An ambush is a long-established military tactic in which combatants take advantage of concealment and the element of surprise to attack unsuspecting enemy combatants from concealed positions, such as among dense underbrush or behind hilltops. Ambushes have been used throughout history, from ancient to modern warfare. In the 20th century, an ambush might involve thousands of soldiers on a large scale, such as over a choke point such as a mountain pass, or a small irregular band or insurgent group attacking a regular armed force patrol. Theoretically, a single well-armed and concealed soldier could ambush other troops in a surprise attack; the use by early humans of the ambush may date as far back as two million years when anthropologists have suggested that ambush techniques were used to hunt large game. One example from ancient times is the Battle of the Trebia river. Hannibal encamped within striking distance of the Romans with the Trebia River between them, placed a strong force of cavalry and infantry in concealment, near the battle zone.
He had noticed, says Polybius, a "place between the two camps, flat indeed and treeless, but well adapted for an ambuscade, as it was traversed by a water-course with steep banks, densely overgrown with brambles and other thorny plants, here he proposed to lay a stratagem to surprise the enemy". When the Roman infantry became entangled in combat with his army, the hidden ambush force attacked the legionnaires in the rear; the result was defeat for the Romans. The battle displays the effects of good tactical discipline on the part of the ambushed force. Although most of the legions were lost, about 10,000 Romans cut their way through to safety, maintaining unit cohesion; this ability to maintain discipline and break out or maneuver away from a kill zone is a hallmark of good troops and training in any ambush situation.. Another famous ambush was that sprung by Germanic warchief Arminius against the Romans at Battle of the Teutoburg Forest; this particular ambush was to affect the course of Western history.
The Germanic forces demonstrated several principles needed for a successful ambush. They took cover in difficult forested terrain, allowing the warriors time and space to mass without detection, they had the element of surprise, this was aided by the defection of Arminius from Roman ranks prior to the battle. They sprang the attack; the Germans did not dawdle at the hour of decision but attacked using a massive series of short, vicious charges against the length of the whole Roman line, with charging units sometimes withdrawing to the forest to regroup while others took their place. The Germans used blocking obstacles, erecting a trench and earthen wall to hinder Roman movement along the route of the killing zone; the result was mass slaughter of the Romans, the destruction of three legions. The Germanic victory caused a limit on Roman expansion in the West, it established the Rhine as the boundary of the Roman Empire for the next four hundred years, until the decline of the Roman influence in the West.
The Roman Empire made no further concerted attempts to conquer Germania beyond the Rhine. According to Muslim tradition, Islamic Prophet Muhammad used ambush tactics in his military campaigns, his first such use was during the Caravan raids, in the Kharrar caravan raid Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas was ordered to lead a raid against the Quraysh. His group consisted of about twenty Muhajirs; this raid was done about a month after the previous. Sa'd, with his soldiers, set up an ambush in the valley of Kharrar on the road to Mecca and waited to raid a returning Meccan caravan from Syria, but the caravan had passed and the Muslims returned to Medina without any loot. Arab tribes during Muhammad's era used ambush tactics. One example retold in Muslim tradition is said to have taken place during the First Raid on Banu Thalabah; the Banu Thalabah tribe were aware of the impending attack. The Banu Thalabah, with 100 men ambushed them. Muhammad ibn Maslama pretended to be dead. A Muslim who happened to pass that way assisted him to return to Medina.
The raid was unsuccessful. In modern warfare, an ambush is most employed by ground troops up to platoon size against enemy targets, which may be other ground troops, or vehicles. However, in some situations when deep behind enemy lines, the actual attack will be carried out by a platoon, a company-sized unit will be deployed to support the attack group, setting up and maintaining a forward patrol harbour from which the attacking force will deploy, to which they will retire after the attack. Ambushes are complex, multi-phase operations, are, therefore planned in some detail. First, a suitable killing zone is identified; this is the place. It is a place where enemy units are expected to pass, which gives reasonable cover for the deployment and extraction phases of the ambush patrol. A path along a wooded valley floor would be a typical example. Ambush can be described geometrically as: Linear, when a number of firing units are distant from the linear kill zone. L-shaped, when a short leg of firing units are placed to enfilade the sides of the linear kill zone.
