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Bass trumpet

The bass trumpet is a type of low trumpet, first developed during the 1820s in Germany. It is pitched in 8' C or 9' B♭ today, but is sometimes built in E♭ and is treated as a transposing instrument sounding either an octave, a sixth or a ninth lower than written, depending on the pitch of the instrument. Having valves and the same tubing length, the bass trumpet is quite similar to the valve trombone, although the bass trumpet has a harder, more metallic tone. Certain modern manufacturers offering'valve trombones' and'bass trumpets' use the same tubing and bell, in different configurations - in these cases the bass trumpet is identical to the valve trombone; the earliest mention of the bass trumpet is in the 1821 Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, in which Heinrich Stölzel's Chromatische Tenor-trompetenbaß and Griesling & Schlott's Chromatische Trompetenbaß are described. Several other variants were employed in military bands. Wide-bell versions in 9' B♭ are still used today in Austria and Bavaria under the name Baßtrompete, narrow-bell versions in 9' B♭ are used in Italy under the name tromba bassa.

They perform no melodic function, but are used to fill out harmonies. Richard Wagner's first intention for Der Ring des Nibelungen was a bass trumpet in 13' E♭, based on the instruments he would have come across during his dealings with military bands. However, while the opening section of Das Rheingold might indicate the use of such an instrument, the part rises to G♭5, which would be the nineteenth partial on this long instrument. While it was argued during the late nineteenth century that the instrument in question was pitched an octave higher, the instrument built by Moritz of Berlin on Wagner's personal instruction for the Munich theatre was pitched in 8' C with crooks for B♭ and A and sounded one octave lower than written; the records of Moritz were not preserved, though a wide-bell bass trumpet with military-band proportions in 8' C with B♭ and A crooks does make an appearance in their post-1900 catalogue, while Gebrüder Alexander of Mainz offered a narrow-bore model in either E♭ or C.

The model used today is in 8' C with four rotary valves, is played by a trombonist owing to the size of the mouthpiece. Bass trumpets in E♭ are played by trumpeters as the mouthpiece is closer in size to that of the standard B♭ trumpet. Wagner wrote adventurously for his new addition to the brass section, exploiting open and muted effects, extremes of range and dynamics; the bass trumpet is featured in Der Ring des Nibelungen, playing solos in every register, as well as playing in octaves, unison or harmony with trumpets and Wagner tubas. Its distinctive timbre is identifiable and Wagner used this new and unique tone colour extensively. However, as with the Wagner tuba and the contrabass trombone, Wagner's other additions to the opera house orchestra for Der Ring des Nibelungen, the bass trumpet has not become a regular member of the orchestral brass and is seen rarely. Other composers who have used the bass trumpet in the orchestra include Arthur Sullivan, Richard Strauss, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Leoš Janáček.

György Ligeti used the bass trumpet as one of Nekrotzar's "Entourage" instruments in his opera Le Grand Macabre. The bass trumpet is notated in the treble clef; the bass trumpet in C sounds one octave lower than written, the bass trumpet in E♭ sounds a major sixth lower than written and the bass trumpet in B♭ sounds a major ninth lower than written. Wagner's transpositions include bass trumpet in E, E♭, D, C and B♭, though players have parts for the bass trumpet transposed into C to play on the C bass trumpet. Cy Touff was one of the few jazz musicians to play the bass trumpet and while the bass trumpet is played by a trombonist, British trumpeter Philip Jones performed on the bass trumpet while employed by the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Johnny Mandel is the best-known bass trumpeter from the jazz world. Salsa musician and trombonist Willie Colón plays a Getzen bass trumpet and can be heard improvising on the Fania label recordings Maestra Vida part 1 La Fiesta, Siembra Buscando Guayaba and Colon Zambullete, Doble Energia Cuando Tu Quieras and Canciones Del Solar De Los Aburridos Tiburon.

