Battle of Kennesaw Mountain
The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain was fought on June 27,1864, during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. Strategically, the failed to deliver the result that the Confederacy desperately needed—namely a halt to Shermans advance on Atlanta. McPherson feinted against the end of Kennesaw Mountain, while his corps under Maj. Gen. John A. Logan assaulted Pigeon Hill on its southwest corner. At the same time, Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas launched strong attacks against Cheatham Hill at the center of the Confederate line, both attacks were repulsed with heavy losses, but a demonstration by Maj. Gen. John M. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and he devised a strategy of multiple, simultaneous offensives against the Confederacy, hoping to prevent any of the rebel armies from reinforcing the others over interior lines. This was a strategy that President Abraham Lincoln had emphasized throughout the war, as their campaigns progressed, the political importance of the cities of Richmond and Atlanta began to dominate their strategy.
By 1864, Atlanta was a critical target, the city of 20,000 was founded at the intersection of four important railroad lines that supplied the Confederacy and was a military manufacturing arsenal in its own right. Atlantas nickname of Gate City of the South was apt—its capture would open virtually the entire Deep South to Union conquest, Shermans force of about 100,000 men was composed of three subordinate armies, the Army of the Tennessee under Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson, the Army of the Cumberland under Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, and the relatively small Army of the Ohio under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield. Their principal opponent was the Confederate Army of Tennessee, commanded by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, the 50, 000-man army consisted of the infantry corps of Lt. Gens. William J. Hardee, John Bell Hood, and Leonidas Polk, Shermans campaign began on May 7,1864, as his three armies departed from the vicinity of Chattanooga. As Sherman swung his entire army in the direction of Resaca, full scale fighting erupted in the Battle of Resaca on May 14–15 but there was no conclusive result and Sherman flanked Johnston for a second time by crossing the Oostanaula River.
As Johnston withdrew again, skirmishing erupted at Adairsville on May 17, Johnston planned to defeat part of Shermans force as it approached on multiple routes, but Hood became uncharacteristically cautious and feared encirclement, failing to attack as ordered. Encouraged by Hood and Polk, Johnston ordered another withdrawal, this time across the Etowah River, Johnston was forced to move from his strong position and meet Shermans army in the open. Fierce but inconclusive fighting occurred on May 25 at New Hope Church, May 27 at Picketts Mill, by June 1, heavy rains turned the roads to quagmires and Sherman was forced to return to the railroad to supply his men. Johnstons new line was established by June 4 northwest of Marietta, along Lost Mountain, Pine Mountain, on June 14, following eleven days of steady rain, Sherman was ready to move again. While on a reconnaissance, he spotted a group of Confederate officers on Pine Mountain. Lt. Gen. Hoods corps attempted an attack at Peter Kolbs farm south of Little Kennesaw Mountain on June 22
Sherman's March to the Sea
The campaign began with Shermans troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta, on November 15 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 21. His forces destroyed military targets as well as industry, Shermans bold move of operating deep within enemy territory and without supply lines is considered to be one of the major achievements of the war. Shermans March to the Sea followed his successful Atlanta Campaign of May to September 1864, Sherman therefore planned an operation that has been compared to the modern principles of scorched earth warfare, or total war. The second objective of the campaign was more traditional, grants armies in Virginia continued in a stalemate against Robert E. Lees army, besieged in Petersburg, Virginia. Foragers, known as bummers, would provide food seized from local farms for the Army while they destroyed the railroads and the manufacturing and agricultural infrastructure of Georgia. In planning for the march, Sherman used livestock and crop production data from the 1860 census to lead his troops through areas where he believed they would be able to forage most effectively.
The twisted and broken railroad rails that the troops heated over fires and wrapped around tree trunks, as the army would be out of touch with the North throughout the campaign, Sherman gave explicit orders, Shermans Special Field Orders, No. 120, regarding the conduct of the campaign, the following is an excerpt from the generals orders, The march was made easier by able assistants such as Orlando Poe, Chief of the bridge building and demolition team. Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman selected Poe as his chief engineer in 1864, Poe oversaw the burning of Atlanta, for which action he was honored by Sherman. He continued to supervise destruction of Confederate infrastructure. [ Sherman, commanding the Military Division of the Mississippi, John E. Smith, and John M. Corse. XVII Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Frank Blair, Jr. with the divisions of Maj. Gen. Joseph A. Mower, mortimer D. Leggett and Giles A. Smith. The left wing was the Army of Georgia, commanded by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, with the divisions of Brig.
