Spring is one of the four conventional temperate seasons, following winter and preceding summer. There are various definitions of spring, but local usage of the term varies according to local climate, cultures. When it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere, it will be autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, at the spring equinox, days are approximately 12 hours long with day length increasing as the season progresses. Spring and springtime refer to the season, and to ideas of rebirth, renewal, resurrection and tropical areas have climates better described in terms of other seasons, e. g. dry or wet, monsoonal or cyclonic. Often, cultures have locally defined names for seasons which have little equivalence to the terms originating in Europe, Spring is the time when many plants begin to grow and flower. Meteorologists generally define four seasons in many areas, summer, autumn. These are demarcated by the values of their average temperatures on a monthly basis, the three warmest months are by definition summer, the three coldest months are winter and the intervening gaps are spring and autumn.
Spring, when defined in this manner, can start on different dates in different regions, in most Northern Hemisphere, temperate locations, spring months are March and May, although differences exist from country to country. Most Southern Hemisphere, temperate locations have opposing seasons with spring in September and November, in Australia and New Zealand, spring conventionally begins on 1 September and ends 30 November. In some cultures in the Northern Hemisphere, the astronomical Vernal equinox is taken to mark the first day of spring, in Persian culture the first day of spring is the first day of the first month which begins on 20 or 21 March. In other traditions, the equinox is taken as mid-spring, according to the Celtic tradition, which is based solely on daylight and the strength of the noon sun, spring begins in early February and continues until early May. In Ireland, spring traditionally starts on February 1, St Brigids Day, the beginning of spring is not always determined by fixed calendar dates.
These indicators, along with the beginning of spring, vary according to the local climate, most ecologists divide the year into six seasons that have no fixed dates. In addition to spring, ecological reckoning identifies an earlier separate prevernal season between the hibernal and vernal seasons and this is a time when only the hardiest flowers like the crocus are in bloom, sometimes while there is still some snowcover on the ground. During early spring, the axis of the Earth is increasing its tilt relative to the Sun, the hemisphere begins to warm significantly, causing new plant growth to spring forth, giving the season its name. Any snow begins to melt, swelling streams with runoff and any frosts become less severe, in climates that have no snow, and rare frosts and ground temperatures increase more rapidly. Many flowering plants bloom at this time of year, in a succession, sometimes beginning when snow is still on the ground. In normally snowless areas, spring may begin as early as February, heralded by the blooming of deciduous magnolias and quince, or August in the same way
Portuguese conquest of Goa
The Portuguese conquest of Goa occurred when the governor of Portuguese India Afonso de Albuquerque captured the city in 1510. Goa was not among the cities Albuquerque had received orders to conquer, he had only been ordered by the Portuguese king to capture Hormuz and Malacca. The Portuguese Marshall Dom Fernando Coutinho had been killed in Calicut, fortuitously leaving Albuquerque with full, the Portuguese force was composed of 23 ships,1200 Portuguese soldiers,400 Portuguese sailors,220 Malabarese auxiliaries from Cochin and 3000 fighting slaves. The expedition set sail for the Red Sea in late January 1510, in February 6th anchored by Canannore and in the 13th sighted Mount of Eli. Thereafter, the expedition resumed its course and anchored by the city of Honavar, where Albuquerque was approached by an acquaintance of the Portuguese, the powerful Malabarese privateer, Timoji. Knowing of the discontent among the Hindus of Goa after falling to the Muslim rulers of Bijapur in 1496, Timojis timely proposition was not entirely coincidental, as Albuquerque had already received in Cochin envoys of Timoji requesting a rendezvous.
