The Forbes Road was a historic military roadway in what was British America, constructed in 1758 from Carlisle, Pennsylvania, to the French Fort Duquesne at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh, via Fort Littleton, Fort Bedford and Fort Ligonier. The road, 300 miles long, was named for Brigadier General John Forbes, the commander of the 1758 British expedition that built the road during the French and Indian War in Pennsylvania; the Forbes Road and Braddock's Road were the two main land routes that the British cut west through the Appalachian wilderness during the war, despite the need to travel over and past a succession of steep north-south ridges that interfered with east-west travel. Like General Edward Braddock, General Forbes faced great difficulty when transporting his army and artillery to Fort Duquesne through a wilderness traveled only by indigenous tribes and fur traders. Benefiting from the experience of Braddock's ill-fated 1755 military expedition, Forbes constructed forts at regular intervals along the new road and established supply lines between the forts.
Forbes avoided Braddock's Road and encounters with the enemy before the expedition reached Fort Duquesne. Forbes' army captured Fort Duquesne from the French army on November 25, 1758. Forbes built a much larger fort on the site, naming it Fort Pitt. Construction of the Forbes Road made transportation of supplies, soldiers and trade easier between the eastern farms and cities and western portions of Pennsylvania, provided an important route west for settlers; the Forbes Road provided a more direct route to Ohio Country through Pennsylvania compared to Braddock's Road, constructed west from Cumberland, Maryland north into Pennsylvania. U. S. Route 22 followed portions of the Forbes Road from Monroeville through a town now named "Forbes Road" and Hannastown to Latrobe; the Lincoln Highway followed the Forbes Road between Latrobe and Bedford. Still a portion of the Pennsylvania Turnpike followed a portion of the Forbes Road from Bedford over the Appalachian mountains to Carlisle. In contrast to the Forbes Road's successors, the National Road, now US 40 followed Braddock's Road across the Appalachian Mountains from Cumberland into Pennsylvania.
Many historical markers indicate locations along the original route where Forbes traveled with his army. In Westmoreland County, a Forbes Road marker is located along US 22, 1.2 miles east of Murrysville. In Cumberland County, there are markers along US 11 southwest of Carlisle and one mile northeast of Shippensburg. In Fulton County, there is a marker along 0.2 miles southwest of Burnt Cabins. Forbes Road markers have been erected in Allegheny and Somerset counties. Braddock Road Lincoln Highway French and Indian War Great Britain in the Seven Years War Battle of Fort Duquesne Forbes Road Locations of Forbes Road markers History of Westmoreland County, page 1 Early History of Westmoreland County
Battle of Devil's Hole
The Battle of Devil's Hole known as the Devil's Hole Massacre, was fought near Niagara Gorge in present-day New York state on September 14, 1763, between a detachment of the British 80th Regiment of Light Armed Foot and about 300 Seneca warriors during Pontiac's Rebellion. The Seneca warriors killed wounded 8 before the British managed to retreat; as early as 1757, Seneca in the Niagara Falls area had complained to the French about losing control of the long portage along an area of the Niagara River, which French traders were trying to improve for wagons. They resented the Europeans trying to take over their traditional territory and displace them from their work. After the Seven Years' War, the British took over this area near the Great Lakes. John Stedman improved the former portage trail so that it could accommodate oxen and wagons, hired teams and escorts to carry goods through. Up to 300 Seneca men had worked as porters on what they thought of as their portage. Discontent rose among many Native American tribes in the Great Lakes area, who wanted to get rid of the British colonists before more encroached on their lands.
In Pontiac's Rebellion, beginning in 1763, several tribes in the Great Lakes and Northwest area cooperated in rising up against the British. In the New York colony, Sir William Johnson, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, had long advocated fair treatment of Native Americans but was only successful, he wrote, "Our people in general are ill calculated to maintain friendship with the Indians. They despise those in peace whom they fear to meet in war." On September 14, 1763, a large Seneca band of an estimated 300–500 warriors ambushed a wagon train and its armed escort en route from Fort Schlosser to Fort Niagara as it passed through Devil's Hole, an area known for its difficult terrain. One part of the trail was in a wooded area with a deep ravine on either side; the escort party and teamsters, led by Porter Master John Stedman, were caught by surprise. The Seneca moved in to fight at close quarters, making musket fire useless, only three of the party of 24 managed to escape to Fort Schlosser for help.
