National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa
The International Basketball Federation, more known as FIBA, from its French name Fédération internationale de basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs the sport of basketball worldwide. Known as the Fédération internationale de basket-ball amateur, in 1989 it dropped the word amateur from its name but retained the acronym. FIBA defines the rules of basketball, specifies the equipment and facilities required, organises international competitions, regulates the transfer of athletes across countries, controls the appointment of international referees. A total of 213 national federations are now members, organized since 1989 into five zones: Africa, Asia and Oceania; the FIBA Basketball World Cup is a world tournament for men's national teams held every four years. Teams compete for the Naismith Trophy, named in honor of basketball's Canadian creator James Naismith; the tournament structure is similar but not identical to that of the FIFA World Cup in football. A parallel event for women's teams, the FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup, is held quadrennially.
The women's tournament will continue to be held in the same year as the FIFA World Cup. In 2009 FIBA announced three new tournaments: two 12-team U-17 World Championships to be played in July 2010, an eight-team FIBA World Club Championship to be launched in October 2010. However, the FIBA World Club Championship did not materialize. In its place, FIBA instead relaunched its original world club championship for men, the FIBA Intercontinental Cup, in 2013; the newest global FIBA tournaments for national teams are in the three-player half-court variation, 3x3. The FIBA 3x3 U-18 World Championships were inaugurated in 2011, the FIBA 3x3 World Championships for senior teams followed a year later. All events included separate tournaments for men's, women's, mixed teams, but mixed championships are no longer contested; the U-18 championships, held annually, feature 32 teams in each individual tournament. The senior championships have 24 teams in each individual tournament, are held in even-numbered years.
The association was founded in Geneva in 1932, two years after the sport was recognized by the IOC. Its original name was Fédération internationale de basket-ball amateur. Eight nations were founding members: Argentina, Greece, Latvia, Portugal and Switzerland. During the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, the Federation named James Naismith, the founder of basketball, as its Honorary President. FIBA has organized a World Championship, now known as World Cup, for men since 1950 and a Women's World Championship, now known as the Women's World Cup, since 1953. From 1986 through 2014, both events were held every four years; as noted above, the men's World Cup will be moved to a new four-year cycle, with tournaments in the year before the Summer Olympics, after 2014. The Federation headquarters moved to Munich in 1956 returned to Geneva in 2002. In 1991, it founded the FIBA Hall of Fame. During its 81st anniversary in 2013, FIBA moved into its new headquarters, "The House of Basketball", at Mies.
Andreas Zagklis is the current Secretary General of FIBA. The Youth Olympic Games are an U-19 event, played in FIBA 3x3 format. FIBA Oceania no longer conducts senior-level championships for either sex. Since 2017, that region's members have competed for FIBA Asia senior championships. FIBA Oceania continues to hold age-grade championships. #1 men's team: United States #1 women's team: United States #1 boys' team: United States #1 girls' team: United States #1 combined ranking: United States Beijing Enterprises Group Company Limited Molten Tencent Wanda Group Nike, Inc. TCL Corporation Tissot Official website History of amateur and professional basketball in Canada at Frozen Hoops InterBasket – International Basketball News and Forum, covering FIBA, Euroleague, NBA FIBA at the Wayback Machine
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use
The key referred to as the free throw lane by the National Basketball Association, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, the restricted area by the international governing body FIBA, colloquially as the lane or the paint, is a marked area on a basketball court surrounding the basket. It is bounded by the endline, the free-throw line and two side lines, painted in a distinctive color, it is a crucial area on the court. Dimensions of the key area have varied through the history of the game. Since the 2010 FIBA rule amendments, its shape is rectangular for games sanctioned by all three associations, 16 feet wide for both NBA and FIBA keys, 12 feet for NCAA and NAIA keys. Prior to 2006, the key in FIBA-sanctioned tournaments was a trapezoidal shape; the most-commonly enforced rule on the key is the "three seconds rule" in which the team of a player on offense who stays on the key for more than three seconds loses possession of the ball.
Another rule is the lane violation which occurs if a player from either team enters the key before a free-throw shooter releases the ball in the act of shooting. A recent innovation is the introduction of the restricted area arc directly underneath the basket where the defending player cannot force an offensive foul on the opposing player; each level of play has different specifications for the size and shape of the key: in American leagues, where the basketball court is measured in US units, the shape is rectangular, while in FIBA-sanctioned events, which use the metric system, the shape was trapezoidal before being changed to a rectangle as well. In addition to the bounding rectangle, the key includes a free-throw circle at its top; the width of the key in the NBA is 16 feet. S. college and high school play, it is 12 feet. Beginning after the 2010 FIBA World Championship, all FIBA-administered tournaments use a rectangular key 4.9 meters wide. From 1956 until 2010, FIBA-sanctioned tournaments used a trapezoidal key.