Upon assembling with his captains, Albuquerque convinced them that it was crucial that they attacked Goa, in February the 16th, the Portuguese armada sailed into the deep waters of the Mandovi river. Supported by 2000 men of Timoji, the Portuguese landed troops commanded by Dom António de Noronha and assaulted the fort of Pangim, Yusuf was wounded and retreated to the city and the Portuguese captured the fort along with several iron artillery pieces. At Pangim Albuquerque received envoys from the most important figures of Goa, thereafter they declared their full support towards the Portuguese and Albuquerque formally occupied Goa on February 17th 1510 with no resistance. In the city, the Portuguese found partially finished new ships, for his assistance, he was nominated tanadar-mor of Goa. Expecting a retaliation from the Sultan of Bijapur, Albuquerque began organizing the citys defences, the citys walls were repaired, the moat was expanded and filled with water and storehouses for weapons and supplies were built.
At the same time, Albuquerque sent an embassy to the court of the neighbouring Hindu Vijayanagara Empire, unbeknownst to Albuquerque, the Adil Shah had just agreed on a truce with the Vijayanagara Empire, and could divert much more troops into recapturing the city than expected. Pulad Khan awaited for the monsoon to trap the Portuguese before assaulting the island and he was sent to convince his fellow countrymen to surrender or flee. Trusting the strength of his position, Albuquerque rejected Machados propositions. Under these conditions, Pulad Khan launched an assault on May 11, across the Banastarim pass at low tide amidst a heavy storm. The following day, Pulad Khan ordered an assault against the city but was repelled, only now Albuquerque knew of the truce between Bijapur and Vijayanagara, and spent the rest of May preparing a retreat. Albuquerque sailed from Cannanore and returned three months later, on November 24, with a fleet, composed of 34 ships,1500 Portuguese and 300 Malabarese.
He again joined forces with Thimayya in Honavar and he was fearing an alliance of Goa with Gujarat, Zamorins Calicut and the Mamluk Egyptians
Battle of Macau
The Battle of Macau in 1622 was a conflict of the Dutch-Portuguese War fought in the Portuguese settlement of Macau, in southeastern China. The Portuguese and without adequate fortification, managed to repel the Dutch in a victory on 24 June after a three-day battle. To date, the remains the only major engagement that was fought between two European powers on the Chinese mainland. Portugals success in Macau drew the envy of other European maritime powers who were slower to gain a foothold in East Asia. Macau had already sustained Dutch raids in 1601,1603, and 1607, the fall of Macau would leave the Spaniards in the Philippines without means of support and make it easier for the Dutch to mount an attack on Manila. Despite the raids, the Portuguese authorities were unable to raise an extensive system for the city due to interference from Chinese officials. The sorry state of Macaus defenses were made known to the Hollanders when the Dutch ship Gallias seized a Portuguese ship carrying a case of letters off the coast of Malaya at the end of 1621.
Coen was so satisfied with the fleet that when he wrote to the VOC directors at The Hague he expressed regret for not being able to lead so magnificent an expedition in person. So when the fleet set sail again from Cam Ranh Bay two days later, the fleet was composed of eleven ships, a few days later, the fleet encountered a Siamese war junk carrying 28 Siamese and 20 Japanese people. The Japanese asked to join the Dutch expedition, and their request was granted, the landing force now amounted to about six hundred, with some Japanese and Bandanese among the numbers. The invasion fleet arrived in sight of Macau on 21 June, according to Coens directives, the English were free to join in maritime operations but were not allowed to take part in the landing or take any share of the spoils of victory. As a result, the English captains refused to commit their ships for the attack, now Reijersen had thirteen ships under his command for the attack on Macau, totaling 1300 men, including a landing force of 800.
In the night of 22 June, Reijersen sent ashore a scouting party of three men and a Chinese guide to see if the 10,000 Chinese residents of the city would remain neutral and they soon returned after finding the Chinese had fled the city ahead of the invasion. To distract the defenders from the landing site, three ships – Groeningen and Engelsche Beer – started to bombard the São Franciso battery in the south on 23 June. After an afternoon of cannon volleys and insults, the ships withdrew for the night without inflicting any casualties on the Portuguese side, the Dutch celebrated their expected victory in advance by blowing their trumpets and beating their drums all night. Not to be outdone, the Portuguese retaliated with similar martial festivities in the citys bulwarks, the Dutch ships Groeningen and Gallias resumed their attack on São Francisco at daybreak the very next day, the Feast-day of St. John the Baptist. The Portuguese gunners at the bastion responded with such ferocity that the Gallias became so damaged she had to be scuttled a few weeks later.