William P. Carlin, James D. Morgan, and Absalom Baird, XX Corps, commanded by Brig. Gen. Alpheus S. Williams, with the divisions of Brig. Nathaniel J. Jackson, John W. Geary, and William T. Ward, a cavalry division under Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick operated in support of the two wings. The Confederate opposition from Lt. Gen. William J. Hardees Department of South Carolina, hood had taken the bulk of forces in Georgia on his campaign to Tennessee in hopes of diverting Sherman to pursue him. There were about 13,000 men remaining at Lovejoys Station, Maj. Gen. Gustavus W. Smiths Georgia militia had about 3,050 soldiers, most of whom were boys and elderly men. The Cavalry Corps of Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, reinforced by a brigade under Brig. Gen. William H. Jackson, had approximately 10,000 troopers. During the campaign, the Confederate War Department brought in men from Florida and the Carolinas
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States. As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War and he implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with President Andrew Johnson. His presidency has often criticized for tolerating corruption and for the severe economic depression in his second term. Grant graduated in 1843 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, after the war he married Julia Boggs Dent in 1848, their marriage producing four children. Grant initially retired from the Army in 1854 and he struggled financially in civilian life. When the Civil War began in 1861, he rejoined the U. S. Army, in 1862, Grant took control of Kentucky and most of Tennessee, and led Union forces to victory in the Battle of Shiloh, earning a reputation as an aggressive commander. He incorporated displaced African American slaves into the Union war effort, in July 1863, after a series of coordinated battles, Grant defeated Confederate armies and seized Vicksburg, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River and dividing the Confederacy in two.
After his victories in the Chattanooga Campaign, Lincoln promoted him to lieutenant general, Grant confronted Robert E. Lee in a series of bloody battles, trapping Lees army in their defense of Richmond. Grant coordinated a series of devastating campaigns in other theaters, as well, in April 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, effectively ending the war. Historians have hailed Grants military genius, and his strategies are featured in history textbooks. After the Civil War, Grant led the armys supervision of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states and he used the army to build the Republican Party in the South. After the disenfranchisement of some former Confederates, Republicans gained majorities, in his second term, the Republican coalitions in the South splintered and were defeated one by one as redeemers regained control using coercion and violence. In May 1875, Grant authorized his Secretary of Treasury Benjamin Bristow to shut down and his peace policy with the Indians initially reduced frontier violence, but is best known for the Great Sioux War of 1876.
Grant responded to charges of corruption in executive offices more than any other 19th Century president and he appointed the first Civil Service Commission and signed legislation ending the corrupt moiety system. In foreign policy, Grant sought to trade and influence while remaining at peace with the world. His administration successfully resolved the Alabama claims by the Treaty of Washington with Great Britain, Grant avoided war with Spain over the Virginius Affair, but Congress rejected his attempted annexation of the Dominican Republic. His administration implemented a standard and sought to strengthen the dollar. Grant left office in 1877 and embarked on a two-year diplomatic world tour that captured the nations attention, in 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Battle of New Hope Church
The battle was a result of an attempt by Sherman to outmaneuver Johnston. Johnston anticipated Shermans move and shifted his army into Shermans path, Sherman mistakenly surmised that Johnston had a token force and ordered Maj. Gen. Joseph Hookers XX Corps to attack. Advancing with his three divisions in parallel routes, Hooker pushed the Confederate skirmishers back for three miles, before coming to Johnstons main line, difficult terrain prevented Hooker from coordinating his corps attacks effectively, causing his men to suffer severe casualties, especially from canister and shrapnel. On May 26, both sides entrenched, and skirmishing continued throughout the day, at the end of the battle, Confederate Captain Samuel T. Foster reported that 703 Union soldiers had been killed, as well as 350 taken prisoner. The next day, the Union troops concentrated their efforts in the area towards the end of the Confederate line. The New Hope Church battlefield is privately owned and is located at the intersection of Bobo Road.
