The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche and Romagna and these holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. By 1861, much of the Papal States territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy, only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Popes temporal control. In 1870, the pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Vatican by signing the Lateran Treaty, granting the Vatican City State sovereignty. The Papal States were known as the Papal State, the territories were referred to variously as the State of the Church, the Pontifical States, the Ecclesiastical States, or the Roman States.
For its first 300 years the Catholic Church was persecuted and unrecognized and this system began to change during the reign of the emperor Constantine I, who made Christianity legal within the Roman Empire, and restoring to it any properties that had been confiscated. The Lateran Palace was the first significant new donation to the Church, other donations followed, primarily in mainland Italy but in the provinces of the Roman Empire. But the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, the seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century. Beginning In 535, the Byzantine Empire, under emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated Italys political, just as these wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. While the popes remained Byzantine subjects, in practice the Duchy of Rome, the pope and the exarch still worked together to control the rising power of the Lombards in Italy.
As Byzantine power weakened, the took a ever larger role in defending Rome from the Lombards. In practice, the papal efforts served to focus Lombard aggrandizement on the exarch, a climactic moment in the founding of the Papal States was the agreement over boundaries embodied in the Lombard king Liutprands Donation of Sutri to Pope Gregory II. When the Exarchate of Ravenna finally fell to the Lombards in 751, the popes renewed earlier attempts to secure the support of the Franks. In 751, Pope Zachary had Pepin the Younger crowned king in place of the powerless Merovingian figurehead king Childeric III, zacharys successor, Pope Stephen II, granted Pepin the title Patrician of the Romans. Pepin led a Frankish army into Italy in 754 and 756, Pepin defeated the Lombards – taking control of northern Italy – and made a gift of the properties formerly constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the pope. The cooperation between the papacy and the Carolingian dynasty climaxed in 800, when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor, the precise nature of the relationship between the popes and emperors – and between the Papal States and the Empire – is disputed.
Events in the 9th century postponed the conflict, the Holy Roman Empire in its Frankish form collapsed as it was subdivided among Charlemagnes grandchildren
Conquest of Tunis (1535)
The Conquest of Tunis in 1535 was an attack on Tunis, under the control of the Ottoman Empire, by the Habsburg Empire of Charles V and its allies. In 1533, Suleiman the Magnificent ordered Hayreddin Barbarossa, whom he had summoned from Algiers, altogether 70 galleys were built during the winter of 1533–1534, manned by slave oarsmen, including 2,000 Jewish ones. Barbarossa thus established a naval base in Tunis, which could be used for raids in the region. The expense involved for Charles V was considerable, and at 1,000,000 ducats was on par with the cost of Charles campaign against Suleiman on the Danube. Despite a request by Charles V, Francis I denied French support to the expedition, Francis I was under negotiations with Suleiman the Magnificent for a combined attack on Charles V, following the 1534 Ottoman embassy to France. Francis I only agreed to Pope Paul IIIs request that no fight between Christians occur during the time of the expedition. On 1 June 1535, protected by a Genoese fleet, Charles V destroyed Barbarossas fleet and, after a costly yet successful siege at La Goletta, in the ruins, the Spanish found cannonballs with the French Fleur-de-lys mark, evidence of the contacts stemming from the Franco-Ottoman alliance.
The resulting massacre of the city left an estimated 30,000 dead, Barbarossa managed to flee to Algiers with a troop of several thousand Turks. Muley Hasan was restored to his throne, the stench of the corpses was such that Charles V soon left Tunis and moved his camp to Radès. Furthermore, he was Holy Roman Emperor and had de jure control over much of Germany as well, Ottoman defeat in Tunis motivated the Ottoman Empire to enter into a formal alliance with France against the Habsburg Empire. Ambassador Jean de La Forêt was sent to Constantinople, and for the first time was able to become permanent ambassador at the Ottoman court, Charles V celebrated a neo-classical triumph over the infidel at Rome on April 5,1536 in commemoration of his victory at Tunis. He Spanish governor of La Goulette, Luys Peres Varga, built fortified the island of Chikly in the lake of Tunis to strengthen the defences between 1546 and 1550. Barbarossa managed to escape to the harbour of Bône, where a fleet was waiting for him, from there, he sailed to accomplish the Sack of Mahon, where he took 6,000 slaves and brought them to Algiers.