At approximately two hours after sunrise, the party of 800 set off for Cacilhas Beach while São Francisco was being bombarded
Crown of Castile
The title of King of Castile remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca and Sicily, in the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain, even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of was called Spain by both contemporaries and historians. King of Castile remains part of the title of Felipe VI of Spain. The Kingdom of León arose out of the Kingdom of Asturias, the Kingdom of Castile appeared initially as a county of the Kingdom of León. From the second half of the 10th century to the first half of the 11th century it changed hands between León and the Kingdom of Navarre, in the 11th century it became a kingdom in its own right. The two kingdoms had been united twice previously, From 1037 until 1065 under Ferdinand I of León, upon his death his kingdoms passed to his sons, León to Alfonso VI, Castile to Sancho II, and Galicia to García.
From 1072 until 1157 under Alfonso VI, and Alfonso VII, from 1111 until 1126 Galicia was separate from the union under Alfonso VII. In 1157 the kingdoms were divided between Alfonsos sons, with Ferdinand II receiving León and Sancho III Castile, from on the two kingdoms were united under the name of the Kingdom of León and Castile, or simply as the Crown of Castile. Ferdinand III conquered the Guadalquivir Valley, while his son Alfonso X conquered the Kingdom of Murcia from Al-Andalus, the heir to the throne has been titled Prince of Asturias since the 14th century. Almost immediately after the union of the two kingdoms under Ferdinand III, the parliaments of Castile and León were united. It was divided into three estates, which corresponded with the nobility, the church and the cities, and included representation from Castile, León, Toledo, under Alfonso X, most sessions of the Cortes of both kingdoms were held jointly. The Cortes of 1258 in Valladolid comprised representatives of Castile, Extremadura and León, subsequent Cortes were celebrated separately, for example in 1301 that of Castile in Burgos and that of León in Zamora, but the representatives demanded that the parliaments be reunited from on.
These laws continued to be in force until 1889, when a new Spanish civil code, in the 13th century there were many languages spoken in the Kingdoms of León and Castile among them Castilian, Leonese and Galician-Portuguese. But, as the century progressed, Castilian gained increasing prominence as the language of culture, henceforth all public documents were written in Castilian, likewise all translations of Arabic legal and government documents were made into Castilian instead of Latin. In 1492, under the Catholic Monarchs, the first edition of the Grammar of the Castilian Language by Antonio de Nebrija was published, Castilian was eventually carried to the Americas in the 16th century by the conquistadors. Because of Castilians importance in the land ruled by the Spanish Crown, on the death of Alfonso XI a dynastic conflict started between his sons, the Infantes Peter and Henry, Count of Trastámara, which became entangled in the Hundred Years War. Alfonso XI had married Maria of Portugal with whom he had his heir, the King had many illegitimate children with Eleanor of Guzman, among them the above-mentioned Henry, who disputed Peters right to the throne once the latter became king
Second Siege of Diu
The Second Siege of Diu was a siege of the Portuguese Indian city of Diu by the Gujarat Sultanate in 1546. It ended with a major Portuguese victory, at the beginning of the 16th century, the Muslim Sultanate of Gujarat was the principal seapower in India. Gujarat fought the Portuguese fleets in collaboration with the Mamluks, the Portuguese were defeated by a combined Mamluk-Gujarati fleet in 1508, which was in turn destroyed by a Portuguese fleet in the Battle of Diu. By 1536, the Portuguese had gained control of Diu. In 1538, the Ottomans, who had taken over Egypt and Aden and they besieged Diu in 1538, but had to retreat. After the failed siege of 1538, the Gujarati General Khadjar Safar besieged Diu again in an attempt to recapture the island, the siege lasted seven months from 20 April 1546 to 10 November 1546, during which João de Mascarenhas defended Diu. The siege ended when a Portuguese fleet under Governor João de Castro arrived and routed the attackers, Khadjar Safar and his son Muharram Rumi Khan were both killed during the siege.
