Battle of Neville's Cross
The Battle of Neville's Cross took place during the Second War of Scottish Independence on 17 October 1346, half a mile to the west of Durham, within sight of Durham Cathedral. An invading Scottish army of 12,000 led by King David II was defeated with heavy loss by an English army of 6,000–7,000 men led by Lord Ralph Neville; the battle was named after an Anglo-Saxon stone cross on the hill. The battle was the result of the invasion of France by England during the Hundred Years' War. King Philip VI of France called on the Scots to fulfil their obligation under the terms of the Auld Alliance and invade England. David II obliged and after ravaging much of northern England was taken by surprise by the English defenders; the ensuing battle ended with the rout of the Scots, the capture of their king and the death or capture of most of their leadership. Strategically this freed significant English resources for the war against France, the English border counties were able to guard against the remaining Scottish threat from their own resources.
The eventual ransoming of the Scottish king resulted in a truce which brought peace to the border for forty years. By 1346 England had been embroiled in the Second War of Scottish Independence since 1332 and the Hundred Years' War with France since 1337. In January 1343 the French and English had entered into the Truce of Malestroit, which included Scotland and was intended to last until 29 September 1346. In defiance of the truce, hostilities continued on all fronts, although at a lower level. Edward III of England planned an invasion of northern France in 1346 and King Philip VI of France sent an appeal to David II to open a northern front. Philip VI wanted the Scots to divert English troops and attention away from the army under Edward III, gathering in southern England; the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland had been renewed in 1326 and was intended to deter England from attacking either country by the threat that the other would invade English territory. In June Philip VI asked David II to attack pre-emptively: "I beg you, I implore you...
Do for me what I would willingly do for you in such a crisis and do it as quickly... as you are able." Edward III landed in Normandy with an army of 15,000 in July. Philip VI renewed his pleas to David II; as the English had committed troops to Gascony and Flanders, Philip VI described northern England to David II as "a defenceless void". David II felt certain that few English troops would be left to defend the rich northern English cities, but when the Scots probed into northern England they were rebuffed by the local defenders. David II agreed a truce, to last until 29 September, in order to mobilise the Scottish army, assembling at Perth. By the time the truce expired, the French had been decisively beaten at Crécy and the English were besieging Calais; the French were in difficulty in south-west France, where their front had collapsed, with the major city and provincial capital of Poitiers, 125 miles from the border of English Gascony, falling on 4 October. On 7 October the Scots invaded England with 12,000 men.
Many had armour supplied by France. A small number of French knights marched alongside the Scots, it was described by both Scottish and English chroniclers of the time, by modern historians, as the strongest and best equipped Scottish expedition for many years. The border fort of Liddell Peel was stormed and captured after a siege of three days and the garrison massacred. Carlisle was bypassed in exchange for a large indemnity and the Scottish army moved east, ravaging the countryside as they went, they sacked Hexham Abbey, taking three days to do so advanced to Durham. They arrived outside Durham on 16 October and camped at Beaurepaire Priory, where the monks offered the Scots £1,000 in protection money to be paid on 18 October; the invasion had been expected by the English for some time. Once the Scots invaded, an army was mobilised at Richmond in north Yorkshire under the supervision of William de la Zouche, the Archbishop of York, Lord Warden of the Marches, it was not a large army: 3,000–4,000 men from the northern counties of Cumberland and Lancashire.
Another 3,000 Yorkshiremen were en route to reinforce their fellow northerners. This was possible because Edward III, when raising his army to invade France, had exempted the counties north of the River Humber. On 14 October, while the Scots were sacking Hexham Abbey, the Archbishop decided not to wait for the Yorkshire troops and marched north west towards Barnard Castle, rapidly north east to Durham, he was joined en route by the Yorkshire contingent and Lord Ralph Neville took command of the combined force of 6,000–7,000 men. The Scots at Beaurepaire only discovered the English army on the morning of 17 October, when they were some 6 miles away. Around 500 men under William Douglas stumbled upon them in the morning mist during a raid near Merrington, south of Durham; the two rear divisions of the English army drove them off with heavy Scottish casualties, around 300. Douglas raced back to David II's camp, alerting the rest of the army, which stoo
Wars of Scottish Independence
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328; the Second War began with the English-supported invasion by Edward Balliol and the'Disinherited' in 1332, ended in 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick. The wars were part of a great crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most defining times in its history. At the end of both wars, Scotland retained its status as an independent state; the wars were important for other reasons, such as the emergence of the longbow as a key weapon in medieval warfare. King Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286, leaving his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, as his heir. In 1290, the Guardians of Scotland signed the Treaty of Birgham agreeing to the marriage of the Maid of Norway and Edward of Caernarvon, the son of Edward I.
