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Basra

Basra is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab. It had an estimated population of 2.5 million in 2012. Basra is Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, handled at the port of Umm Qasr; the city is one of the ports. It played an important role in early Islamic history and was built in 636. Basra is one of the hottest cities in Iraq, with summer temperatures exceeding 50 °C. In April 2017, the Iraqi Parliament recognized Basra as Iraq's economic capital; the city was called by many names throughout Basrah being the most common. In Arabic the word baṣrah means "the overwatcher," which might have been an allusion to the city's origin as an Arab military base against the Sassanids. Others have argued that the name is derived from the Aramaic word basratha, meaning "place of huts, settlement." The city was founded at the beginning of the Islamic era in 636 and began as a garrison encampment for Arab tribesmen constituting the armies of the Rashid Caliph Umar. A tell a few kilometres south of the present city, still marks the original site, a military site.

While defeating the forces of the Sassanid Empire there, the Muslim commander Utbah ibn Ghazwan erected his camp on the site of an old Persian military settlement called Vaheštābād Ardašīr, destroyed by the Arabs. The name Al-Basrah, which in Arabic means "the over watching" or "the seeing everything," was given to it because of its role as a military base against the Sassanid Empire. However, other sources claim the name originates from the Persian word Bas-rāh or Bassorāh meaning "where many ways come together."In 639 Umar established this encampment as a city with five districts, appointed Abu Musa al-Ash'ari as its first governor. The city was built in a circular plan according to the Partho-Sasanian architecture. Abu Musa led the conquest of Khuzestan from 639 to 642 and was ordered by Umar to aid Uthman ibn Abi al-As fighting Iran from a new, more easterly miṣr at Tawwaj. In 650, the Rashidun Caliph Uthman reorganised the Persian frontier, installed ʿAbdullah ibn Amir as Basra's governor, put the military's southern wing under Basra's control.

Ibn Amir led his forces to their final victory over the Sassanid King of Kings. In 656, Uthman was murdered and Ali was appointed Caliph. Ali first installed Uthman ibn Hanif as Basra's governor, followed by ʿAbdullah ibn ʿAbbas; these men held the city for Ali until the latter's death in 661. The Sufyanids held Basra until Yazid I's death in 683; the Sufyanids' first governor was Umayyad ʿAbdullah, a renowned military leader, commanding fealty and financial demands from Karballah, but poor governor. In 664, Muʿawiyah I replaced him with Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan called "ibn Abihi", who became infamous for his draconian rules regarding public order. On Ziyad's death in 673, his son ʿUbaydullah. In 680, Yazid I ordered ʿUbaydullah to keep order in Kufa as a reaction to Hussein ibn Ali's popularity as the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ʿUbaydullah took over the control of Kufa. Hussein sent his cousin as an ambassador to the people of Kufa, but ʿUbaydullah executed Hussein's cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel amid fears of an uprising.

ʿUbaydullah amassed an army of thousands of soldiers and fought Hussein's army of 70 in a place called Karbala near Kufa. ʿUbaydullah's army was victorious. Ibn al-Harith spent his year in office trying to put down Nafi' ibn al-Azraq's Kharijite uprising in Khuzestan. In 685, Ibn al-Zubayr, requiring a practical ruler, appointed Umar ibn Ubayd Allah ibn Ma'mar Finally, Ibn al-Zubayr appointed his own brother Mus'ab. In 686, the revolutionary al-Mukhtar led an insurrection at Kufa, put an end to ʿUbaydullah ibn Ziyad near Mosul. In 687, Musʿab defeated al-Mukhtar with the help of Kufans. Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan reconquered Basra in 691, Basra remained loyal to his governor al-Hajjaj during Ibn Ashʿath's mutiny. However, Basra did support the rebellion of Yazid ibn al-Muhallab against Yazid II during the 720s. In the 740s, Basra fell to as-Saffah of the Abbasid Caliphate. During the time of the Abbasids, Basra became an intellectual centre and home to the elite Basra School of Grammar, the rival and sister school of the Kufa School of Grammar.