Camped nearby at Lewiston was a detachment of the British British 80th Regiment of Light Armed Foot from Fort Gray. Two companies of the 80th commanded by George Campbell and William Fraser heard the news of the ambush and rushed off to rescue the wagon train. From a brush-covered hill commanding the trail, Seneca warriors attacked the soldiers about one mile from the wagon train. Once the British companies began to retreat, the Seneca moved to cut them off from the fort and killed "more than 80 soldiers." The soldiers suffered a loss of 8 wounded before withdrawing. The Anglo-Americans called it "The Devil's Hole Massacre"; the warrior Dekanandi told Sir William Johnson that 309 warriors attacked the British and their only loss was one man wounded. Reinforcements from Fort Schlosser under the command of Major John Wilkins arrived shortly after the second battle, but soon withdrew to the fort, fearing another attack; when they returned several days they found the soldiers had been ritually scalped or their bodies thrown into the ravine.
Shortly after the battle, Johnson was told that the attack had been planned by a Seneca chief known as Farmer's Brother, who led a large band that supported Pontiac. The consensus among historians is; because of the successful Seneca attacks, the British reinforced their position in Niagara, when the Seneca had hoped to drive them away. Sir William Johnson forced the Seneca to cede land in this area: a strip one mile wide on each side of the Niagara River from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie, called the Mile Reserve, as well as the islands upriver of Niagara Falls; this cut them off from traditional control of the river and portage, a transportation route as well as a source of food and water. The Seneca long contended to regain control of the river banks. White settlers stayed out of the area until after the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, its settlement forced most of the Iroquois as British allies to Canada. List of battles won by Indigenous peoples of the Americas Jerry. Encyclopedia of American Indian Wars, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO Inc. 1997.
Ahrens, Edward W. The Devil's Hole Massacre, Rissa Productions, 2004. "History of the Canadian Indians – the Pontiac Rebellion", Marianopolis University Historic Lewiston, New York Devil’s Hole and the Devil’s Hole Massacre
Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet
Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet, was an Irish official of the British Empire. As a young man, Johnson moved to the Province of New York to manage an estate purchased by his uncle, Admiral Peter Warren, located amidst the Mohawk, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. Johnson learned the Mohawk language and Iroquois customs, was appointed the British agent to the Iroquois; because of his success, he was appointed in 1756 as British Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the northern colonies. Throughout his career as a British official among the Iroquois, Johnson combined personal business with official diplomacy, acquiring tens of thousands of acres of Native land and becoming wealthy. Johnson commanded Iroquois and colonial militia forces during the French and Indian War, the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War in Europe, his role in the British victory at the Battle of Lake George in 1755 earned him a baronetcy. Serving as the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the northern district from 1756 until his death in 1774, Johnson worked to keep American Indians attached to the British interest.
His counterpart for the southern colonies was John Stuart. William Johnson was born around 1715 in the Kingdom of Ireland, he was the eldest son of Christopher Johnson of Co.. Meath and Anne Warren, daughter of Michael Warren of Warrenstown, Co. Meath and Catherine Aylmer, sister of Admiral Matthew Aylmer, 1st Baron Aylmer, his mother Anne was from an "Old English" Catholic gentry family who had, in previous generations, lost much of their status to Protestant English colonists. Christopher Johnson was descended from the O'Neill of the Fews dynasty of County Armagh. William Johnson's paternal grandfather was known as William MacShane, but changed his surname to Johnson, the Anglicisation of the Gaelic Mac Seáin; some early biographers portrayed William Johnson as living in poverty in Ireland, but modern studies reveal that his family lived a comfortable, if modest, lifestyle. O'Toole, p. 37 Although the Johnson family had a history of Jacobitism, William Johnson's uncle Peter Warren was raised as a Protestant to enable him to pursue a career in the British Royal Navy.
