Pero López de Ayala
Don Pero López de Ayala was a Castilian statesman, poet, chronicler and courtier. Pero López de Ayala was born in 1332 at Vitoria, County of Alava, Kingdom of Castile, the son of Fernán Pérez de Ayala and Elvira de Cevallos, he was nephew to Cardinal Pedro Gómez Barroso, was educated under this cleric. López de Ayala was a supporter of Pedro of Castile before switching sides in order to support the pretender to the Castilian throne, Henry of Trastamara; the Ayala were one of the major aristocratic families of Castile. The earliest known record of their family origin was an account written by Pero's own father which claims they derived from Pyrenees Christian royalty and linked them to the Lords of Biscay. Catholic bishop Lope de Barrientos, trying to dampen anti-semitic persecution, would claim that most of the nobility of Castile themselves had Jewish origins and that the Mendozas and Ayalas descended from a certain Rabbi Solomon and his son Isaque de Valladolid; as Alférez mayor del Pendón de la Banda, he fought with Henry at the Battle of Nájera and was made a prisoner of the Black Prince but was released.
In 1378, he traveled to France in order to negotiate an alliance against the Portuguese. He subsequently served as a supporter of John I of Castile, he was captured by the Portuguese at the Battle of Aljubarrota, was jailed in a prison of iron. From his Portuguese prison, he wrote his Libro de la caza de las aves and parts of his Rimado de Palacio, he was ransomed for 30,000 doubloons after many had interceded on his behalf, including his wife, Doña Leonor de Guzmán, the Master of Calatrava, the kings of both Castile and France. Upon his release in 1388 or 1389, he continued his diplomatic activities in France, he returned to Castile and was named Canciller mayor by Henry III. He died at Calahorra at the age of 75. López de Ayala is best remembered for his satirical and didactic Libro Rimado de Palacio, in which he acidly describes his contemporaries and their social and political values, his rhymed confession concerns the Ten Commandments, mortal sins, spiritual works, the sins associated with the five senses, followed by an account of the evils afflicting the Church.
The most famous couplets concern "los fechos de Palaçio", which detail the troubles of a courtier, attempting to collect money that the king owes to him. In one of the first known literary references to chivalresque tales, López de Ayala, in his Rimado de Palacio, would regret a misspent youth: In his Libro de la caza de las aves, López de Ayala attempted to compile all of the correct and available knowledge concerning falconry. In the prologue, López de Ayala explains that concerning "this art and science of the hunting with birds I heard and saw many uncertainties. Of this I saw some writings that reasoned on it, but did not agree with others."He wrote the chronicles for the reigns of Pedro I, Henry of Trastamara, John I, a partial chronicle of the reign of Henry III of Castile, collected as History of the Kings of Castile. As a source, López de Ayala is considered to be reliable, as he was a witness to the events he describes; the first part of his chronicle, which covers only the reign of Pedro I, was printed at Seville in 1495.
The first complete edition was printed in 1779-1780 in the collection of Crónicas Españolas, under the auspices of the Spanish Royal Academy of History. López de Ayala translated the works of ancient authors, such as Titus Livy and Boethius. Around 1400, for example, he translated Livy's Decades for Henry III of Castile, working from a French version by Pierre Bersuire, he translated the works of contemporary authors, such as Boccaccio, continued his father's Linaje de Ayala, a genealogy. The Castilian poet Pero Ferrús dedicated one of his cantigas to López de Ayala. Among his direct descendants are major Spanish poets and writers Inigo Lopez de Mendoza, Jorge Manrique and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ayala, Don Pedro Lopez de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. P. 71. Roth, Norman. Conversos and the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. University of Wisconsin Press. P. 377. ISBN 978-0299142339. De Ayala, Juan Contreras y López. de Lozoya, Marqués, ed. Introducción a la biographía del Canciller Ayala, con apéndices documentales.
Bilbao. Artehistoria.com: Personajes La Poesia del Siglo XIV Biografía de Pero López de Ayala Libro de la caza de las aves
Sir Hugh Calveley was an English knight and commander, who took part in the Hundred Years' War, gaining fame during the War of the Breton Succession and the Castilian Civil War. He held various military posts in Normandy, he should not be confused with his nephew Sir Hugh Calveley, who died in June 1393 and was Member of Parliament for Rutland. Calveley was born the youngest son of David de Calveley of Lea, his wife, Joanna; the family held the manor of Calveley in Cheshire. Estimates of the year of his birth range from 1315 to 1333, it is possible that he was a close relative, maybe a half-brother, of Sir Robert Knolles. Along with many other Englishmen, the young Hugh Calveley served in Brittany, supporting Jean de Montfort's English-backed bid to become Duke of Brittany against the French-backed claimant, Charles de Blois, during the Breton War of Succession. An anonymous Breton poet's account of the Battle of the Thirty in 1351 has "Hue de Caverle" as a knight fighting on the English side.