The narrower end was on the free-throw line, where it was 3.6 meters, while the wider end, at the end line, measured 6 meters. The free throw circle has a 6-foot radius centered at the midpoint of the free throw line; the half-circle on the mid-court side of the free throw line is painted solid. In the NBA and ULEB, the boundary of the half closer to the basket is traced in a broken line in order to space players properly for jump balls. NBA Rule 1 requires the key to contain two 6-inch long hash marks, 3 feet from the free throw line; the free throw line is 15 feet from the perpendicular projection of the face of the backboard onto the court. The projection of the center of the basket onto the court is a perpendicular distance of 1.575 meters from the end line in FIBA tournaments, but 5.25 feet in NBA and NCAA or NAIA tournaments. The key was narrower and was shaped like a keyhole, measuring six feet wide, hence its name "the key", with the free-throw circle as the head, the shaded lane as the body.
It has been called "cup" or "bottle" in other languages, because of how it looks from other perspectives. Due to the narrow key, imposing centers, such as George Mikan, dominated scoring at will. To counter this, the key was widened into 12 feet from 6 feet at the onset of the 1951–52 NBA season. Men's professional basketball in the United States widened it further to 16 feet in the 1964–65 NBA season to reduce the effectiveness of dominant centers Wilt Chamberlain; the NCAA and NAIA retain the 12‑foot key to this day. On April 25, 2008, the FIBA Central Board approved rule changes, it is now rectangular and has the same dimensions as the key used in the NBA. In addition, the no-charge semicircle formally called the restricted area arc was created; the change took effect in 2010. The lane is a restricted area. At all levels of play, after three seconds the player is assessed a three-second violation which results in a turnover. In FIBA-sanctioned tournaments, defending team players are allowed to stay in the key with no time limit.
In American professional basketball, defending team players are prohibited from staying in the key for more than three seconds, unless the player is directly guarding an offensive player. Otherwise if a defender exceeds that time, the defending team is charged with a defensive three-second violation, which results in a technical foul where the team with the ball is awarded one free throw, plus retaining possession and a reset of the shot clock. In all cases, the clock resets if the player steps out of the lane; when a player is shooting free throws, a certain number of players are allowed at the boundaries of the key, each occupying a slot traced at the boundaries of the key. The free throw shooter is behind the free throw line, in most leagues three of his opponents are along the sides of the key, one side with two players, the other with one. Two of his opponents are situated nearest to the basket on both sides, while his two teammates are beside the two opponents closest to the basket, with the other player from the opposing team situated farthest from the basket.
In the U. S. NCAA and NAIA, there are as many as six players along the key, wit
History of basketball
The history of basketball began with its invention in 1891 in Springfield, Massachusetts by Canadian physical education instructor James Naismith as a less injury-prone sport than football. The game became established quickly and grew popular as the 20th century progressed, first in America and in other parts of the world. After basketball became established in American colleges, the professional game followed; the American National Basketball Association, established in 1946, grew to a multibillion-dollar enterprise by the end of the century, basketball became an integral part of American culture. The game of basketball as it is known today was created by Dr. James Naismith in December 1891 in Springfield, Massachusetts, to condition young athletes during cold months, it consisted of a soccer style ball. He published 13 rules for the new game, he divided his class of eighteen into two teams of nine players each and set about to teach them the basics of his new game. The objective of the game was to throw the basketball into the fruit baskets nailed to the lower railing of the gym balcony.
Every time a point was scored, the game was halted so the janitor could bring out a ladder and retrieve the ball. After a while, the bottoms of the fruit baskets were removed; the first public basketball game was played in Springfield, Massachusetts, on March 11, 1892. There were only thirteen rules of "basket ball": The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands; the ball may be batted in any direction with both hands. A player cannot run with the ball, the player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man who catches the ball when running at good speed; the ball must be held in or between the hands, the arms or body must not be used for holding it. No shouldering, pushing, tripping or striking in any way the person of an opponent shall be allowed; the first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul, the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made, or if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game, no substitute.
A foul is striking the ball with the fist, violation of rules 3 and 4, such as described in rule 5. If either side makes three consecutive fouls it shall count a goal for opponents. A goal shall be made when the ball is batted from grounds into the basket and stays there. If the ball rests on the edge and the opponent moves the basket it shall count as a goal; when the ball goes out of bounds it shall be thrown into the field and played by the person first touching it. In case of a dispute, the umpire shall throw it straight into the field; the "thrower-in" is allowed five seconds. If he holds it longer it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them; the umpire shall be the judge of the men and shall note the fouls, notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. The referee shall be the judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play, in-bounds, to which side it belongs, shall keep the time, he shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are performed by a referee.