He achieved considerable success. As a Catholic, William Johnson had limited opportunities for advancement in the British Empire. Never religious, Johnson converted to Protestantism when offered an opportunity to work for his uncle in British America. Peter Warren had purchased a large tract of undeveloped land along the south side of the Mohawk River in the province of New York. Warren convinced Johnson to lead an effort to establish a settlement there, to be known as Warrensburgh, with the implied understanding that Johnson would inherit much of the land. Johnson began to clear the land, he purchased African slaves to do the heavy labor of clearance. Warren intended Johnson to become involved in trading with American Indians, but Johnson soon discovered that the trade routes were to the north, on the opposite side of the river from Warrensburgh. Acting on his own initiative, in 1739 Johnson bought a house and small farm on the north side of the river, where he built a store and a sawmill. From this location, which he called "Mount Johnson", Johnson was able to cut into Albany's Indian trade.
He supplied goods to traders who were headed to Fort Oswego, bought from them furs when they returned downriver. He dealt directly with New York City merchants; the Albany merchants were irate, Warren was not pleased that his nephew was becoming independent. Johnson became associated with the Mohawk, the easternmost nation of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. By the time Johnson arrived, their population had collapsed to only 580, due to chronic infectious diseases unwittingly introduced by Europeans and warfare with competing tribes related to the lucrative beaver trade; the Mohawk thought an alliance with Johnson could advance their interests in the British imperial system. Around 1742, they adopted him as an honorary sachem, or civil chief, gave him the name Warraghiyagey, which he translated as "A Man who undertakes great Things". In 1744, the War of the Austrian Succession spread to colonial America, where it was known as King George's War; because of his close relationship with the Mohawk, in 1746 Johnson was appointed as New York's agent to the Iroquois, replacing the Albany-based Indian commissioners.
The newly created "Colonel of the Warriors of the Six Nations" was instructed to enlist and equip colonists and Indians for a campaign against the French. Recruiting Iroquois warriors was difficult: since the so-called Grand Settlement of 1701, the Iroquois had maintained a policy of neutrality in colonial wars between France and Great Britain. Working with the Mohawk chief Hendrick Theyanoguin, Johnson was able to recruit Mohawk warriors to fight on the side of the British. Johnson organised small raiding parties, which were sent against the settlements of the French and their Indian allies. In accordance with New York's Scalp Act of 1747, Johnson paid bounties for scalps, although he realised this encouraged the scalping of non-combatants of all ages and both sexes. In June 1748, Johnson was made "Colonel of the New York levies", a position that gave him additional responsibility for the colonial militias at Albany. In July 1748, word was received of a peace settlement; the Mohawk had suffered heavy casualties in the war, which lessened Johnson's prestige among them for a while.
In 1748, Johnson
King's Royal Rifle Corps
The King's Royal Rifle Corps was an infantry rifle regiment of the British Army, raised in British North America as the Royal American Regiment during the phase of the Seven Years' War in North America known as'The French and Indian War.' Subsequently numbered the 60th Regiment of Foot, the regiment served for more than 200 years throughout the British Empire. In 1958, the regiment joined the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry and the Rifle Brigade in the Green Jackets Brigade and in 1966 the three regiments were formally amalgamated to become the Royal Green Jackets; the KRRC became the 2nd Battalion Royal Green Jackets. On the disbandment of 1/RGJ in 1992, the RGJ's KRRC battalion was redesignated as 1/RGJ becoming 2/RIFLES in 2007; the King's Royal Rifle Corps was raised in the American colonies in 1756 as the 62nd Regiment to defend the thirteen colonies against attack by the French and their Native American allies. After Braddock's defeat in 1755, royal approval for a new regiment, as well as funds, were granted by parliament just before Christmas 1755 – hence the regiment's traditional birthday of Christmas Day.