This marriage would not create a union between Scotland and England because the Scots insisted that the Treaty declare that Scotland was separate and divided from England and that its rights, laws and customs were wholly and inviolably preserved for all time. However, travelling to her new kingdom, died shortly after landing on the Orkney Islands around 26 September 1290. With her death, there were 13 rivals for succession; the two leading competitors for the Scottish crown were Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale and John Balliol, Lord of Galloway. Fearing civil war between the Bruce and Balliol families and supporters, the Guardians of Scotland wrote to Edward I of England, asking him to come north and arbitrate between the claimants in order to avoid civil war. Edward agreed to meet the guardians at Norham in 1291. Before the process got underway Edward insisted; when they refused, he gave the claimants three weeks to agree to his terms, knowing that by his armies would have arrived and the Scots would have no choice.
Edward's ploy worked, the claimants to the crown were forced to acknowledge Edward as their Lord Paramount and accept his arbitration. Their decision was influenced in part by the fact that most of the claimants had large estates in England and, would have lost them if they had defied the English king. However, many involved were churchmen such as Bishop Wishart for whom such mitigation cannot be claimed. On 11 June, acting as the Lord Paramount of Scotland, Edward I ordered that every Scottish royal castle be placed temporarily under his control and every Scottish official resign his office and be re-appointed by him. Two days in Upsettlington, the Guardians of the Realm and the leading Scottish nobles gathered to swear allegiance to King Edward I as Lord Paramount. All Scots were required to pay homage to Edward I, either in person or at one of the designated centres by 27 July 1291. There were thirteen meetings from May to August 1291 at Berwick, where the claimants to the crown pleaded their cases before Edward, in what came to be known as the "Great Cause".
The claims of most of the competitors were rejected, leaving Balliol, Floris V, Count of Holland and John de Hastings of Abergavenny, 2nd Baron Hastings, as the only men who could prove direct descent from David I. On 3 August, Edward asked Balliol and Bruce to choose 40 arbiters each, while he chose 24, to decide the case. On 12 August, he signed a writ that required the collection of all documents that might concern the competitors' rights or his own title to the superiority of Scotland, accordingly executed. Balliol was named king by a majority on 17 November 1292 and on 30 November he was crowned King of Scots at Scone Abbey. On 26 December, at Newcastle upon Tyne, King John swore homage to Edward I for the Kingdom of Scotland. Edward soon made. Balliol, undermined by members of the Bruce faction, struggled to resist, the Scots resented Edward's demands. In 1294, Edward summoned John Balliol to appear before him, ordered that he had until 1 September 1294 to provide Scottish troops and funds for his invasion of France.
On his return to Scotland, John held a meeting with his council and after a few days of heated debate, plans were made to defy the orders of Edward I. A few weeks a Scottish parliament was hastily convened and 12 members of a war council were selected to advise King John. Emissaries were dispatched to inform King Philip IV of France of the intentions of the English, they negotiated a treaty by which the Scots would invade England if the English invaded France, in return the French would support the Scots. The treaty would be sealed by Philip's niece Joan. Another treaty with King Eric II of Norway was hammered out, in which for the sum of 50,000 groats he would supply 100 ships for four months of the year, so long as hostilities between France and England continued. Although Norway never acted, the Franco-Scottish alliance known as the Auld Alliance, was renewed until 1560, it was not until 1295. In early October, he began to strengthen his northern defences against a possible invasion, it was at this point that Robert Bruce, 6th Lord of Annandale was appointed by Edward as the governor of Carlisle Castle.