The time shall be fifteen-minute halves, with five-minute rests between. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner. In the case of a draw, the game may, by agreement of the captains, be continued until another goal is made. On December 21, 1891, James Naismith published rules for a new game using five basic ideas and thirteen rules; that day, he asked his class to play a match in the Armory Street court: 9 versus 9, using a soccer ball and two peach baskets. Frank Mahan, one of his students, wasn’t so happy, he just said: "Harrumph. Another new game". However, Naismith was the inventor of the new game. Someone proposed to call it "Naismith Game", but he suggested "We have a ball and a basket: why don’t we call it basketball?" The eighteen players were John G. Thompson, Eugene S. Libby, Edwin P. Ruggles, William R. Chase, T. Duncan Patton, Frank Mahan, Finlay G. MacDonald, William H. Davis and Lyman Archibald, who defeated George Weller, Wilbert Carey, Ernest Hildner, Raymond Kaighn, Genzabaro Ishikawa, Benjamin S. French, Franklin Barnes, George Day and Henry Gelan 1–0.
The goal was scored by Chase. There were the game played today; the peach baskets were closed, balls had to be retrieved manually, until a small hole was put in the bottom of the peach basket to poke the ball out using a stick. Only in 1906 were metal hoops and backboards introduced. Moreover, earlier the soccer ball was replaced by a Spalding ball, similar to the one used today; the YMCA had a major role in spreading basketball throughout the United States and the world. In 1893, Mel Rideout arranged the first European match in Montmartre. At the same time, Bob Gailey went to Tientsin, Duncan Patton to India, Genzabaro Ishikawa to Japan, C. Hareek to Persia; the First World War broke out in 1914, the U. S. Army started fighting in Europe in 1917. During World War I, the American Expeditionary Force took basketball. Together with the troops, there were hundreds of physical education teachers. Naismith spent two years with the YMCA in France in that period; the first professional league was founded in 1898.
Six teams took part in the National Basketball League, the first champions were the Trenton Nationals, followed by the New York Wanderers, the Bristol Pile Drivers and the Camden Electrics. The league was abandoned in 1904. Many small championships were organized, but most of them were not as important as some teams who played for money agai
James Naismith was a Canadian physical educator, Christian chaplain, sports coach, innovator. He invented the game of basketball at age 30 in 1891, he founded the University of Kansas basketball program. Naismith lived to see basketball adopted as an Olympic demonstration sport in 1904 and as an official event at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, as well as the birth of the National Invitation Tournament and the NCAA Tournament. Born and raised on a farm near Almonte, Naismith studied physical education at Montreal’s McGill University before moving to the United States, where he designed the game of basketball in late 1891 while teaching at the International YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts. Seven years after inventing basketball, Naismith received his medical degree in Denver in 1898, he arrived at the University of Kansas becoming the Kansas Jayhawks' athletic director and coach. While a coach at Kansas, Naismith coached Phog Allen, who became the coach at Kansas for 39 seasons, beginning a lengthy and prestigious coaching tree.
Allen went on to coach legends including Adolph Rupp and Dean Smith, among others, who themselves coached many notable players and future coaches. Despite coaching his final season in 1907, Naismith is still the only coach in Kansas men's basketball history with a losing record. Naismith was born on November 1861, in Almonte, Canada West to Scottish immigrants, he never never signed his name with the "A" initial. The "A" was added by someone in the administration at the University of Kansas. Struggling in school but gifted in farm labour, Naismith spent his days outside playing catch, hide-and-seek, or duck on a rock, a medieval game in which a person guards a large drake stone from opposing players, who try to knock it down by throwing smaller stones at it. To play duck on a rock most Naismith soon found that a soft lobbing shot was far more effective than a straight hard throw, a thought that proved essential for the invention of basketball. Orphaned early in his life, Naismith lived with his aunt and uncle for many years and attended grade school at Bennies Corners near Almonte.
He enrolled in Almonte High School, in Almonte, from which he graduated in 1883. In the same year, Naismith entered McGill University in Montreal. Although described as a slight figure, standing 5 ft 10 ½ in and listed at 178 lb, he was a talented and versatile athlete, representing McGill in Canadian football, rugby and gymnastics, he played centre on the football team, made himself some padding to protect his ears. It was for personal use, not team use, he won multiple Wicksteed medals for outstanding gymnastics performances. Naismith earned a BA in a diploma at the Presbyterian College in Montreal. From 1891 on, Naismith taught physical education and became the first McGill director of athletics, but left Montreal to become a physical education teacher at the YMCA International Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts. At the Springfield YMCA, Naismith struggled with a rowdy class, confined to indoor games throughout the harsh New England winter, thus was perpetually short-tempered. Under orders from Dr. Luther Gulick, head of physical education there, Naismith was given 14 days to create an indoor game that would provide an "athletic distraction".