V-shaped, when the firing units are distant from the kill zone at the end where the enemy enters, so the firing units lay down bands of inte
Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province. Governed as a prefecture-level city, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, Jiaozuo to the northeast; as of the final 2010 census, Luoyang had a population of 6,549,941 inhabitants with 1,857,003 people living in the built-up area made of the city's five urban districts, all of which except the Jili District are not urbanized yet. Situated on the central plain of China, Luoyang is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization, is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China; the name "Luoyang" originates from sunny side of the Luo River. Since the river flows from west to east and the sun is to the south of the river, the sun always shines on the north side of the river. Luoyang has had several names over the centuries, including "Luoyi" and "Luozhou", though Luoyang has been its primary name.
It has been called, during various periods, "Dongdu", "Xijing", or "Jingluo". During the rule of Wu Zetian, the city was known as Shendu The greater Luoyang area has been sacred ground since the late Neolithic period; this area at the intersection of the Luo river and Yi River was considered to be the geographical center of China. Because of this sacred aspect, several cities – all of which are referred to as "Luoyang" – have been built in this area. In 2070 BC, the Xia dynasty king Tai Kang moved the Xia capital to the intersection of the Luo and Yi and named the city Zhenxun. In 1600 BC, Tang of Shang defeated Jie, the final Xia dynasty king, built Western Bo, a new capital on the Luo River; the ruins of Western Bo are located in Luoyang Prefecture. In the 1036 BC a settlement named Chengzhou was constructed by the Duke of Zhou for the remnants of the captured Shang nobility; the Duke moved the Nine Tripod Cauldrons to Chengzhou from the Zhou dynasty capital at Haojing. A second Western Zhou capital, Wangcheng was built 15 km west of Chengzhou.
Wangcheng became the capital of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in 771 BC. The Eastern Zhou Dynasty capital was moved to Chengzhou in 510 BC; the Eastern Han Dynasty capital of Luoyang would be built over Chengzhou. Modern Luoyang is built over the ruins of Wangcheng, which are still visible today at Wangcheng Park. In 25 AD, Luoyang was declared the capital of the Eastern Han Dynasty on November 27 by Emperor Guangwu of Han. For several centuries, Luoyang was the focal point of China. In AD 68, the White Horse Temple, the first Buddhist temple in China, was founded in Luoyang; the temple still exists, though the architecture is of origin from the 16th century. An Shigao was one of the first monks to popularize Buddhism in Luoyang; the ambassador Banchao restored the Silk Road in Eastern Han dynasty and this has made the capital city Luoyang the start of Silk Road In 166 AD, the first Roman mission, sent by "the king of Da Qin, Andun", reached Luoyang after arriving by sea in Rinan Commandery in what is now central Vietnam.
The late 2nd century saw China decline into anarchy: The decline was accelerated by the rebellion of the Yellow Turbans, although defeated by the Imperial troops in 184 AD, weakened the state to the point where there was a continuing series of rebellions degenerating into civil war, culminating in the burning of the Han capital of Luoyang on 24 September 189 AD. This was followed by a state of continual unrest and wars in China until a modicum of stability returned in the 220s, but with the establishment of three separate kingdoms, rather than a unified empire. In 190 AD, Chancellor Dong Zhuo ordered his soldiers to ransack and raze the city as he retreated from the coalition set up against him by regional lords all across China; the court was subsequently moved to the more defensible western city of Chang'an. Following a period of disorder, during which warlord Cao Cao held the last Han emperor Xian in Xuchang, Luoyang was restored to prominence when his son Cao Pi, Emperor Wen of the Wei dynasty, declared it his capital in 220 AD.
