click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Battle of Badon

The Battle of Badon known as the Battle of Mons Badonicus was a battle purportedly fought between Celtic Britons and Anglo-Saxons in Britain in the late 5th or early 6th century. It was credited as a major victory for the Britons, stopping the encroachment of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms for a period; the earliest references to the battle date to the 6th century. It is chiefly known today for the supposed involvement of King Arthur, a tradition that first appeared in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum written by Nennius; because of the limited number of sources, there is no certainty about the date, location, or details of the fighting. The earliest mention of the Battle of Badon is Gildas' De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, written in the early to mid-6th century. In it, the Anglo-Saxons are said to have "dipped red and savage tongue in the western ocean" before Ambrosius Aurelianus organized a British resistance with the survivors of the initial Saxon onslaught. Gildas describes the period that followed Ambrosius' initial success: From that time, the citizens were sometimes victorious, sometimes the enemy, in order that the Lord, according to His wont, might try in this nation the Israel of today, whether it loves Him or not.

This continued up to the year of the siege of Badon Hill, of the last great slaughter inflicted upon the rascally crew. And this commences, a fact I know, with one month now elapsed. De Excidio Britanniae describes the battle as such an "unexpected recovery of the " that it caused kings, nobles and commoners to "live orderly according to their several vocations" before the long peace degenerated into civil wars and the iniquity of Maelgwn Gwynedd; the battle is next mentioned in an 8th-century text of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. It describes the "siege of Mount Badon, when they made no small slaughter of those invaders," as occurring 44 years after the first Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. Since Bede places that arrival during or just after the joint reign of Marcian and Valentinian III in 449–456, he must have considered Badon to have taken place between 493 and 500. Bede puts off discussion of the battle – "But more of this hereafter" – only to never return to it.

Bede does include an extended account of Saint Germanus of Auxerre's victory over the Saxons and Picts in a mountain valley, which he credits with curbing the threat of invasion for a generation. However, as the victory is described as having been accomplished bloodlessly, it was a different occasion from Badon. Accepted at face value, St. Germanus' involvement would place the battle around 430, although Bede's chronology shows no knowledge of this; the earliest surviving text mentioning Arthur at the battle is the early 9th-century Historia Brittonum, in which the soldier Arthur is identified as the leader of the victorious British force at Badon: "The twelfth battle was on Mount Badon in which there fell in one day 960 men from one charge by Arthur. The Battle of Badon is next mentioned in the Annales Cambriae, assumed to have been written during the mid- to late-10th century; the entry states: "The Battle of Badon, in which Arthur carried the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ for three days and three nights upon his shoulders and the Britons were the victors".

That Arthur had gone unmentioned in the source closest to his own time, was noticed at least as early as the 12th-century hagiography which claims that Gildas had praised Arthur extensively but excised him after Arthur killed the saint's brother, Hueil mab Caw. Modern writers have suggested the details of the battle were so well known that Gildas could have expected his audience to be familiar with them. Geoffrey of Monmouth's c. 1136 Historia Regum Britanniae was massively popular and survives in many copies from soon after its composition. Going into much greater detail, Geoffrey identifies Badon with Bath, including having Merlin foretell that Badon's baths would lose their hot water and turn poisonous, he mixes in aspects of other accounts: the battle begins as a Saxon siege and becomes a normal engagement once Arthur's men arrive. Arthur charges, but kills a mere 470, ten more than the number of Britons ambushed by Hengist near Salisbury. Elements of the Welsh legends are added: in addition to the shield Pridwen, Arthur gains his sword Caliburnus and his spear, Ron.

Geoffrey makes the defence of the city from the Saxon sneak attack a holy cause, having Dubricius offer absolution of all sins for those who fall in battle. McCarthy and Ó Cróinín propose that Gildas' 44 years and one month is not a reference to the simple chronology but a position within the 84-year Easter cycle used for computus at the time by the Britons and the Irish church; the tables in question begin in January 438, which would place their revised date of the battle in February 482. Hirst and Wood argue for the site of Liddington Castle on the hill above Badbury in Wiltshire; this site commands The Ridgeway, which connects the River Thames with the River Avon and River Severn beyond. The A Text of the Annales Cambriae includes the entry: "The first celebration of Easter among the S