The Ottomans responded by recapturing the city in 1574, however the Ottoman governors of Tunis were semi-autonomous Beys who acted as privateers against Christian shipping. Grant, R. G.2005 La Marina Cántabra,1968 Cervantes Virtual Roger Crowley, Empires of the sea,2008 Faber & Faber ISBN 978-0-571-23231-4 Garnier, Edith LAlliance Impie Editions du Felin,2008, Paris ISBN 978-2-86645-678-8 Interview
Invasion of Corsica (1553)
The Invasion of Corsica of 1553 occurred when French and Corsican exile forces combined to capture the island of Corsica from the Genoese. The island had been administered since 1453 by the Genoese Bank of Saint George, the invasion of Corsica was accomplished for the benefit of France. The island had strategic importance, as it was located on the sea route between Spain and Italy, which was vital for the Holy Roman Empire. The French king Henry II had entered into a war with the Habsburg Emperor Charles V in 1551. The Ottomans, accompanied by the French ambassador Gabriel de Luetz dAramon, had defeated a Genoese fleet under Andrea Doria in the Battle of Ponza the previous year in 1552. On 1 February 1553, a new Franco-Ottoman treaty of alliance, the Ottoman admirals Turgut and Koja Sinan, together with a French squadron under Baron Paulin de la Garde, raided the coasts of Naples, Sicily and Corsica. The island of Corsica was occupied by the Genoese at the time, the Ottoman fleet supported the French by ferrying the French troops of Parma under Marshal Paul de Thermes from Siennese Maremma to Corsica.
The French were supported by Corsican exiles under Sampiero Corso, the invasion had not been explicitly approved beforehand by the French king however. Bastia was captured on 24 August 1553, and Paulin de la Garde arrived in front of Saint-Florent on 26 August. With only Calvi remaining to be captured, the Ottomans, loaded with spoils, decided to leave the blockade at the end of September, with the Ottoman fleet gone for the winter and the French fleet having returned to Marseilles, the occupation of Corsica was jeopardised. Only 5,000 old soldiers remained on the island, together with the Corsican insurgents. Henry II started negotiations with Genoa in November, but Genoa sent a force of 15,000 men with the fleet of Andrea Doria, an Ottoman fleet sailed in the Mediterranean under Dragut but was too late, and only sailed the coast of Naples before returning to Constantinople. The French only obtained the cooperations of galliots from Algiers, by 1555 the French had been cleared from most of the coastal cities and Doria left, but many areas remained under French control.
In 1555, Jourdan des Ursins replaced de Thermes, and was named Gouverneur et lieutenant général du roi dans lîle de Corse, the Turkish fleet only stood by during the siege of Calvi, and contributed little. The same inactivity took place during the siege of Bastia, which had been retaken by the Genoese, the Turkish fleet sent to help was severely undermined by the plague and went home towing empty ships. The Ottoman fleet led the Ottoman invasion of the Balearic islands instead, suleiman would apologize in a letter to Henry at the end of the year 1558. The Franco-Ottoman military alliance is said to have reached its peak around 1553, finally, in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559 the French returned Corsica to Genoa. Franco-Ottoman alliance History of Corsica List of Ottoman sieges and landings Peter Malcolm Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam, ISBN 0-521-29135-6 William Miller, The Ottoman Empire and Its Successors, 1801–1927 Routledge,1966 ISBN 0-7146-1974-4
Great Turkish War
The war was a defeat for the Ottoman Empire, which lost large amounts of territory in Central Europe. The war was significant in that it marked the first time Russia was involved in a western European alliance. After Bohdan Khmelnytskys rebellion, when the Tsardom of Russia acquired parts of Eastern Ukraine from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and their leader, Petro Doroshenko, wanted to connect the rest of Ukraine with the Ottoman Empire, starting a rebellion against Hetman John Sobieski. Sultan Mehmed IV, who knew that the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was weakened due to conflicts, attacked Kamianets-Podilskyi. The small Polish force resisted the Siege of Kamenets for two weeks but was forced to capitulate. The Polish Army was too small to resist the Ottoman invasion, after three months, the Poles were forced to sign the Treaty of Buchach in which they agreed to surrender Kamyanets-Podilsky, Podolia and to pay tribute to the Ottoman Sultan. When the news about the defeat and treaty terms reached Warsaw, the Sejm refused to pay the tribute and organized an army under Jan Sobieski, subsequently.