One estimate of the date of his knighthood is 1346, though documents from 1354 do not refer to him as a knight, there is some evidence that he was only knighted in 1361. In 1354, Calveley was captain of the English-held fortress of Becherel, he planned a raid on the castle of Montmuran on 10 April, to capture Arnoul d'Audrehem, Marshal of France, a guest of the lady of Tinteniac. Bertrand du Guesclin, in one of the early highlights of his career, anticipated the attack, posting archers as sentries; when the sentries raised the alarm at Calveley's approach, both du Guesclin and d'Audrehem hurried to intercept. In the ensuing fight, Calveley was unhorsed by a knight named Enguerrand d'Hesdin and ransomed. In 1359 Sir Robert Knolles and Calveley invaded the Rhône Valley; the city of Le Puy fell to them in July. The campaign ended when their way to Avignon was barred by the army of Thomas de la Marche, Deputy for Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, at which point both English commanders retreated. At the Battle of Auray on 29 September 1364, Calveley had the command of the reserve division of the forces of Jean de Montfort, under the command of Sir John Chandos.
Charles de Blois was killed at Auray, enabling Jean de Montfort to claim the Duchy without further conflict. After the conclusion of the Breton civil war, along with many other soldiers, found himself unemployed; these soldiers, banding together in the Free Companies, continued to support themselves by raiding causing a huge problem for the Kingdom of France. The solution to the problem was found when Aragon and the Papacy agreed to provide money to pay for the Free Companies to wage a campaign to support Count Enrique of Trastamara's bid for the throne of Castile, which at the time was held by Enrique's half-brother, Pedro of Castile. Calveley signed up as the most prominent of the English captains on this campaign, in which he was involved from 1365 to 1367 serving alongside Bertrand du Guesclin, his once and future enemy. For his services to Enrique, he was made Count of Carrion, he married one of the Aragonese queen's ladies-in-waiting, named Constanza, daughter of a Sicilian baron. Pedro the Cruel, having fled from Castile, invoked his alliance with England.
Calveley was ordered back to the service of England by the Black Prince, now took prominent part in Pedro's counter-campaign, culminating in the decisive Battle of Nájera. At Nájera, Calveley was once again in the rearguard; the two commanders had the glory of delivering the final blow to the faltering enemy infantry by a cavalry charge. Enrique of Trastamara escaped from the battle. Though his title as Count of Carrion had been granted by Enrique, Pedro confirmed it upon reclaiming the Castilian throne. In the spring of 1367, the Black Prince sent Calveley as an emissary to Aragon, to arrange the diplomatic isolation of the fugitive Enrique. Calveley convinced Pedro the Ceremonious to renounce his support for Enrique; when hostilities resumed between England and France in 1369, Calveley was once again involved, first in raiding the possessions of Gascon nobles who had defected to the French. He took part in at least three further campaigns in the period to 1374. From 1375 to 1378, Calveley was governor of an important port.
Thereafter, he became one of the two Admirals of the English fleet, taking part in several sea battles. In July 1379, he was involved in a raid on Brittany led by Marshal of England. On their return voyage, 20 ships and about 1000 men were lost at sea in a storm. Calveley was one of only 8 survivors. In 1383, he took part in the Norwich Crusade, preached by the Roman pope against his rival at Avignon, but this campaign turned into an embarrassing failure when France bribed a large number of the participants. Calveley's final military engagement was in 1386, when he joined John of Gaunt in an unsuccessful campaign to secure the Castilian throne. In July 1388, he joined the English Peace Commissioners negotiating a truce with France. In his life, he served as a Justice of the Peace, a knight of the shire for Rutland. Calveley died without issue on St George's Day, 23 April 1394, his tomb effigy is in St Boniface's church in Bunbury, though there is some doubt as to whether he was in fact buried there.
