click links in text for more info

Battle of Chemulpo Bay

The Battle of Chemulpo Bay was a naval battle in the Russo-Japanese War, which took place on 9 February 1904, off the coast of present-day Incheon, Korea. The opening stage of the Russo-Japanese War began with a pre-emptive strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the Russian Pacific Fleet spread among Port Arthur and Chemulpo Bay. Command of the Chemulpo operation was given to Rear Admiral Uryū Sotokichi, with six cruisers, three to eight torpedo boats, the aviso Chihaya, three transports and 2,500 ground troops. Chemulpo had strategic significance, as it was the main port for the Korean capital of Seoul, was the main invasion route used by Japanese forces in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894. However, with its wide tidal bore, extensive mudflats, narrow, winding channels, posed a number of tactical challenges for both attackers and defenders; the Japanese protected cruiser Chiyoda had been based at Chemulpo for the past 10 months, had been keeping watch on the Russian protected cruiser Varyag and the aging gunboat Korietz based at Chemulpo to look after Russian interests.

After the Russian transport Sungari arrived at Chemulpo on 7 February 1904, reporting the sighting of a large Japanese force approaching, the gunboat Korietz was ordered to Port Arthur to report and request instructions. In the early morning of 8 February, Korietz spotted Chiyoda outside the Chemulpo roadstead, mistaking it for a fellow Russian ship, loaded its guns for a salute. On closing in, the crew of Korietz realized their mistake and in the ensuing confusion the guns were discharged. Chiyoda responded by launching a torpedo. Both sides missed, but this was the first actual exchange of fire in the Russo-Japanese War, it is unclear which side opened fire first. Korietz retreated back to Chemulpo harbor. In the morning of 8 February 1904, Chiyoda rendezvoused with Uryū's squadron outside the entrance to Chemulpo, reported that several warships from neutral countries were present in the anchorage, including: HMS Talbot and Elba. An American warship—the gunboat USS Vicksburg—was present, but she was further up the harbor.

Uryū reasoned that if the Russians remained anchored in the midst of the neutral ships, they could not attack his transports, whereas if the Russians came out to do battle, he had ample force to deal with them. On the other hand, it was against international law to attack the Russians while they were anchored in a neutral port. Uryū sent a message requesting that the captains of HMS Talbot and Elba to shift their anchorage, promising that no attack should be delivered before 16:00. Uryū ordered the cruisers Chiyoda, Takachiho and his torpedo boats to proceed up the channel with the troopships to commence the debarkation at once, while the cruisers Naniwa and Akashi were held in reserve. Three torpedo-boats took refuge near Niitaka far board. At 18:00 on 8 February, Japanese troopships anchored at Chemulpo, mooring next to the Russians, disembarked four battalions of soldiers of the IJA 12th Division in an operation that continued into the night. To the amazement of the tense Japanese, the Russians aboard Varyag and Korietz took no action, but continued to air out bunting as if on parade.

The troop disembarkation was complete by 03:00 on 9 February, all Japanese warships and transports withdrew from the harbor except for the Chiyoda. The latter delivered a letter to Varyag and neutral vessels, including the British cruiser Talbot, the French cruiser Pascal, the Italian cruiser Elba, the U. S. gunboat collier Pompey. HIS IMPERIAL JAPANESE MAJESTY'S SHIP NANIWA Chemulpo Roadstead, February 8. 1904. Sir: I have the honor to notify you that as hostilities exist between the Empire of Japan and the Empire of Russia at present I shall attack the men-of-war of the Government of Russia, stationed at present in the port of Chemulpo, with the force under my command, in case of the refusal of the Russian senior naval officer present at Chemulpo to my demand to leave the port of Chemulpo before the noon of the 9th of February, 1904, I respectfully request you to keep away from the scene of action in the port so that no danger from the action would come to the ship under your command; the above-mentioned attack will not take place before 4 o'clock p. m. of the 9th of February, 1904, to give time to put into practice the above-mentioned request.

If there are any transports or merchant vessels of your nationality in the port of Chemulpo at present, I request you to communicate to them the above notification. I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant, S. URIU A conference was convened on Talbot by Captain Vsevolod Rudnev and the captains of neutral warships, it was decided that the Russians would fight their way out. At noon, Captain Denis Bagly of Talbot came to Naniwa with a letter signed by all of the neutral captains except for the captain of Vicksburg, W. A. Marshall, declining the request to change anchorage, on the grounds that Chemulpo was a neutral port. Outgunned and outnumbered, refusing advice from the neutral captains to surrender, at 11:00 on 9 February, Captain Vsevolod Rudnev of Varyag attempted to make a break for the open sea. From the Varyag logbook: 11:10 All hands on deck on Varyag. 11:20 Cruiser goes to open Korietz in 1 cable length behind. English and Italian crews cheer Russians. 11:25 Battle alarm on Varyag.