Siege of Diu First Siege of Diu
Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling between spring and autumn. At the summer solstice, the days are longest and the nights are shortest, the date of the beginning of summer varies according to climate and culture. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, a variable seasonal lag means that the meteorological center of the season, which is based on average temperature patterns, occurs several weeks after the time of maximal insolation. Under meteorological definitions, all seasons are set to start at the beginning of a calendar month. This meteorological definition of summer aligns with the commonly viewed notion of summer as the season with the longest days of the year, the meteorological reckoning of seasons is used in Australia, Denmark, the former Soviet Union and Japan. It is used by many in the United Kingdom, in Ireland, the summer months according to the national meteorological service, Met Éireann, are June and August.
However, according to the Irish Calendar, summer begins on 1 May, school textbooks in Ireland follow the cultural norm of summer commencing on 1 May rather than the meteorological definition of 1 June. Reckoning by hours of daylight alone, summer solstice marks the midpoint, not the beginning, midsummer takes place over the shortest night of the year, which is the summer solstice, or on a nearby date that varies with tradition. Where a seasonal lag of half a season or more is common, by this method, in North America, summer is the period from the summer solstice to the autumn equinox. The similar Canadian tradition starts summer on Victoria Day one week prior and ends, as in the United States, on Labour Day. In Chinese astronomy, summer starts on or around 5 May, with the known as lìxià, i. e. establishment of summer. In Australia and New Zealand, summer begins on 1 December. Summer is traditionally associated with hot or warm weather, in the Mediterranean regions, it is associated with dry weather, while in other places it is associated with rainy weather.
The wet season is the period of vegetation growth within the savanna climate regime. Where the wet season is associated with a shift in the prevailing winds. In the northern Atlantic Ocean, a tropical cyclone season occurs from 1 June to 30 November. The statistical peak of the Atlantic hurricane season is 10 September, the Northeast Pacific Ocean has a broader period of activity, but in a similar time frame to the Atlantic. The Northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and March, in the North Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November
Siege of Malacca (1568)
A Siege of Malacca occurred in 1568, when the Sultan of Aceh Alaal-Din attacked the Portuguese-held city of Malacca. The city had held by the Portuguese since its conquest by Afonso de Albuquerque in 1511. The army of the Sultan was composed of a fleet of long galley-type oared ships,15,000 troops. The city of Malacca was successfully defended by Dom Leonis Pereira, other attacks on Malacca by the Acehnese would continue during the following years, especially in 1570. The offensive weakened the Portuguese Empire, in the 1570s, the Sultan of the Moluccas was able to repel the Portuguese from the Spice Islands
War of the Castilian Succession
France intervened in support of Portugal, as they were rivals with Aragon for territory in Italy and Roussillon. The newly gained prestige was used to win support from their allies …. The war between Castile and Portugal alone continued and this included naval warfare in the Atlantic, which became more important, a struggle for maritime access to the wealth of Guinea. In 1478, the Portuguese navy defeated the Castilians in the decisive Battle of Guinea, Joanna lost her right to the throne of Castile and remained in Portugal until her death. This conflict has called the Second Castilian Civil War. Some authors refer to it as the War of Portugal, however, at other times the term Peninsular War has been used, but it is easily confused with the Peninsular War of 1808–1814, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Some authors prefer the neutral expression War of 1475–1479, Joanna la Beltraneja, born in 1462, the first and only daughter of King Henry IV of Castile, was of Asturias. A rumour spread that Princess Joanna was not actually the daughter of King Henry but rather of Beltrán de la Cueva, Joanna was thus nicknamed la Beltraneja, as a mocking reference to her assumed father.