The effigy was commissioned by Sir Robert Knolles. Knight, dubbed sometime between ca 1346 an
Jean Froissart was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian from the Low Countries, who wrote several works, including Chronicles and Meliador, a long Arthurian romance, a large body of poetry, both short lyrical forms, as well as longer narrative poems. For centuries, Froissart's Chronicles have been recognised as the chief expression of the chivalric revival of the 14th century kingdoms of England and Scotland, his history is an important source for the first half of the Hundred Years' War. What little is known of Froissart's life comes from his historical writings and from archival sources which mention him in the service of aristocrats or receiving gifts from them. Although his poems have been used in the past to reconstruct aspects of his biography, this approach is in fact flawed, as the'I' persona which appears in many of the poems should not be construed as a reliable reference to the historical author; this is why de Looze has characterised these works as'pseudo-autobiographical'.
Froissart came from Valenciennes in the County of Hainaut, situated in the western tip of the Holy Roman Empire, bordering France. Earlier scholars have suggested that his father was a painter of armorial bearings, but there is little evidence for this. Other suggestions include that he began working as a merchant but soon gave that up to become a cleric. For this conclusion there is no real evidence, as the poems which have been cited to support these interpretations are not autobiographical. By about age 24, Froissart left Hainault and entered the service of Philippa of Hainault, queen consort of Edward III of England, in 1361 or 1362; this service, which would have lasted until the queen's death in 1369, has been presented as including a position of court poet and/or official historiographer. Based on surviving archives of the English court, Croenen has concluded instead that this service did not entail an official position at court, was more a literary construction, in which a courtly poet dedicated poems to his'lady' and in return received occasional gifts as remuneration.
Froissart took a serious approach to his work. He traveled in England, Wales, France and Spain gathering material and first-hand accounts for his Chronicles, he traveled with Lionel, Duke of Clarence, to Milan to attend and chronicle the duke's wedding to Violante, the daughter of Galeazzo Visconti. At this wedding, two other significant writers of the Middle Ages were present: Chaucer and Petrarch. After the death of Queen Philippa, he enjoyed the patronage of Joanna, Duchess of Brabant among various others, he received rewards—including the benefice of Estinnes, a village near Binche and became canon of Chimay—sufficient to finance further travels, which provided additional material for his work. He returned to England in 1395 but seemed disappointed by changes that he viewed as the end of chivalry; the date and circumstances of his death are unknown but St. Monegunda of Chimay might be the final resting place for his remains, although still unverified. Much more than his poetry, Froissart's fame is due to his Chronicles.
The text of his Chronicles is preserved in more than 100 illuminated manuscripts, illustrated by a variety of miniaturists. One of the most lavishly illuminated copies was commissioned by Louis of Gruuthuse, a Flemish nobleman, in the 1470s; the four volumes of this copy contain 112 miniatures painted by well-known Brugeois artists of the day, among them Loiset Lyédet, to whom the miniatures in the first two volumes are attributed. He is thought to have been one of the first to mention the use of the verge and foliot, or verge escapement in European clockworks, by 1368; the English composer Edward Elgar wrote an overture entitled Froissart. Froissart's Chronicles L'Horloge amoureux Méliador Peter Ainsworth, "Froissart, Jean", in Graeme Dunphy, Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, Brill, 2010, pp. 642–645. Cristian Bratu, "Je, aucteur de ce livre: Authorial Persona and Authority in French Medieval Histories and Chronicles." In Authorities in the Middle Ages. Influence and Power in Medieval Society.
Sini Kangas, Mia Korpiola, Tuija Ainonen, eds.: 183-204. Cristian Bratu, "Clerc, Aucteur: The Authorial Personae of French Medieval Historians from the 12th to the 15th centuries." In Authority and Gender in Medieval and Renaissance Chronicles. Juliana Dresvina and Nicholas Sparks, eds.: 231-259. Cristian Bratu, "De la grande Histoire à l’histoire personnelle: l’émergence de l’écriture autobiographique chez les historiens français du Moyen Age." Mediävistik 25: 85-117. Works by Jean Froissart at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jean Froissart at Internet Archive Works at Open Library Bibliography Jean Froissart, compiled by Dr. Godfried Croenen, University of Liverpool; the Chronicles of Froissart, from Harvard Classics. The Online Froissart Project, by the University of Sheffield and the University of Liverpool. Jean Froissart, entry in the Encyclopædia Britannica; the Chronicles of Froissart Full 12 Volumes Edition online
The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal, comprising most of their territory, it includes Andorra, small areas of France, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, by population, after the Balkan Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".