However, parliamentary delays meant that it was 4 March 1756 before a special act of parliament created four battalions of 1,000 men each to include foreigners for service in the Americas. A regimental history compiled in 1879 states that, in November 1755, Parliament voted the sum of £81,000 for the purpose of raising a regiment of four battalions, each one thousand strong, for service in British North America. To provide experienced personnel, Parliament passed the Commissions to Foreign Protestants Act 1756 The Earl of Loudoun, who as commander-in-chief of the Forces in North America, was appointed colonel-in-chief of the regiment. About fifty officers' commissions were given to Germans and Swiss, none were allowed to rise above the rank of lieutenant-colonel. According to a modern history of the regiment, the idea for creating this unique force was proposed by Jacques Prevost, a Swiss soldier and adventurer, a friend of the Duke of Cumberland. Prevost recognised the need for soldiers who understood forest warfare, unlike the regulars who were brought to America in 1755 by General Edward Braddock.
The regiment was intended to combine the characteristics of a colonial corps with those of a foreign legion. Swiss and German forest fighting experts, American colonists and British volunteers from other British regiments were recruited; these men were Protestants, an important consideration for fighting against the predominantly Catholic French. The officers were recruited from Europe – not from the American colonies – and consisted of English, Irish, Dutch and Germans, it was the first time. In total, the regiment consisted of 101 officers, 240 non-commissioned officers and 4,160 enlisted men; the battalions were raised on New York. The regiment was renumbered the 60th Regiment in February 1757 when the 50th and 51st foot regiments were removed from the British Army roll after their surrender at Fort Oswego. Among the distinguished foreign officers given commissions in the 60th was Henry Bouquet, a Swiss citizen, whose forward-looking ideas on tactics and man-management would come to be accepted as standard in the British Army many years in the future.
Bouquet was commanding officer of the 1st battalion, with his fellow battalion commanders, worked to form units that were better suited to warfare in the forests and lakes of northeast America. Elements of the new regiment fought at Louisbourg in June 1758, the Cape Sable Campaign in September 1758 and Quebec in September 1759 in the campaign which wrested Canada from France. To reward and maintain their service and loyalty, Parliament passed the American Protestant Soldier Naturalization Act 1762, which offered British naturalization to those officers and soldiers who had or would serve for two years, with certain conditions and on the model of the Plantation Act 1740; these earlier engagements were conventional battles on the European model, but fighting during Pontiac's War in 1763 was of a different character. The frontier war threatened the British control of North America; the new regiment at first lost several outlying garrisons such as Fort Michilimackinac a detachment fought under Bouquet's leadership at the victory of Bushy Run in August 1763.
The 60th was uniformed and equipped in a similar manner to other British regiments with red coats and cocked hats or grenadier caps, but on campaign, swords were replaced with hatchets, coats and hats cut down for ease of movement in the woods. Two additional battalions of the regiment were raised in England in 1775, principally of men recruited from England and Hanover in 1775 for service in the American Revolutionary War. After assembly in the Isle of Wight, both battalions were sent in 1776 to Florida where they were joined by detachments from 1st and 2nd Battalions; these battalions were deployed to Georgia and were involved in skirmishes at Sudbury in January 1779, the Battle of Briar Creek in March 1779, the Siege of Savannah in October 1779 where elements from the 4th Battalion captured the Colour of the 2nd South Carolina Regiment, at Augusta in September 1780. The 3rd and 4th battalions were disbanded in June 1783. During the Napoleonic Wars, the
Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania
Westmoreland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. At the 2010 census, the population was 365,169; the county seat is Greensburg. Formed from, Lancaster and Bedford Counties, Westmoreland County was founded on February 26, 1773, was the first county in the colony of Pennsylvania whose entire territorial boundary was located west of the Allegheny Mountains. Westmoreland County included the present-day counties of Fayette, Washington and parts of Beaver, Allegheny and Armstrong counties, it is named after a historic county of England. Westmoreland County is included in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,036 square miles, of which 1,028 square miles is land and 8.5 square miles is water. Armstrong County Indiana County Cambria County Somerset County Fayette County Washington County Allegheny County Butler County At the 2010 census, there were 365,169 people, 153,650 households and 101,928 families residing in the county.