After King Michaels death in 1673, Jan Sobieski was elected king of Poland, he tried to defeat the Ottomans for four years. The war ended on 17 October 1676 with the Treaty of Żurawno in which the Turks only retained control over Kamianets-Podilskyi and this Turkish attack led in 1676 to the beginning of the Russo-Turkish Wars. After a few years of peace, the Ottoman Empire attacked the Habsburg Empire, the Turks almost captured Vienna, but John III Sobieski led a Christian alliance that defeated them in the Battle of Vienna, stalling the Ottoman Empires hegemony in south-eastern Europe. A new Holy League was initiated by Pope Innocent XI and encompassed the Holy Roman Empire, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the second Battle of Mohács was a crushing defeat for the Sultan. The Turks were more successful on the Polish front and were able to retain Podolia during their battles with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, russias involvement marked the first time the country formally joined an alliance of European powers.
This was the beginning of a series of Russo-Turkish Wars, which continued into the 20th century, as a result of the Crimean campaigns and Azov campaigns, Russia captured the key Ottoman fortress of Azov. Following the decisive Battle of Zenta in 1697 and lesser skirmishes, the Ottomans ceded most of Hungary and Slavonia to the Habsburg Empire while Podolia returned to Poland. Most of Dalmatia passed to Venice, along with the Morea, Serbs, as volunteers, massively joined the Austrian side. In the first half of 1688, the Habsburg army, together with units of Serbian Militia, captured Gyula and Ineu from the Ottoman Empire. After Belgrade had been liberated from the Ottomans in 1688, Serbs from the territories in the south of Sava and Danube rivers began to join Serbian Militia units. However, with the rise of the Ottomans, during the 16th and early 17th centuries, they lost most of these, such as Cyprus and Euboea to the Turks
After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
Republic of Genoa
It began when Genoa became a self-governing commune within the Regnum Italicum, and ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic under Napoleon and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica was ceded to France in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768, before 1100, Genoa emerged as an independent city-state, one of a number of Italian city-states during this period. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoa was president of the city, actual power was wielded by a number of consuls annually elected by popular assembly. The Adorno and other merchant families all fought for power in this Republic, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth. The Republic of Genoa extended over modern Liguria and Piedmont, Corsica, through Genoese participation on the Crusades, Genoese colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily and Northern Africa. The collapse of the Crusader States was offset by Genoa’s alliance with the Byzantine Empire, as Venices relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by the Fourth Crusade and its aftermath, Genoa was able to improve its position.
Genoa took advantage of opportunity to expand into the Black Sea and Crimea. Internal feuds between the families, the Grimaldi and Fieschi, the Doria and others caused much disruption. However, this prosperity did not last, the Black Death was imported into Europe in 1347 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa in Crimea, on the Black Sea. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa adopted the Venetian model of government, the wars with Venice continued, and the War of Chioggia -- where Genoa almost managed to decisively subdue Venice—ended with Venices recovery of dominance in the Adriatic. In 1390 Genoa initiated a crusade against the Barbary pirates with help from the French, though it has not been well-studied, the fifteenth century seems to have been a tumultuous time for Genoa. After a period of French domination from 1394–1409, Genoa came under rule by the Visconti of Milan, Genoa lost Sardinia to Aragon, Corsica to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Asia Minor colonies to the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Grimaldi, according to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa developed in the Mediterranean were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World. At the time of Genoa’s peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens and Van Dyck. The architect Galeazzo Alessi designed many of the city’s splendid palazzi, as did in the decades that followed by fifty years Bartolomeo Bianco, a number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent. At the time of its founding in the early 11th century the Republic of Genoa consisted of the city of Genoa, as the commerce of the city increased, so did the territory of the Republic. By 1015 all of Liguria fell under the Republic of Genoa, after the First Crusade in 1098 Genoa gained settlements in Syria. In 1261 the city of Smyrna in Asia Minor became Genoese territory, in 1255 Genoa established the colony of Caffa in Crimea
Siege of Nice
At that time, Nice was under the control of Charles III, Duke of Savoy, an ally of Charles V. This is part of the 1543–1544 Mediterranean campaign of Barbarossa, the French forces, led by François de Bourbon, and the Ottoman forces, led by Hayreddin Barbarossa, first joined at Marseilles in August 1543. François de Bourbon had already attempted to make an attack on Nice once. Barbarossa arrived with his fleet, accompanied by the French Ambassador Polin, as almost nothing had been prepared on the French side to assist the Ottoman fleet, Polin was dispatched to meet with Francis I at Marolles and ask him for support. The combined fleet sailed out of Marseille on the 5th of August, the Ottoman force first landed at Villefranche,6 kilometers east of Nice, which it took and destroyed. The French and Ottoman forces collaborated to attack the city of Nice on 6 August 1543, in this action 110 Ottoman galleys combined with 50 French ones. The Franco-Ottomans were confronted by a resistance which gave rise to the story of Catherine Ségurane, culminating with a major battle on 15 August.
