Battle of Chickamauga

The Battle of Chickamauga, fought on September 18 – 20, 1863, between U. S. and Confederate forces in the American Civil War, marked the end of a Union offensive, the Chickamauga Campaign, in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia. It was the first major battle of the war fought in Georgia, the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater, involved the second-highest number of casualties after the Battle of Gettysburg; the battle was fought between the Army of the Cumberland under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans and the Confederate Army of Tennessee under Gen. Braxton Bragg, was named for Chickamauga Creek, which meanders near the battle area in northwest Georgia. After his successful Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed the offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga. In early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Bragg's army out of Chattanooga, heading south; the Union troops brushed with it at Davis's Cross Roads.

Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecrans's army, to defeat it, to move back into the city. On September 17 he headed north; as Bragg marched north on September 18, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry, which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles. Fighting began in earnest on the morning of September 19. Bragg's men assaulted but could not break the Union line; the next day, Bragg resumed his assault. In late morning, Rosecrans was misinformed. In moving units to shore up the supposed gap, Rosecrans accidentally created an actual gap, directly in the path of an eight-brigade assault on a narrow front by Confederate Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, whose corps had been detached from the Army of Northern Virginia. In the resulting rout, Longstreet's attack drove one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, from the field. Union units spontaneously rallied to create a defensive line on Horseshoe Ridge, forming a new right wing for the line of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, who assumed overall command of remaining forces.

Although the Confederates launched costly and determined assaults and his men held until twilight. Union forces retired to Chattanooga while the Confederates occupied the surrounding heights, besieging the city. In his successful Tullahoma Campaign in the summer of 1863, Rosecrans moved southeast from Murfreesboro, outmaneuvering Bragg and forcing him to abandon Middle Tennessee and withdraw to the city of Chattanooga, suffering only 569 Union casualties along the way. General-in-chief Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck and President Abraham Lincoln were insistent that Rosecrans move to take Chattanooga. Seizing the city would open the door for the Union to advance toward Atlanta and the heartland of the South. Chattanooga was a vital rail hub, an important manufacturing center for the production of iron and coke, located on the navigable Tennessee River. Situated between Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Raccoon Mountain, Stringer's Ridge, Chattanooga occupied an important, defensible position. Although Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee had about 52,000 men at the end of July, the Confederate government merged the Department of East Tennessee, under Maj. Gen. Simon B.

Buckner, into Bragg's Department of Tennessee, which added 17,800 men to Bragg's army, a total of 69,800 men, but extended his command responsibilities northward to the Knoxville area. This brought a third subordinate into Bragg's command. Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee had made their animosity well known. Buckner's attitude was colored by Bragg's unsuccessful invasion of Buckner's native Kentucky in 1862, as well as by the loss of his command through the merger. A positive aspect for Bragg was Hardee's request to be transferred to Mississippi in July, but he was replaced by Lt. Gen. D. H. Hill, a general who did not get along with Robert E. Lee in Virginia; the Confederate War Department asked Bragg in early August whether he could assume the offensive against Rosecrans if he were given reinforcements for Mississippi. He demurred, concerned about the daunting geographical obstacles and logistical challenges, preferring to wait for Rosecrans to solve those same problems and attack him.

He was concerned about a sizable Union force under Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, threatening Knoxville. Bragg withdrew his forces from advanced positions around Bridgeport, which left Rosecrans free to maneuver on the northern side of the Tennessee River, he concentrated his two infantry corps around Chattanooga and relied upon cavalry to cover his flanks, extending from northern Alabama to near Knoxville. The Confederate government decided to attempt a strategic reversal in the West by sending Bragg reinforcements from Virginia—Lt. Gen. James Longstreet with two divisions from his First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia—in addition to the reinforcements from Mississippi. Chickamauga was the first large scale Confederate movement of troops from one theater to another with the aim of achieving a period of numerical superiority and gaining decisive results. Bragg was now more satisfied with the resources provided, looked to strike the Union Army as soon as he achieved the strength he needed; the campaign and major battle take their name from West Chickamauga Creek.

In popular histories, it is said that Chickamauga is a Cherokee word meaning "river of death". Peter Cozzens, author of what is arguably the defi


Sodenberg is a 481 m high basalt cone, the remnant of an extinct volcanic crater, located in the Franconian Saale, in the Bavarian region of Lower Franconia. From its heights it offers a panoramic view of the region extending from the ranges of the High Rhön to the Kreuzberg, as far as the Hassberge and the Steigerwald in the east, the Spessart in the southwest. A local Franconian tradition tells of Noah's Ark coming to rest on the slopes of Sodenberg; the fact that the names of many towns and villages in the surrounding area contain the names of animals within them, such as Ochsenthal, Schweinfurt, Wolfsmünster, Hundsfeld, Rossmühle, Hassenbach, Motten and Geiersnest, may well have had something to do with the origin of this somewhat fanciful version of the famous biblical story

Pan-European Phoneathon

Pan-European Phoneathon is a fundraising event held by the Hayastan All-Armenian Fund's French affiliate and is the second largest fundraising event of the Hayastan Fund after its Telethon aired from Los Angeles. The four-day Phoneathon, which runs for twelve hours each day, is staffed by Armenian and non-Armenian volunteers. Stationed in Paris, Marseille and Toulouse, the volunteers call to Armenian and non-Armenian families and organizations across Europe and mobilize grassroot support for the development of Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh. Since the inception of the Pan-European Phoneathon in 2000, more than 400,000 phone calls have been made and more than 10 million euros were raised through the donations of over 22,000 supporters. From 70 volunteers in Paris and close to 220,000 euros raised in 2000, the Pan-European Phoneathon has grown to encompass close to 700 volunteers working in five major French cities and an annual average of 1.4 million euros raised through about 50,000 supporters across Europe.

Volunteers make calls from the Orange France Telecom call centers in Paris, Lyon and Toulouse. Pan-European Phoneathon 2013 held from November 21 to 24 will spend the raised funds to support agricultural development projects in Armenia's Tavush Province, construction of community centers in Nagorno Karabakh, as well as assistance to Syrian-Armenians afflicted by the Syrian Civil War. 200 000 Euros has been allocated to the various needs of the Syrian Armenians. The Phoneathon hosts a celebrity each year, known as "godfather" or "godmother". 2013 - Ariane Ascaride, Robert Guédiguian 2012 - Youri Djorkaeff, Daniel Bilalian 2011 - Michel Drucker 2010 - Hélène Ségara Fonds Arménien de France Annual Phoneathon - Germany Armenia Fund USA Armenia Fund US Western Region Documentary on Pan-European Phoneathon