The population density was 355.4 per square mile. There were 168,199 housing units at an average density of 163.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.3% White, 2.3% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. 0.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 153,650 households of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.86. 22.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 22.4% from 25 to 44, 31.3% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45.1 years. For every 100 females there were 94.8 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. In November 2008, there were 249,147 registered voters in Westmoreland County. Democratic: 136,882 Republican: 87,813 Other Parties: 24,452 The Democratic Party had been dominant in county-level politics, however Westmoreland has trended Republican at the national and statewide levels. In 2000, Republican George W. Bush won 51% and Democrat Al Gore won 45%. In 2004, Republican George W. Bush won 56% and Democrat John Kerry won 43%. In 2008, Republican John McCain won 57% to Democrat Barack Obama's 41%. Governor Ed Rendell lost Westmoreland in both 2002 and 2006. In 2008 Republican Tim Krieger picked up the 57th House district left open by the retirement of Democrat Tom Tangretti. In 2010, both Pat Toomey and Tom Corbett won Westmoreland in their statewide bids; the GOP gained control of two more State House districts, the 54th with Eli Evankovich and the 56th with George Dunbar. In 2011, the Republican Party swept all county row offices Gina Cerilli, Democrat Ted Kopas, Democrat Charles Anderson, Republican Clerk of Courts, Bryan Kline, Republican Controller, Jeff Balzer, Republican Coroner, Kenneth Bacha, Democrat District Attorney, John Peck, Democrat Prothonotary, Christina O'Brien, Democrat Recorder of Deeds, Tom Murphy, Democrat Register of Wills, Sherry Magretti-Hamilton, Republican Sheriff, Jonathan Held, Republican Treasurer, Jared M Squires, Republican Belle Vernon Area School District Blairsville-Saltsburg School District Burrell School District Derry Area School District Franklin Regional School District Greater Latrobe School District Greensburg-Salem School District Hempfield Area School District Jeannette City School District Kiski Area School District Leechburg Area School District Ligonier Valley School District Monessen City School District Mount Pleasant Area School District New Kensington–Arnold School District Norwin School District Penn-Trafford School District Southmoreland School District Yough School District Dr. Robert Ketterer Charter School grades 7th through 12th Latrobe According to EdNA Greensburg Central Catholic High School Penn State New Kensington Seton Hill University Saint Vincent College Westmoreland County Community College University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg Carlow College at Greensburg Triangle Tech A major coal strike occurred in the county in the winter of 1910–11.
Volkswagen's Westmoreland plant near New Stanton in Westmoreland County was the first foreign-owned factory mass-producing automobiles in the U. S, it operated from 1978 to 1988. There are four Pennsylvania state parks in Westmoreland County. Keystone State Park Laurel Ridge State Park Laurel Summit State Park Linn Run State Park Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities, townships, and, in at most two cases, towns; the following cities and townships are located in Westmoreland County: Arnold Greensburg Jeannette Latrobe Lower Burrell Monessen New Kensington Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the U. S. Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data, they are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities, such as villages, may be listed here as well. Franklin Township - now known as Murrysville, Pennsylvania The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Westmorelan
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
The Ohio Country was a name used in the mid to late 18th century for a region of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and north of the upper Ohio and Allegheny Rivers extending to Lake Erie. The area encompassed all of present-day Ohio, northwestern West Virginia, Western Pennsylvania, a wedge of southeastern Indiana; this area was disputed in the 17th century by the Iroquois and other Native American tribes, by France and Great Britain in the mid-18th century. During British sovereignty, several minor "wars" including Pontiac's Rebellion and Dunmore's war were fought here. Ohio Country became part of unorganized U. S. territory in 1783 with the Treaty of Paris. It was one of the first frontier regions of the United States. Several colonial states had conflicting claims to portions of it, including Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania. In 1787, it became part of the larger organized Northwest Territory. In the 17th century, the area north of the Ohio River had been occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Shawnee and some Siouan language-speaking tribes.