The French prevented the Ottomans from sacking the city and they could not however take the castle, the Château de Cimiez, apparently because the French were unable to supply sufficient gunpowder to their Ottoman allies. The last night before leaving, Barbarossa plundered the city, burned parts of it, the relief army, transported on ships by Andrea Doria, landed at Villefranche, and successfully made its way to the Nice citadel. During the campaign, Barbarossa is known to have complained about the state of the French ships and he famously said Are you seamen to fill your casks with wine rather than powder. He nevertheless displayed great reluctance to attack Andrea Doria when the latter was put in difficulty after landing the relief army and it has been suggested that there was some tacit agreement between Barbarossa and Doria on this occasion. At the time, Nice was part of Savoy, independent from France, most versions of the tale have Catherine Ségurane, a common washerwoman, leading the townspeople into battle.
Legend has it that she knocked out a standard bearer with her beater, according to one commonly told story, Catherine took the lead in defending the city by standing before the invading forces and exposing her bare bottom. This is said to have so repulsed the Turkish infantrys Muslim sense of decency that they turned and fled. However, in Turkish culture, the practice of mooning is considered odd or absurdly immoral but never offensive and most probably as a sexual teasing, especially when performed by a female. Historically attested defense of Nice include the destruction of a key bridge. Nevertheless, the legend of Catherine Ségurane has excited the local imagination, louis Andrioli wrote an epic poem about her in 1808, and a play dedicated to her story was written by Jean-Baptiste Toselli in 1878. In 1923, a monument to Catherine was erected near the supposed location of her feat
Siege of Castelnuovo
Castelnuovo had been conquered by elements of various Spanish tercios the year before during the failed campaign of the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in Eastern Mediterranean waters. The walled town was besieged by land and sea by a powerful Ottoman army under Hayreddin Barbarossa, during the siege the Barbarossas army suffered heavy losses due to the stubborn resistance of Sarmientos men. However, Castelnuovo eventually fell into Ottoman hands and almost all the Spanish defenders, the loss of the town ended the Christian attempt to regain control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The courage displayed by the Old Tercio of Naples, was praised and admired throughout Europe and was the subject of numerous poems, in 1538 the main danger to Christianity in Europe was the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. The armies of the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent had been stopped at Vienna in 1529, Barbarossa captured the islands of Syros, Ios, Tinos, Kasos and besieged Corfu. The Italian cities of Otranto and Ugento and the fortress of Castro, in February 1538, Pope Paul III succeeded in creating a league which united the Papacy itself, the Republic of Venice, the Empire of Charles V, the Archduchy of Austria and the Knights of Malta.
The Allied fleet for the campaign was supposed to consist of 200 galleys and another 100 auxiliary ships, but only 130 galleys and an army of around 15,000 infantry, mostly Spaniards, were all that could be gathered. The commander of the army was unquestionably Hernando Gonzaga, Viceroy of Sicily, differences among the commanders of the fleet diminished its effectiveness against an experienced opponent like Barbarossa. This was seen in the Battle of Preveza, fought in the Gulf of Arta, but the Holy League fleet provided support to the land forces that landed on the Dalmatian coast and captured the town of Castelnuovo. This small town was a strategic fortress between the Venetian possessions of Cattaro and Ragusa in the known as Venetian Albania. Venice therefore claimed ownership of the city, but Charles V refused to cede it and this was the beginning of the end of the Holy League. The town of Castelnuovo was garrisoned with approximately 4,000 men, the main force was a tercio of Spanish veteran soldiers numbering about 3,500 men under the experienced Maestro de Campo Francisco Sarmiento de Mendoza y Manuel.