Edward ordered John Balliol to relinquish control of the castles and burghs of Berwick and Roxburgh
Siege of Berwick (1333)
The Siege of Berwick lasted four months in 1333, resulted in the Scottish-held town of Berwick-upon-Tweed being captured by an English army commanded by King Edward III. The year before, Edward Balliol had seized the Scottish Crown, surreptitiously supported by Edward III, he was shortly expelled from the kingdom by a popular uprising. Edward III invaded Scotland; the immediate target was the strategically important border town of Berwick. An advance force laid siege to the town in March. Edward III and the main English army pressed the attack. A large Scottish army advanced to relieve the town. After unsuccessfully manoeuvring for position and knowing that Berwick was on the verge of surrender, the Scots felt compelled to attack the English at Halidon Hill on 19 July, they suffered Berwick surrendered on terms the next day. Balliol was reinstalled as King of Scotland after ceding a large part of his territory to Edward III and agreeing to do homage for the balance; the First War of Scottish Independence between England and Scotland began in March 1296, when Edward I of England stormed and sacked the Scottish border town of Berwick as a prelude to his invasion of Scotland.
After 30 years of warfare that followed, the newly-crowned 14-year-old King Edward III was nearly captured in the English disaster at Stanhope Park. This brought his regents and Roger Mortimer, to the negotiating table, they agreed to the Treaty of Northampton with Robert Bruce in 1328 but this treaty was resented in England and known as turpis pax, "the cowards' peace". Some Scots nobles, refusing to swear fealty to Bruce, were disinherited and left Scotland to join forces with Edward Balliol, son of King John I of Scotland, whom Edward I had deposed in 1296. Robert Bruce died in 1329. In 1331, under the leadership of Edward Balliol and Henry Beaumont, 4th Earl of Buchan, the disinherited Scottish nobles gathered in Yorkshire and plotted an invasion of Scotland. Edward III was aware of the scheme and forbade it, in March 1332 writing to his northern officials that anyone planning an invasion of Scotland was to be arrested; the reality was different, Edward III being happy to cause trouble for his northern neighbour.
He insisted that Balliol not invade Scotland overland from England but turned a blind eye to his forces sailing for Scotland from Yorkshire ports on 31 July 1332. The Scots were waiting for Balliol. David II's regent was Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, he had prepared for Balliol and Beaumont. Five days after landing in Fife, Balliol's force of some 2,000 men met the Scottish army of 12,000–15,000 men; the Scots were crushed at the Battle of Dupplin Moor. Thousands of Scots died, including much of the nobility of the realm. Balliol was crowned King of Scotland at Scone – the traditional place of coronation for Scottish monarchs – on 24 September 1332. Balliol granted Edward III Scottish estates to a value of £2,000, which included "the town and county of Berwick". Balliol's support within Scotland was limited and within six months it had collapsed, he was ambushed by supporters of David II at the Battle of Annan a few months after his coronation. Balliol fled to England half-dressed and riding bareback.
He appealed to Edward III for assistance. Berwick, on the North Sea coast of Britain, is on the Anglo-Scottish border, astride the main invasion and trade route in either direction. In the Middle Ages, it was the gateway from Scotland to the English eastern march. According to William Edington, a bishop and chancellor of England, Berwick was "so populous and of such commercial importance that it might rightly be called another Alexandria, whose riches were the sea and the water its walls", it was the most successful trading town in Scotland, the duty on wool which passed through it was the Scottish Crown's largest single source of income. During centuries of war between the two nations its strategic value and relative wealth led to a succession of raids and takeovers. Battles were rare, as the Scots preferred guerrilla tactics and border raiding into England. Berwick had been sold to the Scots by Richard I of England 140 years before, to raise funds for his crusade; the town was captured and sacked by Edward I in 1296, the first significant action of the First War of Scottish Independence.