Punkunnam

Punkunnam is a commercial and residential area in Thrissur city of Kerala in India. It is 2 km away from the Swaraj Round. Punkunnam is the Ward 1 of Thrissur Municipal Corporation. Punkunnam is home to the renowned Punkunnam Siva Temple; the Sitaram Textiles is situated here. It was established in Punkunnam by TR Ramachandra Iyer in the early 1940s; the spinning wing has the capacity of 12,000 spindles. The mill has a capacity to process 40,000 meters of cloth every day. Poonkunnam Railway Station provides rail connectivity to other parts of India. Punkunnam is witnessing a Real Estate boom as the number of High rise buildings are increasing on a fast pace here. Punkunnam have some of the famous temples in Thrissur city like Punkunnam Siva Temple, Punkunnam Seetha Ramaswamy Temple, Kuttankulangara Sri Krishna Temple and Sri Sankarankulangara Temple. Punkunnam Seetha Ramaswamy Temple have got a Ratholsavam festival, second after Kalpathy ratholsavam. Besides these temples Punkunnam have got a Christian church.

To add up there is a unique religious harmony that exist in Punkunnam, for this reason there have no single problem in the past that have Religion as its cause. Pushpagiri Agraharam is situated at Punkunnam where the majority of the residents here are Tamil Brahmins. Kerala Brahmana Sabha Thrissur Unit, is situated at Punkunnam; the christian church and Kuttankulangara temple are increasing the sanctity of Punkunnam. There are several Banks functioning in Punkunnam. Dhanlaxmi Bank, South Indian Bank, Catholic Syrian Bank, Canara Bank, Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank, State Bank of India, Federal Bank, HDFC Bank, State Bank of Hyderabad has got branches at Punkunnam; the bottle neck at poonkunam was over by demolishing the old buildings at the junction with co operation of owners and Thrissur corporation pave a way to developing the place which enhances the connectivity to Puzhakkal padam, the proposed site for mobility hub. Poonkunnam railway station in the coming year will develop as a second station to control the load of passengers at Thrissur main station, many people who are working at Eranakulam catch their train from poonkunnam.

The headquarters of Kalyan Jewelers, the largest jewelry chain in India is situated at Punkunnam. The infertility clinic KARE of Dr Krishnankutty is situated at Punkunnam; the Mobility Hub is planing at Puzhakkal Padam. Businessman T. S. Kalyanaraman, a relative of Ramachandra Iyer and the Chairman-cum-Managing Director of Kalyan Jewellers, he is one of the biggest industrialists in India, listed in Forbes magazine's annual tally of billionaires in March 2013. The eldest son of T. K. Seetharama Iyer, he entered the business world first, started Kalyan Jewellers in 1993, now one of the biggest jewellery groups in India. List of Thrissur Corporation wards Satellite image of Poonkunnam

Buddha's Birthday

Buddha's birthday is a Buddhist festival and holiday celebrated in most of East Asia commemorating the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama the Gautama Buddha and founder of Buddhism. In South and Southeast Asia it is celebrated as Vesak, which places greater emphasis on the enlightenment and death of the Buddha. According to the Theravada Tripitaka scriptures, Gautama was born c. 563–480 BCE in Lumbini in modern-day Nepal, raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilavastu in the present-day Piprahwa, India, or Tilaurakot, Nepal. The exact date of Buddha's birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars; the date for the celebration of Buddha's birthday varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but falls in April or May. In leap years it may be celebrated in June; the exact date of Buddha's Birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars and is celebrated in Baisakh month of the Buddhist calendar and the Bikram Sambat Hindu calendar, hence it is called Vesak. In modern-day India and Nepal, where the Historical Buddha lived, it is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha month of the Buddhist calendar.

In Theravada countries following the Buddhist calendar, it falls on a full moon Uposatha day in the 5th or 6th lunar month. In China and Korea, it is celebrated on the eighth day of the fourth month in the Chinese lunar calendar; the date varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but falls in April or May. In leap years it may be celebrated in June. In Tibet, it falls on the 7th day of the fourth month of the Tibetan calendar. In South Asian and Southeast Asian countries as well as Mongolia, Buddha's birthday is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha month of the Buddhist calendar and the Hindu calendar, which falls in April or May month of the Western Gregorian calendar; the festival is known as Buddha Purnima. It is called Buddha Jayanti, with Jayanti meaning birthday in Sanskrit Language; the corresponding Western Gregorian calendar dates varies from year to year: 2017: May 10 2018: April 29, April 30, May 29 2019: May 19 2020: May 8 In many East Asian countries Buddha's Birth is celebrated on the 8th day of the 4th month in the Chinese lunar calendar, the day is an official holiday in Hong Kong and South Korea.