The Jin dynasty, successor to Wei, was established in Luoyang. When Jin was overrun by Xiongnu forces in 311 AD, it was forced to move its capital to Jiankang; the Xiongnu warriors sacked and nearly destroyed Luoyang. The same fate befell Chang'an in 316 AD. In winter 416, Luoyang fell to Liu Yu's general Tan Daoji. In 422, Luoyang was captured by Northern Wei. Liu Song general Dao Yanzhi took the city back. In 493 AD, Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei dynasty moved the capital from Datong to Luoyang and started the construction of the rock-cut Longmen Grottoes. More than 30,000 Buddhist statues from the time of this dynasty have been found in the caves. Many of these sculptures were two-faced. At the same time, the Shaolin Temple was built by the Emperor to accommodate an Indian monk on the Mont Song right next to Luoyang City; the Yongning Temple, the tallest pagoda in China, was built in Luoyang. When Emperor Yang of Sui took control in 604 AD he founded the new Luoyang on the site of the existing city using a layout inspired by his father Emperor Wen of Sui's work in newly rebuilt Chang'an.
During the Tang dynasty, Luoyang was Dongdu, the "Eastern Capital", at its height had a population of around one million, second only to Chang'an, which, at the t
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country. The province is located across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, bordering Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, Shandong for a short section in the north. Anhui is the 22nd largest Chinese province based on area, the 8th most populous, the 12th most densely-populated region of all 34 Chinese provincial regions. Hefei is second largest city; the name "Anhui" derives from the names of two cities: Anqing and Huizhou. The abbreviation for Anhui is "Chinese: 皖; the administration of Anhui is composed of the provincial administrative system, led by the Governor, Provincial Congress, The People's Political Consultative Conference, Provincial Higher people's Court. Anhui is known as a province with political tradition in China's government system. Aside from managing provincial government departments, the provincial government manages 16 cities, 62 counties, 43 county-level districts and 1,522 townships.
By the end of 2016, the population registered in Anhui was 70.27 million. The total GDP of Anhui Province is listed as 12th of all 31 provincial regions in 2017. Anhui Province was established in the sixth year of the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty; the province has another name, "Wan", during the Spring and Autumn Period, a small country named "Wan" was here and a mountain called "Wanshan" is in the province. Before Anhui was established, this land had a long history. Two million years ago, human beings inhabited this area, proven by some findings in Fanchang County. Archaeologists have identified the cultural domains of Yangshao and Longshan, dated to the Neolithic Age. In relation to these cultures, archeologists have discovered through excavation a 4500-year-old city called the Nanchengzi Ruins in Guzhen County, after they discovered a Neolithic city wall and a moat, part of a much larger and integrated city in the region during their 2013 disinterment. There are many historic sites found in the province from the period of the Xia dynasty to the Warring Kingdoms.
After the Qin dynasty unified China, this area belonged to different prefectures such as the Jiujiang, Zhang and Sishui Prefectures. Anhui became parts of Yang, Yu, Xu prefectures during Han dynasties. In the period of the Three Kingdoms, Anhui was separately dominated by the Wu Wei State. During the Jin dynasty and Southern dynasties and the Sui dynasty, Anhui was part of Yang, Xu and Yu prefectures, respectively. On, the Hui area flourished and the economy and culture of Hui Prefecture created great influence during Song Dynasty. During the Yuan dynasty, ruled by the Mongolian emperor, Anhui area was a part of Henan province. During the Ming dynasty, the area was directly managed by the administration of the Capital of Nanjing. Shortly after the Qing dynasty was established, this area and Jiangsu province were merged as one province until the sixth year of the Kangxi Emperor's reign in the Qing dynasty. During the Qing dynasty, Anhui played an important role in the Self-Strengthening Movement led by Li Hongzhang, an important Prime Minister during the Qing Dynasty.
At this time, many western weapons and modern government concepts were introduced into China. Over the next 50 years, Anhui became one of the most aggressive areas with liberal thought. Within this environment, many ideologists appeared in Anhui. Several of them impacted the future of China including, Hu Shih, a Chinese philosopher and diplomat, Chen Duxiu, founder of the Chinese Communist Party and the first General Secretary of the CCP. In 1938, the north and central areas of the province were damaged because Chiang Kai-shek, the then-President of the Republic of China, broke the dam of Yellow River, hoping this strategy could slow down the invasion by the Imperial Japanese Army. Within only ten days of the dam breaking, the water and sands drowned all of north and middle area of this province, 500,000 to 900,000 Chinese lives were lost, along with an unknown number of Japanese soldiers; the flood prevented the Japanese Army from taking Zhengzhou. With the establishment of People’s Republic of China in 1949, the capital city of Anhui province moved to what was a small town, Hefei.