Twenty-two years Robert Bruce retook it after bribing an English guard, expelling the last English garrison from Scottish soil. King Edward II of England attempted to recapture Berwick in 1319 but abandoned the siege after a Scottish army bypassed him and defeated a hastily assembled army under the Archbishop of York at the Battle of Myton. At the beginning of 1333, the atmosphere on the border was tense; the English parliament debated the situation for five days without conclusion. Edward III promised to discuss King Philip VI of France. To prevent the Scots from taking the initiative, England began preparing for war, while announcing that it was Scotland, preparing to invade England. In Scotland Archibald Douglas was Guardian of the Realm for the underage David, he was the brother of a hero of the First War of Independence. Weapons and supplies were gathered. Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March, the Keeper of Be
A man-at-arms was a soldier of the High Medieval to Renaissance periods, well-versed in the use of arms and served as a armoured heavy cavalryman. A man-at-arms could be a knight or nobleman, a member of a knight or nobleman's retinue or a mercenary in a company under a mercenary captain; such men could serve through a feudal obligation. The terms knight and man-at-arms are used interchangeably, but while all knights equipped for war were men-at-arms, not all men-at-arms were knights. In the Early Medieval period, any well-equipped horseman could be described as a "knight", or miles in Latin. In the course of the 12th century knighthood became a social rank with a distinction being made between milites gregarii and milites nobiles; as a armoured cavalryman could be of a lesser social status than a knight, an alternative term describing this type of soldier came into use which was, in French, homme d'armes or gent d'armes, in English man-at-arms. The term man-at-arms thus denoted a military function, rather than a social rank.
This evolution differed in detail and timeline across Europe but by 1300, there was a clear distinction between the military function of the man-at-arms and the social rank of knighthood. Though in English the term man-at-arms is a straightforward rendering of the French homme d'armes, in the Middle Ages, there were numerous terms for this type of soldier. In France, he might be known as a lance or glaive, while in Germany a Spiess, Helm or Gleve and in various places a bacinet. In Italy, the term barbuta was used and in England from the late 14th century, men-at-arms were known as lances or its English equivalent, spears; the military function that a man-at-arms performed was serving as a armoured heavy cavalryman. In the course of the 16th century, the man-at-arms was replaced by other cavalry types, the demi-lancer and the cuirassier, characterised by more restricted armour coverage and the use of weapons other than the heavy lance. Throughout the Medieval period and into the Renaissance the armour of the man-at-arms became progressively more effective and expensive.
Throughout the 14th century, the armour worn by a man-at-arms was a composite of materials. Over a quilted gambeson, mail armour covered the body and head. During the century, the mail was supplemented by plate armour on the body and limbs. In the 15th century, full plate armour was developed, which reduced the mail component to a few points of flexible reinforcement. From the 14th to 16th century, the primary weapon of the man at arms on horseback was the lance; the lance of the 14th century was a simple spear, 12 ft in length of ash. In response to the development of improved armour, heavier lances weighing up to 18 kg were developed and a new method of using them in conjunction with a lance rest fixed to the breastplate developed; this combination of heavy lance and arrête enabled the mounted man-at-arms to enjoy a new effectiveness on the battlefields of the 15th and 16th centuries Not all men-at-arms in the 15th century carried the heavy lance. A lighter weapon called a "demi-lance" evolved and this gave its name to a new class of lighter-equipped man-at-arms, the "demi-lancer", towards the end of the 15th century.
When fighting on foot, men-at-arms adapted their ordinary cavalry weapons. English men-at-arms in Italy in the 1360s are recorded as advancing in close order with two men holding a cavalry lance. On other occasions, such as at the Battle of Agincourt, men-at-arms cut down their lances to a more manageable size of 5 ft. In the 15th century, the increased protection of plate armour led to the development of a specialist foot combat weapon, the pollaxe; the horse was an essential part of a man-at-arm's equipment. The type of horse, varied according to wealth and status. Andrew Ayton in an in-depth study of English warhorses of the 13th and 14th centuries has shown that three types predominate: the destrier, the courser and an animal known as a "horse". Destriers were both expensive, making up 5 % of men-at-arms horses. Ayton calculated the value of the average man-at-arm's horse in thirteen campaigns between 1282 and 1364, showing it varied between £7.6 and £16.4. In only two campaigns in the mid-14th century did the majority of horses cost more than £10.
The horse was, therefore, a major item of expenditure in the equipment of a man-at-arms. It has been calculated that a French gendarme's horse in the mid-15th century cost the equivalent of six months' wages; the cost of horses meant that the professional soldier might not wish to risk his expensive asset in combat. A system evolved in the 13th century for employers to compensate for horses lost in action. In England this was called by the Latin name restauro equorum and similar systems were in use in France and Italy. In order to secure this insurance scheme, the man-at-arms had the value of his horse assessed and details of its appearance recorded; the assessment system allowed employers to insist on a minimum value of horse be presented at muster. In 14th-century England, the minimum value appears in most cases to be 100 shillings; as early as the late 13th century, Edward I decreed that all his men-at-arms should be mounted on equus coopertus, armoured, or barded, horses. Horse armour was not at that time always made of metal, with leather and quilted fabric armour in use.