The date falls from the end of April to the end of May in the Gregorian calendar. The solar Gregorian calendar date varies from year to year: 2017: May 3 2018: May 22 2019: May 12 2020: April 30 In 1999 the Taiwanese government set Buddha's birthday as the second Sunday of May, the same date as Mother's Day; as a result of the Meiji Restoration, Japan adopted the Gregorian calendar in lieu of the Chinese lunar calendar in 1873. However, it took until 1945, the end of World War II, for religious festivities to adopt the new calendar. In most Japanese temples, Buddha's birth is now celebrated on the Gregorian calendar date April 8. In Bangladesh, the event is called Buddho Purnima. On the days proceeding Purnima Buddhist monks and priests decorate the temples with colourful decorations and candles. On the day of the festival the President and Prime Minister deliver speeches about the history and importance of Buddhism, religious harmony in the country. From noon onwards large fairs are held in and around the temples and viharas, selling bengali food, toys.

Performances of Buddha's life are presented. Buddhist monks teach celebrants about the Five Precepts. Buddhists attend a congression inside the monastery where the chief monk would deliver a speech discussing the Buddha and the Three Jewels, about living the ideal life. Afterwards, a prayer to the Buddha would be conducted and people would light candles and recite the Three Jewels and Five Precepts. In Cambodia, Buddha's Birthday is celebrated as Visak Bochea and is a public holiday where monks around the country carry flags, lotus flowers and candles to acknowledge Vesak. People take part in alms giving to the monks. In China, celebrations may occur in Buddhist temples where people may light incense and bring food offerings for the monks. In Hong Kong, Buddha's birthday is a public holiday. Lanterns are lit to symbolise the Buddha's enlightenment and many people visit the temple to pay their respects; the bathing of the Buddha is a major feature of Buddha's birthday celebrations in the city. The festival is a public holiday in Macau.

India is the land where the Buddha established Buddhism. Buddha spent majority of his life in; some of the holiest sites associated with Buddha's life include Bodhgaya, Sarnath and Rajgir, Kushinagar Under Emperor Ashoka, Buddhism spread from India to other nations. Buddha Purnima or Buddha Jayanthi in South India or Tathagata is a public holiday in India; the public holiday for Buddha purnima in India was initiated by B. R. Ambedkar when he was the minister of law and justice It is celebrated in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Bodh Gaya, various parts of North Bengal such as Kalimpong and Kurseong, Maharashtra (w

Silas Christofferson

Silas G. Christofferson, one of the Early Birds of Aviation, was a pioneering inventor and pilot, he was the brother of Harry Christofferson, a fellow Early Bird, the husband of aviator and X-ray technician Edna Christofferson. Christofferson was born in Polk County, Iowa in 1890; when he was six, his family moved to California. He had six brothers, four of whom became aviators; the most notable of these was Harry Christofferson. By 1908, Christofferson had moved to Los Angeles, where he worked as a chauffeur. In 1910, Christofferson co-founded the Bennett-Christofferson Airship Company in Oregon. Named on the incorporation papers were Fred and Mabel Bennett; the company started out with a capital stock of 3000 dollars. By 1911, Christofferson and Fred Bennett were making practice flights on the artillery drill grounds of the Vancouver Barracks, they were only permitted to fly in the early morning and after 4 PM to avoid spooking the mules at the barracks. On at least one of these flights, Christofferson took Edna Becker.

Becker and Christofferson married on November 19, 1912. In 1912, Christofferson flew eight miles from the roof of the 150-foot-tall Multnomah Building in Portland, Oregon to the Vancouver Barracks in Vancouver, Washington; the flight took him twelve minutes and was observed by a crowd of over 45,000. Upon landing, he said that "hile my trip was not as pleasant as some might think, I enjoyed it immensely." The Oregonian declared it a record-setting feat, claiming Christofferson was the first to " his heavier-than-air machine in a start from the midst of a business section of a great city."In 1914, Christofferson reached an altitude of 15,728 feet in a flight over Mount Whitney, setting a national record. It was his second attempt of the day to fly over the mountain: his first attempt, at 5:21 AM that morning, was unsuccessful due to strong winds. On October 31, 1916, Christofferson was testing a new biplane prototype to demonstrate its safety. Two hundred feet above the ground, his engine died.