John Wadsworth Vodrey, son of noted American potter Jabez Vodrey, was killed in the battle while serving with the 46th Pennsylvania Infantry, national Park Service battle description Hope Church Community Kennedy, Frances H. ed. The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin Co
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The Atlanta Campaign was a series of battles fought in the Western Theater of the American Civil War throughout northwest Georgia and the area around Atlanta during the summer of 1864. Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman invaded Georgia from the vicinity of Chattanooga, beginning in May 1864, Johnstons Army of Tennessee withdrew toward Atlanta in the face of successive flanking maneuvers by Shermans group of armies. In July, the Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, replaced Johnston with the more aggressive John Bell Hood, Hoods army was eventually besieged in Atlanta and the city fell on September 2, setting the stage for Shermans March to the Sea and hastening the end of the war. The Atlanta Campaign followed the Union victory in the Battles for Chattanooga in November 1863, Chattanooga was known as the Gateway to the South, grants strategy was to apply pressure against the Confederacy in several coordinated offensives. While he, George G. Meade, Benjamin Butler, Franz Sigel, George Crook, at the start of the campaign, Shermans Military Division of the Mississippi consisted of three armies, Maj.
Gen. James B. McPhersons Army of the Tennessee, including the corps of Maj. Gen. John A. Logan, Maj. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, when McPherson was killed at the Battle of Atlanta, Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard replaced him. Maj. Gen. John M. Schofields Army of the Ohio, consisting of Schofields XXIII Corps and a cavalry division commanded by Maj. Gen. George Stoneman. Maj. Gen. George H. Thomass Army of the Cumberland, including the corps of Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard, Maj. Gen. John M. Palmer, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, and Brig. Gen. Washington L. Elliott. After Howard took army command, David S. Stanley took over IV Corps, however, by June, a steady stream of reinforcements brought Shermans strength to 112,000. Opposing Sherman, the Army of Tennessee was commanded first by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, the four corps in the 50, 000-man army were commanded by, Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee. When Polk was killed on June 14, Loring briefly took over as commander of the corps but was replaced by Alexander P. Stewart on June 23. But in Georgia, he faced the more aggressive Sherman.
Johnstons army repeatedly took up strongly entrenched defensive positions in the campaign, Sherman prudently avoided suicidal frontal assaults against most of these positions, instead maneuvering in flanking marches around the defenses as he advanced from Chattanooga towards Atlanta. Whenever Sherman flanked the defensive lines, Johnston would retreat to another prepared position, both armies took advantage of the railroads as supply lines, with Johnston shortening his supply lines as he drew closer to Atlanta, and Sherman lengthening his own. Johnston had entrenched his army on the long, high mountain of Rocky Face Ridge, the two columns engaged the enemy at Buzzard Roost and at Dug Gap. In the meantime, the column, under McPherson, passed through Snake Creek Gap and on May 9 advanced to the outskirts of Resaca. Fearing defeat, McPherson pulled his column back to Snake Creek Gap, on May 10, Sherman decided to take most of his men and join McPherson to take Resaca. The next morning, as he discovered Shermans army withdrawing from their positions in front of Rocky Face Ridge, Union troops tested the Confederate lines around Resaca to pinpoint their whereabouts
Army of the Tennessee
The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. It should not be confused with the similarly named Army of Tennessee, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in the Unions District of West Tennessee. In April 1862, Grants troops survived a severe test in the bloody Battle of Shiloh. In October 1862, Grants command was reconfigured and elevated to status, as the Department of the Tennessee. Grant commanded these forces until after his critically important victory at Vicksburg in July 1863 and it should suffice to note that the nucleus around which was to gather the. Army of the Tennessee first took shape in 1861–1862, while Grant was headquartered at Cairo and those troops continued under Grant in his next command, the distinct District of West Tennessee, they were sometimes, and perhaps most appropriately, called the Army of West Tennessee. During the course of the war, elements of the Army of the Tennessee performed many tasks, and it is not feasible to chronicle every such development here, even at the corps level.
Rather, this article traces the main thrust of the armys development, at any given time, substantial numbers of troops were engaged in activities not discussed here. For example, in April 1863, less than half of Grants departmental strength was directly engaged in the Vicksburg Campaign, one of Grants wartime aides, John A. Rawlins, stated that rom this time. Commenced the growth and organization of the Army of the Tennessee, paducah promptly became a separate Union command under Brig. Gen. Charles F. Smith, who soon occupied Smithland, Kentucky, at the junction of the Cumberland River and the Ohio. Grants own first engagement came on November 7 at Belmont, Grants casualties in this first battle totaled about 500, Confederate casualties were similar. While Grant had suffered a repulse, he won favorable press coverage and this battle, reports Rawlins, confirmed General Grant in his views that he should give battle whenever he had what he thought a sufficient number of men. Also in November, John Fremont lost his command at St.