At the same time, the provincial government spent a lot of energy and money to develop this new capital city which has become China Top 25 city in 2010s. After 1949, the government launched many Water Projects to solve the hurt during World War II. In addition, many other areas of China supported Anhui’s development. In the 1990s, the province has become one of the fastest growing provinces in China. In 2010s, the province became a part of China Yangtze River Delta Economic Area, the most developed area of China, and the capital city, Hefei, is set as the sub-central city of this Economic Area, only after Shanghai and Hangzhou. In terms of culture, Northern Anhui was a part of the North China Plain together with modern-day Henan province, northern Jiangsu and southern Shandong provinces. Central Anhui was densely populated and constituted of fertile land from the Huai River watershed. In contrast, the culture of Southern Anhui, bordered along the Yangtze, was closer to Jiangxi and southern Jiangsu provinces.
The hills of southeastern Anhui formed a
The Yangtze or Yangzi, 6,300 km long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. The river is the longest in the world to flow within one country, it drains one-fifth of the land area of China, its river basin is home to nearly one-third of the country's population. The Yangtze is the sixth-largest river by discharge volume in the world; the English name Yangtze derives from the Chinese name Yángzǐ Jiāng, which refers to the lowest 435 km of the river between Nanjing and Shanghai. The whole river is known in China as Cháng Jiāng. In more recent modern texts, it is spelled as the Yangzi, in align with its modern pinyin; the Yangtze plays a large role in the history and economy of China. The prosperous Yangtze River Delta generates as much as 20% of the PRC's GDP; the Yangtze River flows through a wide array of ecosystems and is habitat to several endemic and endangered species including the Chinese alligator, the narrow-ridged finless porpoise, the Chinese paddlefish, the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji, the Yangtze sturgeon.
For thousands of years, the river has been used for water, sanitation, industry, boundary-marking and war. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River is the largest hydro-electric power station in the world. In recent years, the river has suffered from industrial pollution, plastic pollution, agricultural run-off and loss of wetland and lakes, which exacerbates seasonal flooding; some sections of the river are now protected as nature reserves. A stretch of the upstream Yangtze flowing through deep gorges in western Yunnan is part of the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In mid-2014, the Chinese government announced it was building a multi-tier transport network, comprising railways and airports, to create a new economic belt alongside the river; because the source of the Yangtze was not ascertained until modern times, the Chinese have given different names to lower and upstream sections of the river."Yangtze" was the name of Chang Jiang for the lower part from Nanjing to the river mouth at Shanghai.
However, due to the fact that Christian missionaries carried out their activities in this area and were familiar with the name of this part of Chang Jiang, "Yangtze river" was used to refer to the whole Chang Jiang in the English language. In modern Chinese, Yangtze is still used to refer to the lower part of Chang Jiang from Nanjing to the river mouth. Yangtze never stands for the whole Chang Jiang. Chang Jiang is the modern Chinese name for the lower 2,884 km of the Yangtze from its confluence with the Min River at Yibin in Sichuan province to the river mouth at Shanghai. Chang Jiang means the "Long River." In Old Chinese, this stretch of the Yangtze was called Jiang/Kiang 江, a character of phono-semantic compound origin, combining the water radical 氵 with the homophone 工. Krong was a word in the Austroasiatic language of local peoples such as the Yue. Similar to *krong in Proto-Vietnamese and krung in Mon, all meaning "river", it is related to modern Vietnamese sông and Khmer kôngkea. By the Han dynasty, Jiang had come to mean any river in Chinese, this river was distinguished as the "Great River" 大江.
The epithet 長, means "long", was first formally applied to the river during the Six Dynasties period. Various sections of Chang Jiang have local names. From Yibin to Yichang, the river through Sichuan and Chongqing Municipality is known as the Chuan Jiang or "Sichuan River." In Hubei Province, the river is called the Jing Jiang or the "Jing River" after Jingzhou. In Anhui Province, the river takes on the local name Wan Jiang after the shorthand name for Anhui, wǎn, and Yangzi Jiang or the "Yangzi River", from which the English name Yangtze is derived, is the local name for the Lower Yangtze in the region of Yangzhou. The name comes from an ancient ferry crossing called Yangzi or Yangzijin. Europeans who arrived in the Yangtze River Delta region applied this local name to the Å river; the dividing site between upstream and midstream is considered to be at Yichang and that between midstream and downstream at Hukou. The Jinsha River is the name for 2,308 km of the Yangtze from Yibin upstream to the confluence with the Batang River near Yushu in Qinghai Province.