Metal horse armours were made from mail or brigandine, with plate reserved for the head in the form of a chamfron. In the 15th century, plate armour for horse
First War of Scottish Independence
The First War of Scottish Independence was the initial chapter of engagements in a series of warring periods between English and Scottish forces lasting from the invasion by England in 1296 until the de jure restoration of Scottish independence with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328. De facto independence was established in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn. England attempted to establish its authority over Scotland while the Scots fought to keep English rule and authority out of Scotland; the term "War of Independence" did not exist at the time. The war was given that name retroactively many centuries after the American War of Independence made the term popular; when King Alexander III ruled Scotland, his reign had seen a period of peace and economic stability. On 19 March 1286, Alexander died after falling from his horse; the heir to the throne was Alexander's granddaughter, Maid of Norway. As she was still a child and in Norway, the Scottish lords set up a government of guardians.
Margaret fell ill on the voyage to Scotland and died in Orkney on 26 September 1290. The lack of a clear heir led to a period known as Competitors for the Crown of Scotland or the "Great Cause", with several families laying claim to the throne. With Scotland threatening to descend into civil war, King Edward I of England was invited in by the Scottish nobility to arbitrate. Before the process could begin, he insisted that all of the contenders recognise him as Lord Paramount of Scotland. In early November 1292, at a great feudal court held in the castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, judgement was given in favour of John Balliol having the strongest claim in law. Edward proceeded to reverse the rulings of the Scottish Lords and summoned King John Balliol to stand before the English court as a common plaintiff. John was a weak king, known as "Toom Tabard" or "Empty Coat". John renounced his homage in March 1296 and by the end of the month Edward stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then-Scottish border town.
In April, the Scots were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar in East Lothian and by July, Edward had forced John to abdicate. Edward instructed his officers to receive formal homage from some 1,800 Scottish nobles. Throughout Scotland, there was widespread discontent and disorder after the dominion exercised by the English Crown, acts of defiance were directed against local English officials. In 1297, the country erupted in open revolt, Andrew de Moray and William Wallace emerged as the first significant Scottish patriots. Andrew de Moray was the son of Sir Andrew de Moray of Petty. Andrew and his father were both captured in the rout after the Battle of Dunbar in April 1296. Andrew the younger was held captive in Chester Castle on the Anglo-Welsh border, from which he escaped during the winter of 1296-97, he returned to his father's castle at Avoch on the northern shore of the Moray Firth, where he raised his banner in the name of Scotland's king, John Balliol. Moray gathered a band of like-minded patriots, employing hit-and-run guerrilla tactics, began to attack and devastate every English-garrisoned castle from Banff to Inverness.
The entire province of Moray was soon in revolt against King Edward I's men, before long Moray had secured Moray, leaving him free to turn his attention to the rest of the northeast of Scotland. Wallace rose to prominence in May 1297, when he killed Sir William Haselrig, the English sheriff of Lanark, members of his garrison at Lanark with the aid of Sir Richard Lundie; when news of Wallace's latest attack on the English rippled throughout Scotland, men rallied to him. The rebels were supported by Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, who longed for the defeat of the English; the blessing of Wishart gave the patriots a mark of respectability. He was soon joined by others. In early June and Douglas planned a symbolic strike to liberate Scone, the seat of the English-appointed Justiciar of Scotland, William de Ormesby, it was from Scone, a site held sacred by the Scots, that Ormesby had been dispensing English justice. Ormesby was hastily fled. On hearing about the start of an aristocratic uprising, Edward I, although engaged in events in France, sent a force of foot soldiers and horsemen under Sir Henry Percy and Sir Robert Clifford to resolve the "Scottish problem".