Japanese cruisers Asama, Takachiho, Chiyoda and Niitaka in bearing line from Richy island to Northern passage. Japanese torpedo-boats behind cruisers. 11:45 Varyag opens


ITU-T Recommendation Q.931 is the ITU standard ISDN connection control signalling protocol, forming part of Digital Subscriber Signalling System No. 1. Unlike connectionless systems like UDP, ISDN is connection oriented and uses explicit signalling to manage call state: Q.931. Q.931 does not carry user data. Q.931 does not have a direct equivalent in the Internet Protocol stack, but can be compared to SIP. Q.931 does not provide flow control or perform retransmission, since the underlying layers are assumed to be reliable and the circuit-oriented nature of ISDN allocates bandwidth in fixed increments of 64 kbit/s. Amongst other things, Q. 931 manages connection breakdown. Like TCP, Q. 931 documents both the protocol a protocol state machine. Q.931 was designed for ISDN call establishment and release of network connections between two DTEs on the ISDN D channel. Q.931 has more been used as part of the VoIP H.323 protocol stack and in modified form in some mobile phone transmission systems and in ATM.

A Q.931 frame contains the following elements: Protocol discriminator – Specifies which signaling protocol is used for the connection Call reference value – Addresses different connections which can exist simultaneously. The value is valid only during the actual time period of the connection Message type – Specifies the type of a layer 3 message out of the Q.931-defined Message type set for call control. There are messages defined for the call release and the control of call features. Information elements – Specify further information, associated to the actual message. An IE contains their length and a variable field of contents. Messages control or report the status of connections. For example: SETUP CALL PROCEEDING ALERTING CONNECT DISCONNECT RELEASE. RELEASE COMPLETE. RESTART Q. 2931 is a extended variant of Q. 931 for use on "B-ISDN" or ATM networks. Q.2931 fulfils a purpose within BISDN similar to that of Q.931 in ISDN. Whilst ISDN allocates bandwidth in fixed 64k increments, B-ISDN/ATM incorporates an elaborate traffic management scheme, allowing precise specification of virtual circuit traffic parameters such as peak and mean bandwidth, cell loss ratio and so on.

In order that ATM switches can manage bandwidth allocation in the network, encodings to express these parameters were added in Q.2931. Unlike Q.931, although Q.2931 was implemented by many switch manufacturers, it was never deployed


The swarmandal or Indian harp is a zither, originating from the Indian subcontinent, similar to the qanun, today most used as an accompanying instrument for vocal Indian classical music. The name combines mandal, representing its ability to produce many notes. Swarmandals measure from twenty-four to thirty inches in length and twelve to fifteen inches in width; the singer may choose to employ any number of strings from 21 to 36. The strings are hooked in a nail lodged in the right edge of the swarmandal and on the left are wound around rectangular pegs which can be tightened with a special key. Wooden pegs were used instead of metal ones in the medieval period. A sharp 1⁄2-inch ridge on both sides of the swarmandal stands a little apart from the nails on which the strings are tightened; this ridge functions as a bridge on both sides. The swarmandal is similar to the zither in many respects; some of the vocalists who have used this instrument extensively are Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Salamat Ali Khan, Kishori Amonkar, Rashid Khan and Ajoy Chakrabarty.

Other vocalists such as Amir Khan have played around with it but preferred the simpler, less intrusive tanpura for accompaniment. The Beatles' 1967 single "Strawberry Fields Forever" features a swarmandal, played by George Harrison, as does "Within You Without You", from the band's Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album. Autoharp Drone Zither

Sandy Wilson (director)

Sandra “Sandy” Wilson is a Canadian film director and screenwriter, based in Vancouver, British Columbia. She is best known for her films My American Harmony Cats. Most of her films take place in the same areas she grew up: Okanagan. Wilson has received critical acclaim for her films. At the 1986 Genie Awards, My American Cousin won six awards including Best Achievement in Direction, Best Original Screenplay and Best Motion Picture. Harmony Cats was nominated for Genie Awards in 1993. Sandra “Sandy” Wilson was born in 1947 in Penticton, B. C. and is of English descent. She grew up in Paradise Ranch just outside of Penticton, she has a brother named Brian. He was the inspiration for Wilson's 1972 documentary He's Not the Walking Kind. Wilson studied History at Simon Fraser University, she never intended to become a filmmaker but when she signed up for a Film Workshop at the university, Wilson discovered her passion for moving images. Wilson started her career in filmmaking in 1969, she began writing and directing films in Vancouver.

