are four types of committees in the Knesset. Permanent committees amend proposed legislation dealing with their area of expertise, may initiate legislation. However, such legislation may only deal with Basic Laws and laws dealing with the Knesset, elections to the Knesset, Knesset members, or the State Comptroller.
Special committees function in a similar manner to permanent committees, but are appointed to deal with particular manners at hand, can be dissolved or turned into permanent committees. Parliamentary inquiry committees are appointed by the plenum to deal with issues viewed as having special national importance. In addition, there are two types of committees that convene only when needed: the Interpretations Committee, made up of the Speaker and eight members chosen by the House Committee, deals with appeals against the interpretation given by the Speaker during a sitting of the plenum to the Knesset rules of procedure or precedents, Public Committees, established to deal with issues that are connected to the Knesset. Permanent committees: House Committee Finance Committee Economic Affairs Committee Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee Interior and Environment Committee Immigration and Diaspora Affairs Committee Education and Sports Committee Constitution and Justice Committee Labour and Health Committee Science and Technology Committee State Control Committee Committee on the Status of WomenSpecial committees: Committee on Drug Abuse Committee on the Rights of the Child Committee on Foreign Workers Israeli Central Elections Committee Public Petitions CommitteeThe other committees are the Arrangements Committee and the Ethics Committee.
The Ethics Committee is responsible for jurisdiction over Knesset members who violate the rules of ethics of the Knesset, or involved in illegal activities outside the Knesset. Within the framework of responsibility, the Ethics Committee may place various sanctions on a member, but is not allowed to restrict a members' right to vote; the Arrangements Committee proposes the makeup of the permanent committees following each election, as well as suggesting committee chairs, lays down the sitting arrangements of political parties in the Knesset, the distribution of rooms in the Knesset building to members
Doramaria Purschian was a German artist known for her Expressionist landscapes, still lifes, portraits. She was born Ella Margaretha Maria Dora Purschian in Berlin, the daughter of Ernst Purschian, an engineer, Gabriela Purschian, she studied art at the Royal School of Art in Berlin, becoming one of the first women to complete an apprenticeship in the fine arts. In 1909, she passed an exam to become a drawing teacher, she continued studying for several more years as a student of Fritz Bürger. During World War I, she served as a Red Cross nurse. Following the war, she pursued an independent career as a painter until 1930, specializing in portraits, she made drawings and at least one etching. When her brother Frank died in 1939, she took over management of his company. In 1949, during the Berlin Blockade, she was the victim of a brutal robbery by the Gladow gang led by Werner Gladow, she never recovered her health after this. After World War II, her work was exhibited more and consistently, she earned an honorable mention at the 2nd Exhibition of European Painters in the United States and was appointed an honorary member of the Academy of Arts in Rome.
She died in Berlin. A solo exhibition was mounted in Berlin in 1981; this page is in part a translation from de:Doramaria Purschian. Sources listed on that page include: Reichskammer der bildenden Künste - Landesleitung Berlin. Landesarchiv Berlin A Rep. 243-04, p. 306. Käthe, Paula und der ganze Rest. Künstlerinnenlexikon. Berlin: Verein der Berliner Künstlerinnen, 1992, p. 132. ISBN 3891814119. Katalog zur Ausstellung "Fortsetzung folgt! 150 Jahre Verein der Berliner Künstlerinnen". Berlin: Vice Versa Verlag, 2017, pp. 120–21. ISBN 978-3-932809-81-1. Photo of Doramaria Purschian
The northern madtom is a freshwater fish. N. stigmosus can be found in the Ohio River valley stretching into distinct locations in Canada, where it is considered endangered. It is a rare species with little data available because such small numbers are observed; the northern madtom prefers habitats with swift currents along with sand, silt, or rocky substrates. The species begins spawning around 23 °C, sometime in early summer throughout its range, it builds its nests under large rocks and logs. Presently, not much is known about the ecology or life history of this species because it is found in such small numbers throughout its range; the species can survive in waters with some turbidity, but not in waters with a high amount of sediment pollution. One of the leading management actions aiding in the successful reproduction of this species is keeping the waters void of sediment pollution and habitat alterations; the northern madtom is found along the Allegheny River system running from Canada through the Northeastern United States to Tennessee.
However, over much of its range, the species is found in only a few streams/creeks in each state. In Canada, the species is confined to only four distinct locations: St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, Thames River, Detroit River; the population status of these four locations has been classified as poor by Fisheries and Oceans Canada. In Pennsylvania, the northern madtom is only found in one creek on the far western edge of the state; because of this restricted distribution across most of its range, the species has been labeled as critically imperiled. In Tennessee, the species is classified as vulnerable, instead. However, the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency places the northern madtom on the "Wildlife in Need of Management Proclamation" list; the sporadic distribution of the species across its range suggests that the northern madtom has specific habitat requirements, so is vulnerable to habitat alterations. The diet of the northern madtom consists of small invertebrates. However, because the species is found in such small numbers, no real evidence supports the specifics of their diet.
Little is known as to the quantity of what the northern madtom eats. The northern madtom is found in different habitats throughout its range. In the northern extent of its distribution, the species is found more in larger rivers and in a few lentic environments such as Lake St. Clair. However, in the lower most stretches of its range, such as in Tennessee, the species is more common in small creeks and streams with a somewhat moderate current. Across all regions, the species tends to prefer habitat with gravel, or rock substrates; the species avoids areas of high siltation. The northern madtom shares its habitat with several similar species ranging from the similar mountain madtom to some invasive species, which create competition for both food and resources. However, not much is known about the specifics of the effect of this competition on the northern madtoms because they are found in such small numbers. Both sexes of N. stigmosus come into reproductive condition in early summer. However, spawning does not take place until the water temperature reaches 23 °C.
The species is thought to produce only one clutch per year with an average clutch size of 32 to 160 eggs. The wide range of clutch size can be caused by females laying eggs in multiple nests; the northern madtom is a cavity-nesting species. Their nests have been found inside anthropogenic debris such as bottles and boxes. Males guard the eggs, when the eggs hatch, the adult males continue to guard them for around one month. In Canada, the juveniles are found in areas with a water temperature between 19.5 and 28 °C, a pH of 8.03 to 8.47, a dissolved oxygen content between 6.0 and 10.05, a depth between 0.06 and 0.90 meters, a near bottom velocity between 0 and 0.55 meters per second. Although this sounds like specific data, the many species fall into this data set, little is known about the specifics of the northern madtom's life history. Noturus stigmosus is listed as "vulnerable" on the federal level. However, throughout the majority of its distribution in the northern region, many states have it classified as "critically imperiled".
The reason for this is small numbers associated with the species. These characteristics show that the northern madtom has specific habitat parameters is very sensitive to habitat alterations. One of the main causes for the decline of the northern madtom is loss of suitable habitat. Several factors contribute to this, ranging from the changing of the landscape for anthropogenic purposes to the building of small dams in the creeks where the species occurs. Increases in the amount of stream siltation are believed to have negative impacts on the species; because so little information is available regarding the habitat requirements and life history strategies of N. stigmosus, little to no management is occurring that targets the species. The current management practices consist of attempting to conserve the species natural habitat through maintaining stream flow, avoiding bank erosion and soil deposition, altering stream bank habitat. Individual counts are conducted via trapping. However, because the species is so rare in the northern portion of its range, not much is learned from these collections