Around 1660, during a conflict known as the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois seized control of the Ohio Country, driving out the Shawnee and Siouans, such as the Omaha and Ponca, who settled further northwest and west. The Iroquois conquered and absorbed the Erie, who spoke an Iroquoian language; the Ohio Country remained uninhabited for decades, was used as a hunting ground by the Iroquois. In the 1720s, a number of Native American groups began to migrate to the Ohio Country from the East, driven by pressure from encroaching colonists. By 1724, Delaware Indians had established the village of Kittanning on the Allegheny River in present-day western Pennsylvania. With them came those Shawnee who had settled in the east. Other bands of the scattered Shawnee tribe began to return to the Ohio Country in the decades that followed. A number of Seneca and other Iroquois migrated to the Ohio Country, moving away from the French and British imperial rivalries south of Lake Ontario; the Seneca were the westernmost of the Iroquois nations based in New York.
In the late 1740s and the second half of the 18th century, the British angled for control of the territory. In 1749, the British Crown, via the colonial government of Virginia, granted the Ohio Company a great deal of this territory on the condition that it be settled by British colonists. With the arrival of the Europeans, both Great Britain and France claimed the area and both sent fur traders into the area to do business with the Ohio Country Indians; the Iroquois League claimed the region by right of conquest. The rivalry between the two European nations, the Iroquois, the Ohio natives for control of the region played an important part in the French and Indian War from 1754 through 1760. After remaining neutral, the Ohio Country Indians sided with the French. Armed with supplies and guns from the French, they raided via the Kittanning Path against British settlers east of the Alleghenies. After they destroyed Fort Granville in the summer of 1756, the colonial governor John Penn ordered Lt. Colonel John Armstrong to destroy the Shawnee villages west of the Alleghenies.
The British defeated the their allies. Meanwhile, other British and colonial forces drove the French from Fort Duquesne and built Fort Pitt, the origin of the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In the 1763 Treaty of Paris, France ceded control of the entire Ohio region to Great Britain, without consulting its native allies, who still believed they had territorial claims. Colonies such as Pennsylvania and Virginia claimed some of the westward lands by their original charters. In an attempt to improve relations with the Native Americans to encourage trade and avoid conflicts with colonists, George III in his Royal Proclamation of 1763 placed the Ohio Country in what was declared an Indian Reserve, stretching from the Appalachian Mountains west to the Mississippi River and from as far north as Newfoundland to Florida; the British ordered the existing settlers either to leave or obtain special permission to stay and prohibited British colonists from settling west of the Appalachians. The area was closed to European settlement by the Royal Proclamation of 1763.
The Crown no longer recognized claims. On June 22, 1774, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act. Colonists in the Thirteen Colonies considered this one of the Intolerable Acts passed by Parliament, contributing to the American Revolution. Despite the Crown's actions, frontiersmen from the Virginia and Pennsylvania colonies began to cross the Allegheny Mountains and came into conflict with the Shawnee; the Shawnee referred to the settlers as the Long Knives. Because of the threat posed by the colonists, the Shawnee and other nations of the Ohio Country chose to side with the British against the rebel colonists during the American Revolutionary War. Americans wanted to establish control over the region. In 1778, after victories in the region by the Patriot general George Rogers Clark, the Virginia legislature organized the first American civil government in the region, they called it the Illinois County, which encompassed all of the lands lying west of the Ohio River to which Virginia had any claim.
The high-water mark of the Native American struggle to retain the region was in 1782: the Ohio Nations and the British met in a council at the Chalawgatha village along the Little Miami River to plan what was the successful rout of the Americans at the Battle of Blue Licks, south of the Ohio River, two weeks later. In 1783, following the Treaty of Paris, Great Britain ceded the area to