He was rushed to the Redwood City Hospital by Harry. A few hours after the crash, Christofferson died of internal injuries, he was buried beside Lincoln Beachey in Cypress Lawn Cemetery

Plumpy'nut

Plumpy'Nut is a peanut-based paste in a plastic wrapper for treatment of severe acute malnutrition manufactured by Nutriset, a French company. Removing the need for hospitalization, the 92-gram packets of this paste can be administered at home and allow larger numbers to be treated. Plumpy'Nut may be referred to in scientific literature as a Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food alongside other RUTFs such as BP100. Nutriset has been criticized by Médecins Sans Frontières for enforcing its Plumpy'nut patents. Plumpy’Nut is used as a treatment for emergency malnutrition cases, it supports rapid weight gain derived from broad nutrient intake which can alleviate a starving child from impending illness or death. The product is easy for children to eat because it dispenses from a durable, tear-open package; the fortified peanut butter-like paste contains fats, dietary fiber, proteins and minerals. Peanut butter itself is a rich source of vitamin B vitamins. Plumpy'Nut requires no water, preparation, or refrigeration.

Its ease of use has made mass treatment of malnutrition in famine situations more efficient than in the past. Severe acute malnutrition has traditionally been treated with therapeutic milk and required hospitalization. Unlike milk, Plumpy'Nut can be administered without medical supervision, it provides calories and essential nutrients that restore and maintain body weight and health in malnourished children more than F100. The United Nations has recognized this utility, stating in 2007 that "new evidence suggests... that large numbers of children with severe acute malnutrition can be treated in their communities without being admitted to a health facility or a therapeutic feeding centre," as was implemented in 2007 by UNICEF and the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid Department in Niger to address a malnutrition emergency. Plumpy'nut conforms to the UN definition of a Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food. Plumpy ` nut is not intended for malnutrition in non-famine situations. Peanut allergies have not been found to be a problem in usage due to a lack of allergic reactions in the target populations.

The ingredients in Plumpy'Nut include "peanut-based paste, with sugar, vegetable oil and skimmed milk powder, enriched with vitamins and minerals". Plumpy'Nut is said to be "surprisingly tasty". While the majority of Plumpy'Nut was made in France as of 2010, this therapeutic food is produced and can be made locally in peanut-growing areas by mixing peanut paste with a slurry of other ingredients provisioned by Nutriset. A number of partner companies and one non-profit organization in the U. S state of Rhode Island make Plumpy'Nut. Plumpy'Nut is distributed from the manufacturer to geographic areas of need through a complex supply chain. Forward information flows, such as projections of need, order processes, payment information, backward information flows, including stock monitoring, quality assurance, performance data occur through information exchange vulnerable to errors or tardiness associated with supply chain fragmentation. Factors affecting potential for loss of efficiencies in the supply chain are information flow on orders, basis of need, flow upstream from field officers and country offices to parties controlling regional distribution and manufacturing by Nutriset, downstream flow of information on delivery times and order status.

A complete two-month regimen for a child costs US$60 c. 2010. Inspired by the popular Nutella spread, Plumpy'Nut was invented in 1996 by André Briend, a French paediatric nutritionist, Michel Lescanne, a food-processing engineer. Nutella is a spread composed of sugar, modified palm oil, cocoa, skimmed milk powder, whey powder and vanillin. In contrast, Plumpy'Nut is a combination of peanut paste, vegetable oil and milk powder, without including chocolate, but containing sugar and dietary minerals. Skippy may have developed a similar product in the early 1960s, according to a former employee, although it was never released. Nutriset holds or held patents in many countries for the production of nut-based, nutritional foods as pastes, which they have defended to prevent non-licensees in the United States from producing similar products. In places where Nutriset does not hold a patent, manufacturers of similar pastes have been stopped from exporting their products to places where Plumpy'Nut is patented.

In at least 27 African nations, any non-profit can make the paste and not pay a license fee. In 2010, two US non-profit organizations unsuccessfully sued the French company in an attempt to produce Plumpy'Nut in the US without paying the royalty fee. Mike Mellace, president of one of the organizations claimed that “some children are dying because Nutriset prevents other companies from producing a food which could save their lives.” Invalidation of the Nutriset patent may have a positive impact on populations affected by famine, studies by humanitarian organizations support the idea that having a single, dominant supplier in Nutriset is undesirable. Critics of Nutriset argue the US patent is “obvious in light of prior recipes” and “that the patent has conferred monopoly power on Nutriset and thus violated the Sherman Act". By definition, a patent grants a temporary monopoly, Nutriset won the case; some have suggested a similarity between pharmaceutical company compulsory licensing ag

Simran (actress)