Much of Wilson's early work consists of short personal documentaries. For The Bridal Shower, Growing Up in Paradise and He’s Not the Walking Kind Wilson incorporated home video footage that her father shot on 16mm film; the success of her early personal documentaries inspired Wilson to begin work on her first feature film. In 1972, during work on He’s Not the Walking Kind, she began an outline of My American Cousin. My American Cousin is Wilson's first feature film, it is a semi-autobiographical film, inspired by her childhood memories. It follows a twelve-year-old girl's coming-of-age during a summer in the late 1950s in Okanagan, B. C; the film was further inspired by the Johnny Horton song “The Battle of New Orleans.” When she was working on the film, Wilson heard it on the radio and thought it reminded her of her American cousin, which became the inspiration for the film's title. The budget for the film was $1.5 million and was fund raised over a two-year period. Wilson started the project by traveling to Toronto and pitching the film to “anyone with money.”

Wilson's childhood friend, Phil Borsos helped during the early days of My American Cousin. Borsos father, Peter O’Brien, was Sandy Wilson's high school art teacher. Borsos showed his father the script, O’Brien agreed to produce the film. Much of the film was shot in the community: Paradise Ranch. Despite other executives on the film advising against it, Wilson cast her 13-year-old neighbour, Margaret Langrick, in the lead role of Sandy Wilcox. My American Cousin won six Genie Awards at the 1986 ceremony, including Best Achievement in Direction and Best Original Screenplay for Wilson. Shortly after, My American Cousin opened in New York. There was debate on, they settled on “winner of six Canadian Academy Awards.” After the success of My American Cousin there was pressure on Wilson to relocate to Los Angeles, but she chose to stay in Vancouver. As a single mom, with two young boys she wanted to focus on raising them in their home city. Four years Wilson directed the sequel to My American Cousin, American Boyfriends.

The film follows Sandy Wilcox on a trip to Santa Cruz to see her cousin get married. During production in California, the local union limited the number of Canadian crew members to seven, they were given the label “privileged aliens” while working in the United States. The American crew members working on the film were all familiar with the original film, happy to be working on its sequel. American Boyfriends didn't receive the same success as My American Cousin. After American Boyfriends, Wilson worked in the television industry for four years. In 1992, Wilson premiered Harmony Cats, different from all her films that came before. After American Boyfriends, Wilson didn't want to direct any more semi-autobiographical pieces. Sandy Wilson on IMDb

Brand Babu

Brand Babu is a Telugu language film directed by P. Prabhakar, it stars Eesha Rebba. Sumanth Shailendra as Diamond Babu Eesha Rebba as Radha Murali Sharma as Diamond Babu's father Raja Ravindra as Radha's uncle Pujita Ponnada as Home Minister's daughter Satyam Rajesh Nalini The Times of India gave 3 out of 5 stars, praised the climax of the film, concluded, "Audiences need to watch the movie to know how the twisted love story ends and whether the brand obsessed father- son accept Radha for who she is". Indiaglitz gave 2.25 stars, stating, "An attempt to narrate a rich boy-meets-poor girl story goes haywire, thanks to a lame comedy of errors and a bloodless class war, Maruthi-style." Brand Babu on IMDb

1964 Southwark London Borough Council election

The 1964 Southwark Council election took place on 7 May 1964 to elect members of Southwark London Borough Council in London, England. The whole council was up for the Labour party gained control of the council; these elections were the first to the newly formed borough. Elections had taken place in the Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey, Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell and Metropolitan Borough of Southwark; these boroughs were joined to form the new London Borough of Southwark by the London Government Act 1963. A total of 144 candidates stood in the election for the 60 seats being contested across 22 wards; these included a full slate from the Labour party, while the Conservative and Liberal parties stood 57 and 16 respectively. Other candidates included 11 from the Communist party. There were 7 two-seat wards and 1 four-seat ward; this election had aldermen as well as directly elected councillors. Labour got all 10 aldermen; the Council was elected in 1964 as a "shadow authority" but did not start operations until 1 April 1965.

The results saw Labour gain the new council with a majority of 48 after winning 54 of the 60 seats. Overall turnout in the election was 23.6%. This turnout included 599 postal votes. 1964 Greater London Council election