Leonhard Paul of Mnozil Brass plays bass trumpet with the ensemble, incorporating its use in many different styles. Up until late 2006, he played a traditional rotary valve bass trumpet made by Gebr. Alexander of Mainz. Now he plays a redesigned bass trumpet by Schagerl. Jazz trombonist Elliot Mason, who plays with Wynton Marsalis's Jazz at the Lincoln Center Orchestra as well as leading his own bands plays the bass trumpet. Rashawn Ross, trumpet player touring with the Dave Matthews Band, who has performed and recorded with the likes of Usher, Maceo Parker, Robert Randolph and Roy Hargrove plays bass trumpet, his equipment includes a silver-plated Getzen bass trumpet and a Mount Vernon B flat trumpet made by the Vincent Bach Corporation. Other trumpets: Piccolo trumpet Contrabass trumpet Pocket trumpet Bass & Contrabass Trumpet


Taksony is a village of 6,000 inhabitants 23 kilometers south of Budapest, on the bank of the Ráckeve branch of the Danube known as Kisduna. Taksony is known for its many natural springs and tranquil scenery and serves as a haven for fishermen and summer vacationers. Taksony was named after the reigning prince Taksony of Prince Árpád's grandson. After the invasion of the Mongols, the settlement was destroyed several times by fire. Maria Theresa settled Germans here. Relocation of families occurred after World War II and shortly thereafter, a new phase of development began; the Saint Anna Roman Catholic Church, devastated by an earthquake, was rebuilt in 1958. The foundation stone of the Calvinist church was laid on September 6, 1987; the early 20th century life of the ethnic Germans is presented in the House of Regional Traditions, a traditional home with relics of German settlers, from early the years of the 20th century. Taksony's Catholic parish is famous for its Saint Anna feasts

Tammy Sear

Tamsin "Tammy" Sear is a British former competitive figure skater. Sears is the first British female figure skater to land a triple lutz and the first to land a triple-triple jump combination at another event, she is the 2000 British national champion in ladies' singles and was named in the British team to the 2000 European Championships in Vienna, finishing 23rd after advancing to the free skate. At the 2000 World Championships in Nice, Sears finished 37th. Sear began skating in 1986 at the Oxford ice rink, her coaches included Tony Barron, Evelyn Kramer. and Frank Carrol. After retiring from competitive skating, Tamsin performed in many professional shows around the world as a principle soloist, she is a level 4 performance coach and choreographer. Tamsin has had British champions in free and ice Dance. Tamsin is married with two children Tamsin Sear at the International Skating Union

Citizenship Counts

Citizenship Counts is a non-partisan 501 organization based in Arizona, dedicated to inspiring American youth with a civic education curriculum that teaches them the value and responsibilities of citizenship, promotes pride in American citizenship, encourages students to be involved in their communities. By educating students on the tenets of citizenship, inspiring their pride of being United States citizens, encouraging them to serve in their communities, Citizenship Counts empowers students to be responsible and just citizens who appreciate the benefits of living in a diverse, democratic country. Through this program, all citizens have greater access to naturalization ceremonies in their communities. Attending these ceremonies provides Americans with a deeper understanding and appreciation of the role that immigration has played in creating their diverse and dynamic communities. In October 2004, Gerda Weissmann Klein was asked to speak at a naturalization ceremony, hosted by Three Rivers Middle School in Cleves, Ohio.

Klein was touched by the students' interest and excitement as they witnessed immigrants taking the "Oath of Allegiance" to become citizens of the United States. She envisioned students across the country having the opportunity to participate in planning and engaging in naturalization ceremonies hosted by their schools. Klein shared her experience with her granddaughter, Alysa Ullman Cooper, her friend, Rita Schaefer President of McDougal Littell, a publisher of educational materials for middle- and high-school students. After learning that Klein and Ullman were invited to attend a special naturalization ceremony at the White House, Schaefer encouraged Ullman to author a civics-based curriculum about the naturalization process. In February 2008, The Path to Citizenship was published, in August 2008, Citizenship Counts was founded to implement the program in schools across the United States. On March 23, 2009, the inaugural naturalization ceremony under the stewardship of Citizenship Counts was held at the Phoenix Convention Center.

Fifty new citizens from twenty-six countries took the "Oath of Allegiance,", administered by former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor. More than one hundred students witnessed this event as Klein delivered a speech on achieving the "American Dream" of citizenship. In 2009 and 2010, multiple naturalization ceremonies have been hosted at local schools and community centers in Arizona, including Villa Montessori and Mesquite High School. On January 29, 2011, Citizenship Counts and the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services hosted a naturalization ceremony at the Mall of America in Bloomington, where forty-one adults from twenty-two countries and thirty-nine children from thirty-six countries participated. At this event, Gerda Weissmann Klein received the Outstanding American By Choice award from USCIS Director, Alejandro Mayorkas. In February 2011, Gerda Weissmann Klein received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in a ceremony at the White House. Klein was nominated for this award by U.

S. President Barack Obama for her dedication to "the value of freedom" and "promoting tolerance and understanding among all people."Future ceremonies and events are planned for Phoenix, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Buffalo, Cincinnati and Honolulu schools. In the summer of 2011, Citizenship Counts will be partnering with the Close Up Foundation to host a ceremony in Washington, D. C. bringing students together from several communities across the country. Citizenship Counts' interactive and multi-disciplinary curriculum, The Path to Citizenship, provides a unique opportunity for students to plan and host a community-based naturalization ceremony in their schools; this curriculum helps students learn about the processes of immigration and naturalization and the rights of being a citizen in the United States. Topics and features include historical background on immigration to the United States, the naturalization process, classroom activities about immigration and citizenship, a citizenship handbook, a school-wide naturalization ceremony project.

Citizenship Counts acts as the liaison between the schools that utilize the curriculum and both USCIS and the U. S. Federal Courts, which perform naturalization ceremonies at the schools. At these ceremonies, school-wide participation is encouraged: the student choir has sung "America the Beautiful", the school band has played "The Star-Spangled Banner", the ROTC has presented the colors, students have participated in essay and artwork contests. During the ceremony the students have the unique opportunity to witness the emotion and fulfillment felt by new citizens as they take "The Oath of Allegiance." Citizenship Counts has partnered with numerous community and government organizations to assist schools and communities in planning and hosting naturalization ceremonies. United States Citizenship and Immigration Services American Immigration Council Center for Civic Education and Leadership Close Up Foundation Holt McDougal Leading Authorities Minnesota Center for Social Studies Education National Conference on Citizenship National Council for the Social Studies Citizenship Counts has a variety of educational, political and civic-minded community leaders who serve on its advisory or governing boards.

Sandra Day O'Connor, former U. S. Supreme Court Justice Kirk Ankeney, Executive Director for Curriculum and Instruction in the San Diego Unified School District Dr. Michael Berenbaum, Adjunct Professor of Theology at the American Jewish University John Bridgeland, President and CEO of Civic Enterprises and Vice Chairman of Malaria No More Mark French, President of Leading Authorities, Inc. Dr. Jesus Garcia, former President of the National Council for the Social Studies Carlos M

Cork Run Tunnel

The Cork Run Tunnel known as the Berry Street Tunnel, is one of nine tunnels built in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on the original Pittsburgh and Steubenville Railroad. The tunnel was built beginning in 1851 as a single-track bore 2,100 feet long, approached by deep open cuts, to connect central Pittsburgh with points to the west, on the south side of the Ohio River. A shaft was sunk from the overlying ridge to a point near the midpoint of the tunnel to speed construction and to provide ventilation. Work was suspended in 1856 due to financial troubles, resumed in 1862; the tunnel was completed in 1865. Upon completion it was apparent that the tunnel needed two lines; the tunnel was widened starting in 1870 for two tracks, was completed in 1873. The tunnel continued to represent a bottleneck, since large cars could not pass each other without causing derailments, which happened frequently. By 1889 work began on the Ohio Connecting Railway to relieve the tunnel. At the same time, the Cork's Run valley was filled in to build the Sheraden Yards, feeding the Cork Run Tunnel.

By 1906 the tunnel lining had deteriorated, becoming unstable and requiring continuous repair. Since the tunnel was so narrow, workers had to take shelter. At least one fatal work accident happened, several cave-ins closed the tunnel. Around 1900 a 300-foot section of the tunnel was cut open to the sky at the Pittsburgh end. By 1947 the Cork Run Tunnel was the only tunnel in the railroad's Panhandle Division that had not been "daylighted," cut open to the sky along its entire length; the tunnel was refurbished and re-opened in 1995 to serve as the link between Pittsburgh's Sheraden neighborhood and the community of Ingram on the Port Authority of Allegheny County's West Busway. Historic American Buildings Survey No. PA-382, "Cork Run Tunnel, Pittsburgh & Steubenville Railroad, from Chartiers Avenue Bridge heading 2371' west, Allegheny County, PA", 9 photos, 21 data pages, 2 photo caption pages Berry Street Tunnel at