Simran Bagga known by the mononym Simran, is an Indian film actress and television personality. She has predominantly appeared in Tamil, Telugu language films, as well as a few films in Hindi and Kannada. Simran was spent most of her childhood there. Although Simran aspired to become a fashion designer, she accepted offers to join the Indian film industry, which came as a result of her fame as an anchor in the show Superhit Muqabla, making her Bollywood debut in Sanam Harjai. Having acted in a few Hindi films, she achieved her first success with Tere Mere Sapne alongside Arshad Warsi. Subsequently, she made her debut in South Indian cinema through the Malayalam film Indraprastham in 1996, starred in her first Kannada film Simhada Mari and Telugu film Abbai Gari Pelli the following year; the same year, she debuted in Tamil through V. I. P. and was followed by a string of commercial successes in her early career. In 1999, Simran received critical praise for playing a blind woman in Thulladha Manamum Thullum.

However, the turning point of her career came with the success of Vaali, which made Simran the most successful actress in the industry. At the peak of her career she agreed to play the role of an antagonist in Parthen Rasithen and a suffering woman from a premarital agreement in Priyamaanavale, both went on to become commercial and critical successes, she received her first Filmfare Award for Best Tamil Actress for Kannathil Muthamittal, as the mother of an adopted 9-year-old daughter. Other than romantic dramas, Simran had appeared in two comedy films alongside Kamal Haasan. In Telugu, Simran starred in a series of commercially successful films. With the success of the 2004 Sci Fi film New, Simran left the film industry following her marriage with her childhood family friend Deepak Bagga. In 2008, she made a comeback to Tamil cinema with Vaaranam Aayiram, where she played the role of a mother and a wife to the characters played by Suriya and won the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress.

In 1998, entertainment portal Rediff.com called her "one of Tamil cinema's top female draws". In 1999, she was featured in Forbes Magazine as the most prolific actress with a diverse portfolio from the Indian subcontinent. Well noted for her dancing and acting skills in the Indian film industry, she won three Filmfare Awards South including Best Female Debut for Once More, V. I. P. and Nerrukku Ner, one Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Actress for Thulladha Manamum Thullum, three Cinema Express Awards and was awarded the Kalaimamani award twice, in 1999 for her acting talent in films Thulladha Manamum Thullum & Vaali and in 2003 by appreciating her dancing skills. Having her film career spanning from 1995, she has featured in 93 Tamil, Malayalam and Hindi films. Simran was born as Rishibhala Naval to Punjabi parents in Mumbai. Simran has two sisters and Jyothi Naval, a brother named Sumith, she did her schooling from St. Anthony's high school and finished her B. Com in Mumbai, she speaks Punjabi, English and Telugu.

Simran can perform Bharatanatyam and Salsa. She married Deepak, her childhood family friend in 2003, they have two sons and Aadit. Deepak made a cameo appearance in Kicha Vayasu 16. Simran made her debut in the 1995 Hindi film Sanam Harjai, directed by Saawan Kumar, it was the first Indian film to be shot in New Zealand and Simran stayed and shot abroad for three months, though the film was disaster at box office. Jaya Bachchan saw Simran presenting the show Superhit Muqabla on Doordarshan's Metro channel, subsequently offered her a leading role in her production, the romantic drama Tere Mere Sapne. Simran starred in supporting roles in Muqaddar and Daadagiri. Meanwhile, she has been acting in South Indian languages and was a huge star in Tamil and Telugu cinema, her first South Indian film was the Malayalam film Indraprastham. In 1997, she appeared in opposite Shivarajkumar. Prior to her debut in Tamil films, Simran was associated with two projects which failed to materialize in 1996, Parthiepan's Soththukatchi and Bharathiraja's Siragugal Murivadhillai.

Her Tamil cinema debut was in 1997, marked with films Once More and V. I. P.. But she signed her first Tamil movie with multi-starrer Nerukku Ner, yet the former two projects were released prior to the release of Nerukku Ner and earned her recognition. In Once More she played the love-interest of Vijay along with veteran actors Sivaji Ganesan and Saroja Devi directed by S. A. Chandrasekhar; the film was a box office stated that the film was a commercial family entertainer. And in V. I. P. she was seen opposite Prabhu Deva along with Abbas and Rambha, directed by D. Sabhapathi; the song "Minnal Oru Kodi" picturized with Prabhu Deva and Simran becoming a chartbuster and all-time hit for the actors. The film had no scope of performance and a critic noted as "Thankfully, not much is required from Abbas or Simran in the acting department." Both the movies emerged her to fetch Filmfare Award for Best Female Debut – South for the year. For Nerukku Ner she again produced by director Mani Ratnam. Following successful debuts in Tamil