This tercio, named Tercio of Castelnuovo, was formed by 15 flags belonging to other tercios, among them the Old Tercio of Lombardy, dissolved the year before after a mutiny for lack of pay. The chaplain of Andrea Doria, named Jeremías, remained in Castelnuovo along with 40 clerics, the reason for the garrisons large size was that Castelnuovo was projected to be the beachhead for a great offensive against the heart of the Ottoman Empire. However, the fate of the troops who were in the fortress depended entirely on the support of the fleet, moreover, in a short time Venice withdrew from the Holy League after accepting a disadvantageous agreement with the Ottomans. Without Venetian ships, the Allied fleet had no chance to defeat the Ottoman fleet commanded by Barbarossa, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent ordered Barbarossa to reorganize and rearm his fleet during the winter months to have it ready for the battle in the spring of 1539. 10,000 infantry soldiers and 4,000 Janissaries were embarked aboard the warships to reinforce the troops of the galleys, meanwhile, used the peaceful months prior to the siege to improve the defenses of the town, repairing walls and bastions and building new fortifications.
In the event he could not do due to a lack of available means
Piali Pasha, was an Ottoman admiral between 1553 and 1567 and a Vizier after 1568. He is known as Piale Pasha in English, born in Viganj on the Pelješac peninsula, he was of Croatian origin. He was captured in the 1526 Battle of Mohács and became an Ottoman soldier under Turgut Reis, Piyale Pasha received his formal education at the Enderun School in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire. He graduated from the Enderun with the title of Kapıcıbaşı and was appointed Sanjak Bey of Gallipoli and he was promoted to Bahriye Beylerbeyi and became Admiral-in-Chief of the Ottoman Fleet at the age of 39. In 1554 he captured the islands of Elba and Corsica with a fleet which included famous Ottoman admirals like Turgut Reis. The Ottoman fleet met the French fleet at Piombino and successfully repulsed a Spanish attack on France while conquering several Spanish fortresses on the Mediterranean Sea, in June 1558, joined by Turgut Reis, Piyale Pasha sailed to the Strait of Messina and the two admirals captured Reggio Calabria.
From there, they went to the Aeolian Islands and captured several of them, before landing at Amalfi, the Gulf of Salerno and they landed at Torre del Greco, the coasts of Tuscany, and Piombino. In September 1558 they assaulted the coasts of Spain before capturing Minorca and this caused fear throughout the Mediterranean coasts of Spain, and King Philip II appealed to Pope Paul IV and his allies in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat. In 1560 King Philip II succeeded in organizing a Holy League between Spain, the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States, the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta. The joint fleet was assembled at Messina and consisted of 54 galleys and 66 other types of vessels under the command of Giovanni Andrea Doria, nephew of the famous Genoese admiral Andrea Doria. On 12 March 1560, the Holy League captured the island of Djerba which had a strategic location and could control the sea routes between Algiers and Tripoli. Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis eventually forced the garrison to surrender and Piyale Pasha took 5,000 prisoners, including de Sande, to Constantinople and he married Sultana Gevher Han, daughter of Suleimans son Selim II.
In 1566 Piyale captured the island of Chios and brought an end to the Genoese presence in the Aegean Sea and he landed on Apulia in Italy and captured several strategic fortresses. In 1568 he was promoted to Vizier, becoming the first admiral in Ottoman history to reach this rank, in 1570 he set sail for Cyprus, a Venetian possession, with a large invasion force on board his ships. Having left Constantinople on 15 May 1570, the arrived at Cyprus on 1 July 1570. On 22 July the Turks, under the command of Lala Mustafa, commenced the siege of Nicosia, capturing the city on 9 September. After the defeat of the Ottoman fleet under the command of Müezzinzade Ali Pasha at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, Piyale Pasha was called to take back the command of the Ottoman navy. The Ottomans managed to rebuild a fleet as large as that lost at Lepanto in less than a year, in 1573 Piyale Pasha once again landed on Puglia in Italy
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth