Batman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. Batman originated from an incident in Bruce's childhood. Bruce crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment. A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker.
The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year. As the decades went on, different interpretations of the character emerged; the late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations. Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Bruce Thomas, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck, David Mazouz, Iain Glen, Kevin Conroy.
Robert Pattinson will portray the character in The Batman. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look lik
Reddin Andrews was the President of Baylor University from 1885 to 1886. Reddin Andrews was born in La Grange, Texas, on January 18, 1848, he fought in the Confederacy as a courier during the American Civil War. In 1871, he graduated from Baylor University as a valedictorian. From 1871 to 1873, he attended the Greenville Seminary in South Carolina, he became a pastor in Navasota and preached in Millican, Calvert, Lampasas, Goodman, Hillsboro, Woodbury and Lovelady. He married Elizabeth Eddins in 1874 and they had nine children. From 1871 to 1878, he was a Professor at Baylor University. In 1878, he came the Principal of the Masonic Institute in Round Rock, he was an editor to John B. Link's Texas Baptist Herald, he served as President of Baylor University from 1885 to 1886, as it was merged with Waco University. In 1886, he helped merge the Baptist State Convention and Baptist General Association into the Baptist General Convention of Texas. In 1889, he moved to Atlanta, Georgia to edit W. T. Martin's Expositor.
In 1892, he moved to Belton and worked for the People's Party. In 1907, he was the editor of Shield in Tyler. In 1910, he lost to the Democratic nominee. In 1916, he moved to Lawton, where he died in 1923. Poems
The Walvis Ridge is an aseismic ocean ridge in the southern Atlantic Ocean. More than 3,000 km in length, it extends from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, near Tristan da Cunha and the Gough Islands, to the African coast; the Walvis Ridge is one of few examples of a hotspot seamount chain that links a flood basalt province to an active hotspot. It is considered one of the most important hotspot tracks because the Tristan Hotspot is one of few primary or deep mantle hotspots. Apart from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Walvis Ridge and the Rio Grande Rise are the most distinctive feature of the South Atlantic sea floor, they originated from hotspot volcanism and together they form a mirrored symmetry across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, with the Tristan Hotspot at its centre. Two of the distinct sections in the Walvis Ridge have similar mirrored regions in the Rio Grande Rise; the complex of seamounts in the western end of the Walvis Ridge, does not have a similar structure on the American side, but there is a Zapiola Seamount Complex south of the eastern end of the Rio Grande Rise.
The formation of this mirrored structure is the result of the opening of the South Atlantic some 120 Mya and the Paraná and Etendeka continental flood basalts, the lateral-most parts of the structure, formed at the beginning of this process in areas that are now located in Brazil and Namibia. The Walvis Ridge is divided into three main sections: A first 600 km long segment stretching from Africa to longitude 6°E and varying in width between 90–200 km. A second section, 500 km long, stretching north-south, narrower than the first section. A third more discontinuous section, marked by seamounts and connects the Walvis Ridge to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Cretaceous kimberlites in the central Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola align with the Walvis Ridge; the Tristan-Gough hotspot track first formed over the mantle plume that formed the Etendeka-Paraná continental flood basalts some 135 to 132 Ma. The eastern section of the ridge is thought to have been created in the Middle Cretaceous period, between 120 to 80 Ma.
While the mantle plume remained large and stable, the eastern Walvis Ridge formed along with the Rio Grande Rise over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. During the Maastrichtian 60 million years ago, the orientation of spreading changed, still visible in the orientation of the various sections of the Walvis Ridge; the mantle plume gradually became unstable and bifurcated 60 to 70 Ma to produce the two separate Tristan and Gough hotspot tracks. It disintegrated 35 to 45 Ma and formed the guyot province in the western end of the ridge. Hundreds of volcanic explosions were recorded on the Walvis Ridge in 2001 and 2002; these explosions seemed to come from an unnamed seamount on the northern side of the ridge and are thought to be unrelated to the Tristan hotspot. The Ewing Seamount is part of the ridge; the Eocene Layer of Mysterious Origin is a period of global warming that occurred 53.7 Ma, about two million years after the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. This period manifests as a carbonate-poor red clay layer unique to the Walvis Ridge and is similar to the PETM, but of smaller magnitude.
The Walvis Ridge is a natural obstacle for the Agulhas rings, mesoscale warm core rings that are shed from the Agulhas Current south of the Agulhas Bank. In average, five such rings are shed each year, a number that varies between years; the rings tend cross the Walvis Ridge at its deepest part, but they still lose transitional speed and many rings decay rapidly. Their transitional speed drop from 5.2±3.6 km/day to 4.6±3.1 km/day, but it is not clear how much the Walvis Ridge is responsible for this drop, since the rings' speed drop to 4.3±2.2 km/day between the Walvis Ridge and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The rings can cross the South Atlantic in 2.5–3 years but only two thirds make it farther than the Walvis Ridge. When the rings pass over the Cap Basin south of the Walvis Ridge they are disturbed by the Benguela Current, interaction between rings, bottom topography such as the Vema Seamount, but there are fewer obstacles and disturbances west of the Walvis Ridge were the rings tend stabilise.
The Agulhas rings transport an estimated 1-5 Sv of water from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic. Originating around Antarctica, Antarctic Bottom Water enters the Cape Basin between the Agulhas Bank and the Agulhas Ridge after which it flows west north of the Agulhas Ridge. AABW retroflects at the south-western end of the Walvis Ridge, flows north-east along the ridge before being retroflected south by North Atlantic Deep Water, with which it exits the Cape Basin and flows into the Indian Ocean