Romanians in Ukraine

This article represents an overview on the history of Romanians in Ukraine, including those Romanians of Northern Bukovina, Zakarpattia Oblast, Budjak in Odessa Oblast, but those Romanophones in the territory between the Dniester River and the Southern Bug River, who traditionally have not inhabited any Romanian state, but have been an integral part of the history of modern Ukraine, are considered natives to the area. There is an ongoing controversy whether Moldovans are part of the larger Romanian ethnic group or a separate ethnicity. Beginning with the 10th century, the territory was infiltrated by Slavic tribes from the north, by Romanians from the west, as well as by Turkic nomads such as Pechenegs and Tatars from the east. Vlachs and Brodniks are mentioned in the area in the 13th century; as characterised by contemporary sources, the area between the Southern Bug and Dniester had never been populated by a single ethnicity, or controlled by Kievan or other rulers. Ukrainian historian Volodymyr Antonovych writes: "Neither the right bank, nor the left bank of the Dniester have belonged to Galician or other Ruthenian princes."

Since 14th century, the area were intermittently ruled by Lithuanian dukes, Polish kings, Crimean khans, Moldavian princes. In 1681 George Ducas's title was "Despot of Moldavia and Ukraine", as he was Prince of Moldavia and Hetman of Ukraine. Other Moldavian princes who held control of the territory in 17th and 18th centuries were Ştefan Movilă, Dimitrie Cantacuzino, Mihai Racoviţă; the end of the 18th century marked Imperial Russia's colonization of the region, as a result of which large migrations into the region were encouraged, including people of Ukrainian and German ethnicity. The process of Russification and colonization of this territory started to be carried out by representatives of other ethnic groups of the Russian Empire. While the Ruthenian ethnic element is fundamental for Cossacks, some have claimed a considerable number of Romanians among the hetmans of the Cossacks, Ioan Sârcu, who ruled in 1659–1660, Dănilă Apostol, who ruled in 1727–1734, Alexander Potcoavă, Constantin Potcoavă, Petre Lungu, Petre Cazacu, Tihon Baibuza, Samoilă Chişcă, Opară, Trofim Voloşanin, Ion Şărpilă, Timotei Sgură, Dumitru Hunu), other high-ranking Cossacks.

After 1812, the Russian Empire annexed Bessarabia from the Ottoman Empire. Romanians under Russian rule enjoyed privileges well, the language of Moldavians was established as an official language in the governmental institutions of Bessarabia, used along with Russian, as 95% of the population was Romanian; the publishing works established by Archbishop Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni were able to produce books and liturgical works in Moldovan between 1815 and 1820. Until the period from 1871 to 1905, when Russification policies were implemented that all public use of Romanian was phased out, substituted with Russian. Romanian continued to be used as the colloquial language of home and family spoken by Romanians, either first or second language. Many Romanians changed their family names to Russian; this was the era of the highest level of assimilation in the Russian Empire. In 1872, the priest Pavel Lebedev ordered that all church documents be written in Russian, and, in 1882, the press at Chișinău was closed by order of the Holy Synod.

The Orthodox Church in today's Transnistria and Ukraine was subordinated at first to the Mitropolity of Proilava. It belonged to the Bishopric of Huşi. After the Russian annexation of 1792, the Bishopric of Ochakiv reverted to Ekaterinoslav. From 1837, it belonged to the Eparchys of Kherson with its seat in Odessa, Taurida with its seat in Simferopol; the population of the former Moldavian ASSR, as a part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, had suffered the Holodomor, the famine of the 1930s that caused several millions deaths in Ukraine. At the end of World War I in 1918, the Directory of Ukraine proclaimed the sovereignty of the Ukrainian People's Republic over the left bank of the Dneister. After the end of World War I in 1918, Bukovina and Bessarabia were united with Kingdom of Romania. Bukovina and Bessarabia were populated by the Romanians and Ukrainians for hundreds of years. After Kingdom of Romania took control of Bessarabia, the Romanianization policies targeted Ukrainian population and brought the closure of the Ukrainian public schools and the suppression of most of the Ukrainian cultural institutions.

The term "Ukrainians" was prohibited from the official usage and some populations of disputable Ukrainian ethnicity were rather called the "citizens of Romania who forgot their native language" and were forced to change their last names to Romanian-sounding ones. Among those who were Romanianized were descendants of Romanians who were assimilated to Ukrainian society in the past; as such, according to the Romanian census, of the total population of 805,000, 74% were called Romanians.