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Rugova (region)

Rugova is a mountain region located to the north-west of the city of Peć, in Kosovo region. According to notes of Rugova it has been inhabited since before the 12th century. In 2013, it was designated a national park by the Parliament of Kosovo. Rugova is an ethnographically diverse region, with great importance for the literary branches of lexicology and onomastics. Rugova is a suitable region for hiking, mountaineering and picnics, it was ranked as the fourth most important center for winter sports by the International Ski Federation. Furthermore, in April 2013, Peć won the "Tourism for Tomorrow" award for the project, "Peaks of the Balkans". Rugova is rich with many landform elements such as caves, glacial lakes, high peaks, tunnels; the highest peak is Hajla at 2,403 m. From Qafa e Qyqes it is possible to observe the whole city of Peja. Guri i Kuq, 1,522 m, has views of Đeravica, Maja e Mariashit, Maja e Hekurave, Shkëlzeni and Lake Plav. Maja e Vjelakut is a high peak at 2,014 m. A via ferrata starts 4 km from Peć, is the only one in the Balkans.

Rugova offers good living conditions though the number of residents has decreased. The term "Rugovë" derives from the word "rrugë" which means "street", as a lot of important roads have crossed this region; the only route that connected Albania with Montenegro went through Rugova. The oldest name "Shtupel" dates back to 1292, it represented two of Rugova's villages: Shtupeqi i madh and Shtupeqi i vogël; the meaning of this nomenclature is comes from the word "stëp" which means an individual involved in the making of dairy products such as milk and yogurt.) All the village names in Rugova are rooted in the Albanian language. For example, the village of Dugave is derived from the word duka; the incursions of Slavic, Ottoman, conquerors has meant many places have changed names over the centuries, as the power of various empires grew and waned. Place names are based on features such as: Natural: Gropa e Borës, Kërshi i Madh, Qafa e Deshve, Neqinati Ethnographic: Guri i Nuses, Qafa e Dasmorëve, Livadhi i Gjakut, Sheu i Qyqes Historical: Kodra e Trimave, Vorret e Shehitëve, Hajla e Keqe Native: Bjeshkët e Kelmendit, Bregu i Kishës, Kroi i Nikçve, Maja e Nikë Dedës, Lugu i Shkodrës, Qafa e Rexhajve Masterly: Maja e Lopëve, Guri i Çobanit, Llazet e Kuajve, Kërshi i Cjapit, Shpella e MartinitRugova is enriched with new toponyms every now and for example, Kodra e Shkollës and Lëndina e Shkollës.

Rugova is at a latitude of 42°44’ N and a longitude of 20°3’ E, it is 93 km from Pristina, the capital of Kosovo. It covers a territory of 20,330 hectares, from east to west it extends for 23 km. Rugova lies between the mountains of Hajla, Shtëdim and Kopranik; the Pećka Bistrica splits the mountains in half, forming a canyon. Eighty-five percent of the territory is covered by forests; the terrain is rugged, with steep limestone slopes and deep, erosive gorges. The mountains have a slope of 15–30°, but reach 45–90°; the terrain contains various karstic features such as caves, natural tunnels and glacial lakes. The region of Rugova is divided into five small neighbourhoods; these villages are 2–5 kilometres apart. Many important roads pass through Rugova: Shkodra's valley connects Rugova with Tropojë and Shkodër, Qafa e Çakorrit leads to Plav and Gusinje, Qafa e Dasmorëve connects to Rožaje, Qafa e Hajlës with Dacaj and Husaj. Rugova has a wet, continental climate, influenced by the mountains and hot summers, long and harsh winters.

Spring is late, the seasons change quickly. The high level of precipitation is a result of clashes between the tropical and continental climates. Maximum precipitation is in December, 372.6 millimetres, minimum in July, 0.3 millimetres. The annual minimum and maximum are 1,336 millimetres, respectively. Snow is present on the peaks with a depth ranging from 30 centimetres to 2 metres; the average temperatures in the region are: 4.4 °C to 7.5 °C in the spring. Rugova has a multitude of habitats such as meadows and pastures and alpine scrub brush, forest oak and coniferous trees, pit slopes and ravines, river water, fountain wells, karst pits, wet soil, acids with red and black acid, massive rocks, shed stones; the variety of habitats indicates a high diversity of vegetation. Rugosa has flora, typical of central Europe at high altitudes, but it has plants that are unique to the Balkans; the region is composed of four zones: The oak forest zone lies at 800–1,000 m. It occupies the lower part of the region and is represented by mulberry and Qarri.