Louis, to be replaced by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, on December 20, Grants command was reconfigured to include C. F. Smiths and renamed the District of Cairo, from that perch, in February 1862, Grant led the Union campaign against Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, and Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland River. His troops for this campaign eventually numbered approximately 27,000 men and Brig. Gen. Lewis Wallace. Grant initially moved up the Tennessee River to Fort Henry with only two divisions, McClernands and Smiths. On February 6, even before he could organize his force for attack, additional Union regiments arrived at Fort Donelson by water, these were formed into the new 3rd Division under Lew Wallace. The Battle of Fort Donelson began on February 13 and, after sharp fighting, another historian notes that Grants troops had performed prodigies of valor and endurance during the campaign and had learned from it that hard fighting would bring success
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area.
Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861.
The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the Cherokee
Battle of Adairsville
The Battle of Adairsville, known as the Battle of Cassville, was a battle of the Atlanta Campaign fought during the American Civil War on May 17,1864, just northeast of Rome, Georgia. The brief engagement was a Confederate delaying action that allowed General Joseph E. Johnston to bait a trap for the Union army at Cassville, following the Battle of Resaca, May 13–15, General Joseph E. Johnstons army retreated southward while Major General William Tecumseh Sherman pursued. Once across the Oostanaula River, Johnston sought to make a stand and he expected to find favorable terrain near Calhoun, but in this he was disappointed and during the night of May 16–17 he led the Confederates southward toward Adairsville. Sherman followed, dividing his forces into three columns, and advancing on a broad front, there were skirmishes all along the route, but the main bodies were not engaged. Two miles north of Adairsville Oliver Otis Howard and the Union IV Corps began skirmishing with entrenched units of William J.
Hardees Confederate corps. The 44th Illinois and 24th Wisconsin infantry regiments led by Maj. Arthur MacArthur, Jr. attacked Benjamin F. Cheathams division, the rest of Howards corps prepared for battle but further attacks were called off by General Thomas. As he fell back, Johnston devised a strategy that he hoped would lead to the destruction of a part of Shermans forces, there were two roads leading south from Adairsville—one south to Kingston, the other southeast to Cassville. It seemed likely that Sherman would divide his armies so as to use both roads and this would give Johnston the opportunity to attack one column before the other could come to its aid. When the Southerners abandoned Adairsville during the night of May 17–18, Johnston sent William J. Hardees Corps to Kingston and he hoped that Sherman would believe most of the Southerners to be in Kingston and concentrate the bulk of his forces there. Hardee would hold off the Northerners at Kingston while Johnston, with Leonidas Polk and John Bell Hood, Sherman reacted as Johnston hoped, ordering James B.
McPherson and the bulk of George Henry Thomass army toward Kingston while sending only John Schofield, on the morning of May 19, Johnston ordered Hood to march along a country road a mile or so east of the Adairsville-Cassville Road and form his corps for battle facing west. While Polk attacked the head of the Federal column, Hood was to assail its left flank, as Hood was moving into position, he ran into Daniel Butterfields Federal brigade to the east. This was a source of danger, for had Hood formed facing west. After a brief skirmish with the Northerners, Hood fell back to rejoin Polk, Johnston formed his army on a ridge and hoped that Sherman would attack him there on May 20. As usual, the Southern commander was confident of repulsing the enemy, during the night, the Confederates withdrew across the Etowah River. As they fell back, their feelings were mixed and they had lost a very strong position at Dalton, and had fallen back from Resaca and Adairsville. Now they were retreating again under cover of darkness and that morning as they prepared for battle, their spirits had been high.
Although morale would revive in the few days, many Southern soldiers would never again place as much confidence in Johnstons abilities as they once had
Francis Preston Blair Jr.
Francis Preston Blair Jr. was an American jurist and soldier. Blair was instrumental in appointing Nathaniel Lyon as the new commander of the Western Department of the U. S. Army. He assisted Lyon in securing help of the St. Louis Home Guard in moving over 20,000 rifles, Missouri secessionists considered this event as breaking of informal truce established in the state. This set the scene for the Camp Jackson Affair and continuing guerrilla activity by outraged pro-slavery elements, in 1868, he was Horatio Seymours vice-presidential candidate, but his dramatic speeches about the dangers of black emancipation were believed by some to have cost the Democrats the election. He suffered a stroke in 1872, but continued to be active in state politics till his death. Blair was born in Lexington, Kentucky and he was the third and youngest son of newspaper editor and politician Francis Preston Blair, and Eliza Violet Blair. He was the brother of Montgomery Blair, a Mayor of St. Louis and Postmaster General under Lincoln, and the cousin of B.