Firstly, he analyzed the most popular games of those times. Secondly, he saw that most physical contact occurred while running with the ball, dribbling or hitting it, so he decided that passing was the only legal option. Naismith further reduced body contact by making the goal unguardable, namely placing it high above the player's heads. To score goals, he forced the players to throw a soft, lobbing shot that had proven effective in his old favorite game duck on a rock. Naismith put his thoughts together in 13 basic rules; the first game of "Basket Ball" was played in December 1891. In a handwritten report, Naismith described the circumstances of the inaugural match; this was about 10 feet from one at each end of the gymnasium. I put the 13 rules on the bulletin board just behind the instructor's platform, secured a soccer ball, awaited the arrival of the class... The class did not show much enthusiasm, but followed my lead... I explained what they had to do to make goals, tossed the ball up between the two center men and tried to keep them somewhat near the rules.
Most of the fouls were called for running with the ball, though tackling the man with the ball was not uncommon." In contrast to modern basketball, the original rules did not include what is known today as the dribble. Since the ball could only be moved up the court by a pass early players tossed the ball over their heads as they ran up court. Following each "goal", a jump ball was taken in the middle of the court. Both practices are obsol
In basketball, free throws or foul shots are unopposed attempts to score points by shooting from behind the free throw line, a line situated at the end of the restricted area. Free throws are awarded after a foul on the shooter by the opposing team; each successful free throw is worth one point. Free throws can be shot at a high percentage by good players. In the NBA, most players make 70–80% of their attempts; the league's best shooters can make 90% of their attempts over a season, while notoriously poor shooters may struggle to make 50% of them. During a foul shot, a player's feet must both be behind the foul line. If a player lines up with part of his or her foot on or forward of the line, a violation is called and the shot does not count. Foul shots are worth one point. There are many situations; the first and most common is. If the player misses the shot during the foul, the player receives either two or three free throws depending on whether the shot was taken in front of or behind the three-point line.
If, despite the foul, the player still makes the attempted shot, the number of free throws is reduced to one, the basket counts. This is known depending on the value of the made basket; the second is. This happens when, in a single period, a team commits a set number of fouls whether or not in the act of shooting. In FIBA, NBA and NCAA women's play, the limit is four fouls per quarter. In the WNBA, the fouled player shoots two free throws starting with the opponent's fifth foul, or second team foul in the final minute if that team has committed under 5 fouls in a period. In FIBA and NCAA women's basketball, the fouled player shoots two free throws starting with the opponent's fifth foul in a period, considering that team fouls accrue from the fourth period on, as all overtimes are extensions of it for purposes of accrued team fouls. In NCAA men's basketball, beginning with the seventh foul of the half, one free throw is awarded; this is called shooting a "one-and-one". Starting with the tenth foul of the half, two free throws are awarded.
In addition, overtime is considered an extension of the second half for purposes of accumulated team fouls. Free throws are not awarded for offensive fouls if the team fouled is in the bonus; the number of fouls that triggers a penalty is higher in college men's basketball because the game is divided into two 20-minute halves, as opposed to quarters of 12 minutes in the NBA or 10 minutes in the WNBA, college women's basketball, or FIBA play. As in professional play, a foul in the act of shooting is a two- or three-shot foul, depending on the value of the shot attempt, with one free throw being awarded if the shot is good. If a player is injured upon being fouled and cannot shoot free throws, the offensive team may designate any player from the bench to shoot in the place of the injured player in college. If a player fouled takes exception to the foul, starts or participates in a fight, gets ejected, he or she is not allowed to take his or her free throws, the opposing team will choose a replacement shooter.
In all other circumstances, the fouled player must shoot her own foul shots. If a player, coach, or team staff shows poor sportsmanship, which may include arguing with a referee, or commits a technical violation that person may get charged with a more serious foul called a technical foul. In the NBA, a technical foul results in one free throw attempt for the other team. In FIBA play, technical fouls result in two free throws in all situations. Under NCAA rules, technical fouls are divided into "Class A" and "Class B". Class A technicals result in two free throws, Class B technicals result in one. At all levels, the opposing team may choose any player, on the court to shoot the free throws, is awarded possession of the ball after the free throws. Since there is no opportunity for a rebound, these free throws are shot with no players on the lane. If a referee deems a foul aggressive, or that it did not show an attempt to play the ball, the referee can call an more severe foul, known as an "unsportsmanlike foul" in international play or a "flagrant foul" in the NBA and NCAA basketball.
This foul is charged against the player, the opponent gets two free throws and possession of t