From antiquity until the Ming Dynasty, this stretch of the river was believed to be a tributary of the Yangtze while the Min River was thought to be the main course of the river above Yibin. In the Yu Gong, written in the fifth century BCE, this section is called the Hei Shui 黑水 or the "Black Water." The name "Jinsha" originates in the Song dynasty when the river attracted large numbers of gold prospectors. Gold prospecting along the Jinsha continued to this day. Prior to the Song dynasty, other names were used including, for example Lújiāng from the Three Kingdoms period; the Tongtian River describes the 813 km section from Yushu up to the confluence with the Dangqu River. The name comes from a fabled river in the Journey to the West. In antiquity, it was called the Yak River. In Mongolian, this section is known as the Murui-ussu. and sometimes confused with the nearby Baishui. The Tuotuo River is the official headstream of the Yangtze, a
Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not offer. Bribery is defined by Black's Law Dictionary as the offering, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty. Bribery is offering to do something for someone for the expressed purpose of receiving something in exchange. Gifts of money or other items of value which are otherwise available to everyone on an equivalent basis, not for dishonest purposes, is not bribery. Offering a discount or a refund to all purchasers is not bribery. For example, it is legal for an employee of a Public Utilities Commission involved in electric rate regulation to accept a rebate on electric service that reduces their cost for electricity, when the rebate is available to other residential electric customers. Giving the rebate to influence them to look favorably on the electric utility's rate increase applications, would be considered bribery.
A bribe is the gift bestowed to influence the recipient's conduct. It may be money, rights in action, preferment, emolument, objects of value, advantage, or a promise to induce or influence the action, vote, or influence of a person in an official or public capacity. Many types of payments or favors can constitute bribes: tip, sop, skim, discount, waived fee/ticket, free food, free ad, free trip, free tickets, sweetheart deal, kickback/payback, inflated sale of an object or property, lucrative contract, campaign contribution, sponsorship/backing, higher paying job, stock options, secret commission, or promotion. One must be careful of differing cultural norms when examining bribery. Expectations of when a monetary transaction is appropriate can differ from place to place. Political campaign contributions in the form of cash, for example, are considered criminal acts of bribery in some countries, while in the United States, provided they adhere to election law, are legal. Tipping, for example, is considered bribery in some societies, while in others the two concepts may not be interchangeable.
In some Spanish-speaking countries, bribes are referred to as "mordida". In Arab countries, bribes may be called baksheesh or "shay". French-speaking countries use the expressions "dessous-de-table", "pot-de-vin", or "commission occulte". While the last two expressions contain inherently a negative connotation, the expression "dessous-de-table" can be understood as a accepted business practice. In German, the common term is Schmiergeld; the offence may be divided into two great classes: the one, where a person invested with power is induced by payment to use it unjustly. The briber might hold a powerful role and control the transaction; the forms that bribery take are numerous. For example, a motorist might bribe a police officer not to issue a ticket for speeding, a citizen seeking paperwork or utility line connections might bribe a functionary for faster service. Bribery may take the form of a secret commission, a profit made by an agent, in the course of his employment, without the knowledge of his principal.
Euphemisms abound for this Bribers and recipients of bribery are numerous although bribers have one common denominator and, the financial ability to bribe. According to BBC news U. K, "bribery around the world is estimated at about $1 trillion"; as indicated on the pages devoted to political corruption, efforts have been made in recent years by the international community to encourage countries to dissociate and incriminate as separate offences and passive bribery. From a legal point of view, active bribery can be defined for instance as the promising, offering or giving by any person, directly or indirectly, of any undue advantage, for himself or herself or for anyone else, for him or her to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions.. Passive bribery can be defined as the request or receipt, directly or indirectly, of any undue advantage, for himself or herself or for anyone else, or the acceptance of an offer or a promise of such an advantage, to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions.