There is hop hornbeam and ash. Her

Antoine Louis

Antoine Louis was an 18th-century French surgeon and physiologist. He was trained in medicine by his father, a surgeon-major at a local military hospital; as a young man he moved to Paris. In 1750 he was appointed professor of a position he held for 40 years. In 1764 he was appointed lifetime secretary to the Académie Royale de Chirurgie. Louis published numerous articles on surgery, including several biographies of surgeons who died in his lifetime, he published the surgical aphorisms of Dutch physician Herman Boerhaave. Louis is credited with designing a prototype of the guillotine. For a period of time after its invention, the guillotine was called a louisette. However, it was named after French physician Joseph Ignace Guillotin, whose advocacy of a more humane method of capital punishment prompted the guillotine's design; the "angle of Louis" is another name for the sternal angle, the point of junction between the manubrium and the body of the sternum. Réfutation de l'écrit des médecins, intitulé la subordination des chirurgiens aux médecins, démontrée par la nature des deux professions, & par le bien public, 1748, 32 p. Texte intégral.

Addition à l'examen des plaintes des médecins de province, présentées au roy par la Faculté de Médecine de Paris, 1749, 11 p. Texte intégral. Éloge de M. Petit. Prononcé à la séance publique de l'Académie royale de chirurgie. Le mardi 26 mai 1750, 1750, 2 p. Lettres sur la certitude des signes de la mort: où l'on rassure les citoyens de la crainte d'être enterrés vivans: avec des observations des expériences sur les noyés, Michel Lambert, 1752, 376 p. Texte intégral. Lettre sur les maladies vénériennes, dans laquelle on publié la manière de préparer le mercure dont la plus forte dose n'excite point de salivation, Michel Lambert, 1754, 12 p. Texte intégral. Mémoire sur une question anatomique relative à la jurisprudence. Parallèle des différentes méthodes de traiter la maladie vénérienne, François Changuion, 1764, 290 p. Texte intégral. Recueil d'observations d'anatomie et de chirurgie, pour servir de base a la théorie des lésions de la tête, par contre-coup, P. G. Cavelier, 1766, 270 p. Texte intégral.

Éloge de M. Bertrandi, associé étranger de l'académie royale de chirurgie, chirurgien de Sa Majesté le roi de Sardaigne, professeur d'Anatomie & de chirurgie en l'Université de Turin, P. Guillaume Cavelier, 1767, 63 p. Texte intégral. Dictionnaire de chirurgie, communiqué à l'Encyclopédie, Saillant & Nyon, 1789, 2 vol.:tome premier Texte intégral. Tome second Texte intégral. Mémoire sur l'opération du bec-de-lièvre, où l'on établit le premier principe de l'art de réunir les plaie, in-12, 69 p. available at Gallica. Éloges lus dans les séances publiques de l'Académie royale de chirurgie de 1750 à 1792, par Antoine Louis, recueillis & publiés par E. Frédéric Dubois, Paris: Baillière & fils, 1859 Pierre Sue: « Discours historique sur la vie et les ouvrages du citoyen Louis », Croullebois, 32, 1793, p. 10-73 Texte intégral. Georges Sauvé: « Un cours de médecine d'Antoine Petit en 1768 », in: Histoire des Sciences médicales, 1988, 22, pp. 237–248 iubbcvb Texte intégral. Antoine Jacques Louis Jourdan: « Louis », in: Dictionaire Des Sciences Médicales - Biographie Médicale, Panckoucke, t.6, 1824, p. 113-120 Texte intégral.

Metz, documents généalogiques, 1561-1792, Poirier. Henri Tribout de Morembert: Documents généalogiques du Pays Messin et de la Lorraine de Langue Allemande, 1630-1830, Saffroy, 1935, 159 p. Biographies médicales et scientifiques, éditions Roger Dacosta, 1972. Michel Porret: « Calas innocent: les preuves par la science, in: L'Histoire,323, septembre 2007, 69-73. Antoine Louis notice bio-bibliographique dans le site de la Biu Santé. Antoine Louis dans la Banque d'images et de portraits de la Biu Santé. Antoine Louis dans la site La médecine à Nancy depuis 1872. Œuvres numérisées. Antoine Louis @ Who Named It