After his admission to the Kentucky bar in Lexington, he went on to practice in St. Louis in 1842 with his brother, in 1842-1845. In fall 1845, Blair traveled to the West for buffalo hunt and stayed for a winter in eastern Colorado with his cousin George Bent in Bent’s Fort, being more interested in politics than law, Blair came back to St. Louis in the summer of 1847. A personal and political friend of Thomas Hart Benton, he known for his views opposing slavery. Blair served in the Missouri House of Representatives from 1852 to 1856 and he was an outspoken Free-Soiler and was elected as a Republican to the United States House of Representatives in 1856. On January 14,1858, he delivered a speech describing slavery as a national problem and proposing to solve it by gradual emancipation and settling freed slaves in South. A year later, he gained prominence with his speech in Boston. Blair was defeated in 1858, but won the election in 1860 to the 37th Congress. The election results were contested by his opponents, Blair was seated in Congress on June 8,1860 and he was subsequently elected in 1862 to the 38th Congress, but had to relinquish his seat on June 10,1864, after Samuel Knox successfully contested his election.
In Congress, he served as chairman of the important Military Affairs Committee, the Blairs were unwavering supporters of Abraham Lincoln during his rise to the presidency and years in office, and in return enjoyed his political patronage. In December 1863, Lincoln said that, The Blairs have to a degree the spirit of clan. Their family is a close corporation, Frank is their hope and pride
Army of Tennessee
The Army of Tennessee was the principal Confederate army operating between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River during the American Civil War. It was formed in late 1862 and fought until the end of the war in 1865 and it should not be confused with the Union Army of the Tennessee, named after the Tennessee River. The army was formed on November 20,1862, when General Braxton Bragg renamed the former Army of Mississippi and was divided into two corps commanded by Leonidas Polk and William J. Hardee, the remaining division was assigned to Hardees corps while Kirby Smith returned to East Tennessee. The armys cavalry was consolidated into a command under Joseph Wheeler. The armys first major engagement under its new name took place against the Army of the Cumberland on December 31 along the Stones River. The attacks started at 6 a. m. against the Union right wing and forced the Union flank back towards the Union supply route to Nashville, Bragg expected Union commander William S. Rosecrans to retreat during the night but Rosecrans decided to remain.
No fighting took place on January 1, the next day Bragg assigned one division to seize a ridge on the east side of Stones River, Bragg retreated during the night and halted near the Duck River. When he learned of the dispute, Confederate President Jefferson Davis sent Joseph Johnston to inspect the army, Johnston however refused to take command of the army. In the summer of 1863, Rosecrans began an offensive, generally known as the Tullahoma Campaign, due to the low level of the river, Bragg felt compelled to retreat back to his supply center of Chattanooga, where he established his headquarters. When the Union forces halted following the campaign, Bragg took the opportunity to make several changes in the army. Hardee was transferred to Mississippi in July and replaced by D. H. Hill, the cavalry was reorganized into two corps commanded by Wheeler and Forrest, a two-division Reserve Corps was organized under the command of W. H. T. Rosecrans launched the Chickamauga Campaign in late August, staging demonstrations near Chattanooga and this convinced Bragg that Rosecrans was crossing the river to the north, Union forces were actually crossing to the south of the city.
This forced Bragg to fall back into northern Georgia, abandoning the important railroad hub of Chattanooga on September 8, over the course of the next several days, Bragg attempted to launch several attacks on isolated parts of the Union army but each attempt failed. During September 19 at Chickamauga, both sides fed in reinforcements as the day progressed, Polk was ordered to attack at daylight on September 20, with Longstreet attacking immediately afterwards, but Polk didnt launch his attack until midmorning. The left wing failed to dislodge the Union army but Longstreets wing attacked a gap in the Union army which routed the Union right flank. A portion of the Union army rallied on Horseshoe Ridge and held off multiple Confederate attacks until evening, when it followed the rest of Rosecrans army into Chattanooga. Bragg considered an attack on the city too costly. Instead he spread the Confederate army along the Tennessee River, cutting the Union railroad supply line into the city, during the next several weeks, Bragg became embroiled with a dispute with the armys corps commanders