The reason for this dissociation is to make the early steps of a corrupt deal an offence and, thus, to give a clear signal that bribery is not acceptable. Besides, such a dissociation makes the prosecution of bribery offences easier since it can be difficult to prove that two parties have formally agreed upon a corrupt deal. Besides, there is no such formal deal but only a mutual understanding, for instance when it is common knowledge in a municipality that to obtain a building permit one has to pay a "fee" to the decision maker to obtain a favourable decision. A grey area may exist. United States law is strict in li
Sichuan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu; the population of Sichuan stands at 81 million. In antiquity, Sichuan was the home of the ancient states of Shu, their conquest by Qin strengthened it and paved the way for the Qin Shi Huang's unification of China under the Qin dynasty. During the Three Kingdoms era, Liu Bei's Shu was based in Sichuan; the area was devastated in the 17th century by Zhang Xianzhong's rebellion and the area's subsequent Manchu conquest, but recovered to become one of China's most productive areas by the 19th century. During the World War II, Chongqing served as the temporary capital of the Republic of China, making it the focus of Japanese bombing, it was one of the last mainland areas to fall to the Communists during the Chinese Civil War and was divided into four parts from 1949 to 1952, with Chongqing restored two years later.
It suffered gravely during the Great Chinese Famine of 1959–61 but remained China's most populous province until Chongqing Municipality was again separated from it in 1997. The people of Sichuan speak a unique form of Mandarin, which took shape during the area's repopulation under the Ming; the family of dialects is now spoken by about 120 million people, which would make it the 10th most spoken language in the world if counted separately. The area's warm damp climate long caused Chinese medicine to advocate spicy dishes. Many people believe that the name Sichuan means "four rivers", in folk etymology this is taken to mean the province's four major rivers: the Jialing, Jinsha and Tuo. According to historical geographer Tan Qixiang, "four rivers" is an erroneous interpretation of the place name; the name of the province is a contraction of the phrases Sì Chuānlù and Chuānxiá Sìlù, referring to the division of the existing imperial administrative circuit in the area into four during the Northern Song dynasty.
The character Chuan here means "plain" and not "river" as believed. In addition to its postal map and Wade-Giles forms, the name has been irregularly romanized as Szű-chuan and Szechuan. In antiquity, the area of modern Sichuan including the now separated Chongqing Municipality was known to the Chinese as Ba-Shu, in reference to the ancient states of Ba and Shu that once occupied the Sichuan Basin. Shu continued to be used to refer to the Sichuan region all through its history right up to the present day. Both the characters for Shu and Chuan are used as abbreviations for Sichuan; the Sichuan Basin and adjacent areas of the Yangtze watershed were a cradle of indigenous civilizations dating back to at least the 15th century BC, coinciding with the Shang in northern China. The region worldview; the earliest culture found in the region through archaeological investigation is the Baodun culture excavated in the Chengdu Plain. The most important native states were those of Shu. Ba stretched into Sichuan from the Han Valley in Shaanxi and Hubei down the Jialing River as far as its confluence with the Yangtze at Chongqing.
Shu occupied the valley of the Min, including other areas of western Sichuan. The existence of the early state of Shu was poorly recorded in the main historical records of China, it was, referred to in the Book of Documents as an ally of the Zhou. Accounts of Shu exist as a mixture of mythological stories and historical legends recorded in local annals such as the Chronicles of Huayang compiled in the Jin dynasty, the Han dynasty compilation Shuwang benji; these contained folk stories such as that of Emperor Duyu who taught the people agriculture and transformed himself into a cuckoo after his death. The existence of a developed civilization with an independent bronze industry in Sichuan came to light with an archaeological discovery in 1986 at a small village named Sanxingdui in Guanghan, Sichuan; this site, believed to be an ancient city of Shu, was discovered by a local farmer in 1929 who found jade and stone artefacts. Excavations by archaeologists in the area yielded few significant finds until 1986 when two major sacrificial pits were found with spectacular bronze items as well as artefacts in jade, gold and stone.