The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.
The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown.
In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names. The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the p
A deck is a permanent covering over a compartment or a hull of a ship. On a boat or ship, the primary or upper deck is the horizontal structure that forms the "roof" of the hull, strengthening it and serving as the primary working surface. Vessels have more than one level both within the hull and in the superstructure above the primary deck, similar to the floors of a multi-storey building, that are referred to as decks, as are certain compartments and decks built over specific areas of the superstructure. Decks for some purposes have specific names; the main purpose of the upper or primary deck is structural, only secondarily to provide weather-tightness and support people and equipment. The deck serves as the lid to the complex box girder, it resists tension and racking forces. The deck's scantling is the same as the topsides, or might be heavier if the deck is expected to carry heavier loads; the deck will be reinforced around deck fittings such as cleats, or bollards. On ships with more than one level, deck refers to the level itself.
The actual floor surface is called the sole, the term deck refers to a structural member tying the ships frames or ribs together over the keel. In modern ships, the interior decks are numbered from the primary deck, #1, downward and upward. So the first deck below the primary deck will be #2, the first above the primary deck will be #A2 or #S2; some merchant ships may alternatively designate decks below the primary deck machinery spaces, by numbers, those above it, in the accommodation block, by letters. Ships may call decks by common names, or may invent fanciful and romantic names for a specific deck or area of that specific ship, such as the Lido deck of the Princess Cruises' Love Boat. Equipment mounted on deck, such as the ship's wheel, fife rails, so forth, may be collectively referred to as deck furniture. Weather decks in western designs evolved from having structures fore and aft of the ship clear. Eastern designs developed earlier, with efficient middle decks and minimalist fore and aft cabin structures across a range of designs.
In vessels having more than one deck there are various naming conventions, alphabetically, etc. However, there are various common historical names and types of decks: 01 level is the term used in naval services to refer to the deck above the main deck; the next higher decks are referred to as the 02 level, the 03 level, so on. Although these are formally called decks, they are referred to as levels, because they are incomplete decks that do not extend all the way from the stem to the stern or across the ship. Afterdeck an open deck area toward the stern-aft. Berth deck: A deck next below the gun deck, where the hammocks of the crew are slung. Boat deck: Especially on ships with sponsons, the deck area where lifeboats or the ship's gig are stored. Boiler deck: The passenger deck above the vessel's boilers. Bridge deck: The deck area including the helm and navigation station, where the Officer of the Deck/Watch will be found known as the conn An athwartships structure at the forward end of the cockpit with a deck somewhat lower than the primary deck, to prevent a pooping wave from entering through the companionway.
May refer to the deck of a bridge. Flight deck: A deck from which aircraft take off or land. Flush deck: Any continuous unbroken deck from stem to stern. Forecastle deck: A partial deck above the main deck under which the sailors have their berths, extending from the foremast to the bow. Freeboard deck: assigned by a classification society to determine the ship's freeboard. Gun deck: on a multi-decked vessel, a deck below the upper deck where the ships' cannon were carried; the term referred to deck for which the primary function was the mounting of cannon to be fired in broadsides. However, on many smaller and unrated vessels the upper deck and quarterdeck bore all of the cannons but were not referred to as the gun deck. Hangar deck: A deck aboard an aircraft carrier used to store and maintain aircraft. Half-deck: That portion of the deck next below the forecastle or quarterdeck, between the mainmast and the cabin. Helicopter deck: Usually located near the stern and always kept clear of obstacles hazardous to a helicopter landing.