Pressure from members of the nobility forced the King to strip her of the title and name his half-brother Alfonso as heir, in 1465, a group of nobility assembled in Ávila and overthrew King Henry, replacing him with Alfonso. That led to a war that ended in 1468 with the death of the 14-year-old Alfonso, Henry IV regained the throne, but the title of heir became disputed between Joanna, his daughter, and Isabella, his half-sister. That was resolved via the Treaty of the Bulls of Guisando, Isabella secretly married Ferdinand in 1469 at the age of 17, ignoring Henry IVs wishes. When Henry IV died in December 1474, both candidates for the throne were proclaimed Queen of Castile by their respective supporters, the Kingdom of France and the Crown of Aragon maintained a long-held rivalry for the control of Roussillon and, more recently, for hegemony in Italy. In June 1474, French troops invaded Roussillon and the Aragonese were forced to retreat, on the possibility that the heir to the throne of Aragon would become King of Castile, Louis XI of France officially positioned himself on the side of Joanna and Afonso in September 1475.
France was simultaneously at war with the Duchy of Burgundy and that made Burgundy into theoretical allies of Isabellas supporters, but in practice, it continued its war against France without coordinating their actions with the Isabella alliance. Edward IV accepted a truce of nine years, in exchange for significant economic compensation, the Kingdom of Navarre was experiencing an intermittent civil war, and the Muslim Kingdom of Granada remained neutral despite Portuguese efforts to draw it into the war. Throughout the 15th century, merchants and fishermen of Portugal, the possession of the Canary Islands was a point of contention between the two Crowns. Later on, the control of commerce with the territories of Guinea and Elmina, rich in gold and slaves, grew to a dispute of even greater importance. During the first half of the century, Castile staged the conquest of a few of the Canary Islands by feudal pacts, first with Norman knights, Portugal opposed Castilian authority on the islands and continued the exploration of Guinea, with significant commercial benefits
Battle of Tunmen
The Battle of Tunmen or Tãmão was a naval battle in which the Ming imperial navy defeated a Portuguese fleet led by Simão de Andrade in 1521. Simão de Andrade had been kidnapping Chinese children to sell in Malacca. and ignored Chinese sovereign authority at Tãmão, the Chinese believed that the Portuguese roasted and ate the Chinese children they had kidnapped. The Chinese responded by blockading the Portuguese, the Portuguese would have starved if they had not run the blockade. The Portuguese called their settlement Tamão, which is understood as a corruption of Tunmen, in the present day, Tunmen refers to Tuen Mun, the Cantonese reading of the same Chinese characters. This leads some researchers to link the Tunmen of Ming times to Tuen Mun in the New Territories of Hong Kong, adding to the confusion is the description in Portuguese sources that Tãmão was an island. As Tuen Mun is not an island, researchers have proposed that Tãmão actually refers to one of the nearby islands. Lintin Island, west of Tuen Mun, is accepted in Western academia as one of the more likely possibilities.
During this period Chinas navy maintained around 50 ships, the Chinese were commanded by Wang Hong. The battle started in either April or May, and ended when the Portuguese fled to Malacca in October, many Portuguese vessels were captured by Chinese forces. The Chinese killed and captured so many Portuguese that only three Portuguese ships survived the battle, out of the ships and Chinese junks with which they attacked the Chinese. They managed to only because a strong wind arose and scattered the pursuing Chinese ships. For many years afterwards, the Chinese would kill every single Portuguese who attempted to land in China, the Malay Sultanate of Johor improved relations with the Portuguese and fought alongside them against the Aceh Sultanate. Volumes 27-28, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, China Branch, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States. This article incorporates text from Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volumes 26-27, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain, North-China Branch, a publication from 1894 now in the public domain in the United States