This and other discoveries in Sichuan contest the conventional historiography that the local culture and technology of Sichuan were undeveloped in comparison to the technologically and culturally "advanced" Yellow River valley of north-central China. The rulers of the expansionist state of Qin, based in present-day Gansu and Shaanxi, were the first strategists to realize that the area's military importance matched its commercial and agricultural significance; the Sichuan basin is surrounded by the Hengduan Mountains to the west, the Qin Mountains to the north, Yungui Plateau to the south. Since the Yangtze flows through the basin and through the perilous Three Gorges to eastern and southern China, Sichuan was a staging area for amphibious military forces and a haven for political refugees. Qin armies finished their conquest of the k
The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084 in the form of a chronicle. In 1065 AD, Emperor Yingzong of Song ordered the great historian Sima Guang to lead with other scholars such as his chief assistants Liu Shu, Liu Ban and Fan Zuyu, the compilation of a universal history of China; the task took 19 years to be completed, and, in 1084 AD, it was presented to his successor Emperor Shenzong of Song. The Zizhi Tongjian records Chinese history from 403 BC to 959 AD, covering 16 dynasties and spanning across 1,400 years, contains 294 volumes and about 3 million Chinese characters; the principal text of the Zizhi Tongjian was recorded on 294 juan, which are scrolls corresponding to a volume, chapter, or section of the work. The text is a chronological narrative of the history of China from the Warring States to the Five Dynasties; the major contributor, Sima Guang, was active in each step from collecting events and dates from various previous works to drafting and publication.
Sima Guang left the traditional usage in Chinese historiography. For 1,000 years since the Shiji was written, standard Chinese dynastic histories had divided chapters between annals of rulers, biographies of officials. In Chinese terms, the book changed the format of histories from biographical style to chronological style, better suited for analysis and criticism. According to Wilkinson: "It had an enormous influence on Chinese historical writing, either directly or through its many abbreviations and adaptations, it remains an extraordinarily useful first reference for a quick and reliable coverage of events at a particular time." The 294 juan sweep through 11 Chinese historical periods. It was one of the largest historical magna opera in history. In the 12th century, Zhu Xi produced a reworked, condensed version of Zizhi Tongjian, known as Tongjian Gangmu, or Zizhi Tongjian Gangmu; this condensed version was itself translated into Manchu as ᡨᡠᠩᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨᡬᠠᠩᠮᡠ Wylie: Tung giyan g'ang mu, Möllendorff: Tung giyan g'ang mu, upon the request of Qing Dynasty Kangxi Emperor.
This Manchu version was itself translated into French by French Jesuit missionary Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyriac de Mailla. His twelve-volume translation, "Histoire générale de la Chine, ou Annales de cet Empire; the Zhonghua Shuju edition contains textual criticism made by Yuan Dynasty historian Hu Sanxing. The philosopher Wang Fuzhi wrote a commentary on Tongjian, titled "Comments after reading the Tongjian". Historian Rafe de Crespigny has published translations of chapters 54-59 and 59-69 under the titles "Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling" and "To Establish Peace" covering 157-220 CE, while the next ten chapters covering up to 265 CE were translated by Achilles Fang in "The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms". Chapters 1-8, covering the years 403-207 BCE, have been translated into English with copious notes and annotations; some additional sections of Zizhi tongjian pertaining to China's relations with the Xiongnu have been translated into English. The book consisted of 294 chapters, of which the following number describe each respective dynastic era: 5 chapters - Zhou 3 chapters - Qin 60 chapters - Han 10 chapters - Wei 40 chapters - Jin 16 chapters - Liu Song 10 chapters - Qi 22 chapters - Liang 10 chapters - Chen 8 chapters - Sui 81 chapters - Tang 6 chapters - Later Liang 8 chapters - Later Tang 6 chapters - Later Jin 4 chapters - Later Han 5 chapters - Later Zhou Culture of the Song dynasty History of the Song dynasty Records of the Grand Historian Zizhi Tongjian "Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government" — Chinaknowledge Xu Elina-Qian, Historical Development of the Pre-Dynastic Khitan, University of Helsinki, 2005.
273 pages. 2.1 Introduction to the Sources on the Pre-dynastic Khitan > The Zizhi Tongjian, p.20 Zizhi Tongjian