Hurricane deck:, the upper deck a light deck, erected above the frame of the hull. Lido deck: Open area at or near the stern of a passenger ship, housing the main outdoor swimming pool and sunbathing area. Lower deck: the deck over the hold, orig. only of a ship with two decks. Synonym for berth deck. Alternative name for a secondary gun deck Main deck: The principal deck of a vessel. Middle or Waist deck the working area of the deck. Orlop deck: The deck or part of a deck where the cables are stowed below the waterline, it is the lowest deck in a ship. Poop deck: The deck forming the roof of a poop or poop cabin, built on the upper deck and extending from the mizzenmast aft. Promenade deck: A "wrap-around porch" found on passenger ships a
Henry II of Castile
Henry II, called Henry of Trastámara or the Fratricide, was the first King of Castile and León from the House of Trastámara. He became king in 1369 by defeating his half-brother, Peter the Cruel, after numerous rebellions and battles; as king he was involved in the Hundred Years' War. Henry was the fourth of ten illegitimate children of King Alfonso XI of Castile and Eleanor de Guzmán, a great-granddaughter of Alfonso IX of León, he was born a twin to Fadrique Alfonso, Lord of Haro, was the first boy born to the couple that survived to adulthood. At birth, he was adopted by Rodrigo Álvarez de las Asturias. Rodrigo died Henry inherited his lordship of Noreña, his father made him Count of Trastámara and lord over Lemos and Sarria in Galicia, the towns of Cabrera and Ribera, which constituted a large and important heritage in the northeast of the peninsula. It made him the head of the new Trastámara dynasty. While Alfonso XI lived, his lover Eleanor gave a great many privileges to their sons; this caused discontent among many of the noblemen and in particular the queen, Maria of Portugal, her son, known as Pedro the Cruel and the Just.
They had a chance for revenge when Alfonso XI died unexpectedly from a fever in the siege of Gibraltar in March, 1350. They pushed Eleanor, her sons and their supporters aside, Henry and his brothers fled and scattered, they were fearful of what the new king Pedro I of Castile, could do to them. The late king had not been buried. Although Eleanor and her sons reached an agreement with Pedro to live peacefully in his court, the situation remained unstable. Henry and his brothers Fadrique and Sancho staged numerous rebellions against the new king. To strengthen his position and gain allies, Henry married Juana Manuel, the daughter of Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, adelantado mayor of Murcia and Lord of Villena, the most prosperous nobleman of the realm. In 1351, the King took counsel from Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque, María of Portugal's right-hand man, he became convinced that his father's lover was the instigator of the uprisings, so he ordered Eleanor to be incarcerated and executed in Talavera de la Reina.
After that, Henry fled to Portugal. He was pardoned by Pedro and returned to Castile revolted in Asturias in 1352, he reconciled with his brother, only to rebel against him again in a long, intermittent war, which ended with Henry's flight to France, where he entered the service of John II of France. Shortly after and his men spent time in Peter IV of Aragon's army in their war against Castile. During that conflict, he was held prisoner in Nájera, he was exiled himself to France once more. Peter IV of Aragon attacked Castile again. Henry agreed to help him on condition that he would lend his support to destroying his brother, Pedro of Castile; this became the Castilian Civil War. The attack combined the Aragonese and the French. Henry was proclaimed king in Calahorra. In return, he had to reward his allies with riches for the help they had provided; this earned him the nickname el de las mercedes. Pedro of Castile fled north to Bordeaux, the capital of the English dominions in France, where Edward, the Black Prince held court.
Edward agreed to help Pedro recover his throne. Despite the fact that the army suffered so badly from dysentery that it is said that one out of every five Englishmen would not return home, on 3 April 1367 an Anglo-Gascon army, led by Edward and his younger brother, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, met the Castilian forces. Pedro defeated Henry in the Battle of Nájera, but Henry escaped and returned to France under the protection of Charles V of France. King Pedro and Prince Edward parted ways over the funding of the expedition, the Black Prince returned to Bordeaux, having contracted an illness on this expedition that would ail him until his death in 1376, they reorganised their army at Peyrepertuse Castle. With the help of many Castilian rebels and Bertrand du Guesclin's Frenchmen, they defeated Pedro at the Battle of Montiel on 14 March 1369. Henry killed "the Cruel King," now a prisoner, with his own hand; this definitively won him the Castilian throne and the name of Henry II. Before being consolidated in his throne and being able to hand on power to his son John, Henry had to defeat Ferdinand I of Portugal.
He embarked on the three Ferdinand Wars. Ferdinand's main ally in these wars was John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, the husband of Constance of Castile, Duchess of Lancaster, Pedro I's daughter. Henry was allied with Charles V of France, he put the Castilian navy at Charles' disposal and they played a key part in the siege of La Rochelle, the Battle of La Rochelle where the admiral Ambrosio Boccanegra defeated the English side. Henry recompensed his allies, but he still had to defend his interests in the kingdom of Castile and León, he denied the King of Aragon the territories that he had promised him in the difficult times. Henry went to war against Portugal and England in the Hundred Years' War. For most of his reign he had to fight off the attempts of John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III of England, to claim the Castilian throne in right of his second wife, Pedro's daughter, Infanta Constance of Castile. In his domestic policy he started to rebuild the