Several outstanding intellectuals of the age were Basrans. The Zanj Rebellion by the agricultural slaves of the lowlands affected the area. In 871, the Zanj sacked Basra. In 923, the Qarmatians, an extremist Muslim sect and devastated Basra. From 945 to 1055, a Buyid dynasty ruled most of Iraq. Abu al Qasim al-Baridis, who still controlled Basra and Wasit, were defeated and their lands taken by the Buyids in 947. Adud al-Dawla and his sons Diya' al-Dawla and Samsam al-Dawla were the Buyid rulers of Basra during the 970s, 980s and 990s. Sanad al-Dawla al-Habashi, the brother of the Emir of Iraq Izz al-Dawla, was governor of Basra and built a library of 15,000 books; the Oghuz Turk Tughril Beg was the leader of the Seljuks. He was the first Seljuk ruler to style himself Protector of the Abbasid Caliphate; the Great Friday Mosque was constructed in Basra. In 1122, Imad ad-Din Zengi received Basra as a fief. In 1126, Zengi suppressed a revolt and in 1129, Dabis looted the Basra state treasury. A 1200 map "on the eve of the Mongol invasions" shows the Abbasid Caliphate as ruling lower Iraq and Basra.

The Assassin Rashid-ad-Din-Sinan was

Rishabhapriya

Rishabhapriya is a rāgam in Carnatic music. It is the 62nd melakarta rāgam in the 72 melakarta rāgam system of Carnatic music, it is the prati madhyamam equivalent of Charukesi, the 26th melakarta. It is called Ratipriya in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music, it is the 2nd rāgam in the 11th chakra Rudra. The mnemonic name is Rudra-Sri; the mnemonic phrase is sa ri gu mi pa dha ni. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows: ārohaṇa: S R₂ G₃ M₂ P D₁ N₂ Ṡ avarohaṇa: Ṡ N₂ D₁ P M₂ G₃ R₂ SThis scale uses the notes chathusruthi rishabham, antara gandharam, prati madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham and kaisiki nishadham; as it is a melakarta rāgam, by definition it is a sampoorna rāgam. A few minor janya rāgams are associated with Rishabhapriya. See List of janya rāgams for all associated scales of Rishabhapriya and other 71 melakarta rāgams. A few compositions which are set to Rishabhapriya are: Ghana naya desika by Koteeswara Iyer Maara ratipriyam by Muthuswami Dikshitar Nandisam vande by Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna Inta sodhanamulaku by Veene Sheshanna Mahima dakkinchu by Thyagaraja Panniru Kaiyane by D. pattamal This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāgam.

Rishabhapriya's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam from the panchamam, yields one other melakarta rāgam, namely Kokilapriya. Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rāgam. "Rishabhapriya" and "Kokilapriya" are the only melakarta rāgams to contain a wholetone scale. Omitting Pa in "Rishabhapriya" and Sa in "Kokilapriya" yields the scale. For further details and an illustration refer Graha bhedam on Kokilapriya. GOPRIYA is a janya raga created by omitting panchamam in the aarohanam and avarohanam is special in that doing Grahabhedam on it generates the same raga itself over and over; this is because the notes are separated in frequency...source is a lec-dem by S. Soumya in Margazhi Maha Utsavam in January 2017. In western classical music terminology, this is called a Whole Tone Scale

Ruddy treeshrew

The ruddy treeshrew is a treeshrew species in the family Tupaiidae. It is endemic to the Natuna Islands and the Anambas Islands; the ruddy treeshrew occurs in the forests of Indonesia. It lives at lower elevations. Although listed as Least Concern, the ruddy treeshrew is still threatened by habitat loss, due to causes such as logging. Due to this, its population is decreasing; the ruddy treeshrew has 5 subspecies distributed throughout Indonesia: T. splendidula carimatae Miller, 1906 T. splendidula lucida Thomas and Hartert, 1895 T. splendidula natunae Lyon, 1911 T. splendidula riabus Lyon, 1913 T. splendidula splendidula Gray, 1865