On receiving reports that Sir William Douglas had defected to the rebels, Edward dispatched Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, together with his father's vassals of Annandale, to attack Douglas's stronghold in Lanarkshire. Whilst traveling north to face Douglas, Bruce began to think about where his loyalties lay, he decided to follow the Scottish cause, being quoted as saying, "No man holds his flesh and blood in hatred, I am no exception. I must join my own people and the nation in whom I was born."The confederacy of men that Bruce joined included James the Steward, Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow and William Douglas. Dissension broke out in the Scottish camp when the Scottish and English armies met in July 1297 near Irvine; the aristocratic revolt halted before it started, but its leaders led long and futile negotiations. It has been suggested that this was a deliberate move in order to provide space and time for Wallace to levy and train men. Percy and Clifford assumed that this was the end of the problem and retired back to the south, only to be followed once more by Wallace and Moray.
These two divided their forces and in a short time again forced the English south of the Forth, leaving them holding only the castle of Dundee. While laying siege to Dundee Castle, Wallace heard that an En
A chamberlain is a senior royal official in charge of managing a royal household. The chamberlain superintends the arrangement of domestic affairs and was also charged with receiving and paying out money kept in the royal chamber; the position was honoured upon a high-ranking member of the nobility or the clergy a royal favourite. Roman emperors appointed this officer under the title of cubicularius; the papal chamberlain of the Pope enjoys extensive powers, having the revenues of the papal household under his charge. As a sign of their dignity, they bore a key, which in the seventeenth century was silvered, fitted the door-locks of chamber rooms, since the eighteenth century it had turned into a symbolic, albeit splendid, rank-insignia of gilded bronze. In many countries there are ceremonial posts associated with the household of the sovereign. Many institutions and governments – monasteries and cities – had the post of chamberlain, who had charge of finances; the Finance Director of the City of London is still called the Chamberlain, while New York City had such a chamberlain, who managed city accounts, until the early 20th century.
From the Old French chamberlain, Modern French chambellan, from Old High German Chamarling, whence the Medieval Latin cambellanus, camerlengus. Some of the principal posts known by this name: Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Grand Chamberlain of The Councils of BruneiAround the year of 2012, The Grand Chamberlain of The Council, Alauddin bin Abu Bakar, on emergency broadcast had announced the divorce between the Sultan and his third wife. June 7, 2015; the Grand Chamberlain of Brunei announced the newborn prince of Deputy Sultan, Crown Prince of Brunei Koubikoularios Parakoimomenos Praepositus sacri cubiculi Hofmarskallen Kammerherre Kammerdame Grand Chamberlain of France Grand Chamberman of France Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Reichskämmerer Lord Chamberlain of the Archduchess Grand Chamberlain of Japan and Chamberlain of Japan Lord Chamberlain of Norway Podkomorzy Chamberlain-Major of Portugal Chamberlain of the Prince of Portugal Admissionales Praepositus sacri cubiculi Cubicularius Ober-Kammerherr or Kammerherr (Russian: Обер-камергер or Камергер}.
Postelnichiy was the ceremonial post at the court of a Grand Duke. In 1772, at the court of the Tsar the German term Kammerherr was introduced; the Ober-Kammerherr was responsible for the audiences granted to members of the Royal Family. Since the beginning of the 18th century, the Ober-Kammerherr was the most senior appointed official of the Russian Imperial Court associated with the household of the sovereign; the most notable figures were: Prince Alexander Danilovich Menshikov 1727 - 1728 Prince Ivan Alekseevich Dolgorukov 1730 - 1740 Duke Ernst Johann von Biron 1730 - 1740 Count Pyotr Borisovich Sheremetev 1761 - 1768 Boris Vladimirovich Stürmer 1916 - 1917, the last Ober-Kammerherr of Tsar Nicholas II. Kaznac In Sweden there are eight serving chamberlains and four serving cabinet chamberlains at the royal court; the chamberlains are not employed by the court but serve during ceremonial occasions such as state visits and official dinners. In Thailand the head of the Bureau of the Royal Household is titled the Lord Chamberlain.
He has several Grand Chamberlains as his deputy in charge of a specific portfolio. Lord Great Chamberlain Lord Chamberlain Chamberlain of the City of London Chamberlain of the Exchequer, treasury official in the English Exchequer Lord Chamberlain of Scotland Chamberlain of the City of New York Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church Papal Gentleman Court appointment