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Battle of Leipzig

The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony. The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia and Sweden, led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. Napoleon's army contained Polish and Italian troops, as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine; the battle was the culmination of the German campaign of 1813 and involved 600,000 soldiers, 2,200 artillery pieces, the expenditure of 200,000 rounds of artillery ammunition and 127,000 casualties, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I. Decisively defeated again, Napoleon was compelled to return to France while the Coalition kept up their momentum, dissolving the Confederation of the Rhine and invading France early the next year. Napoleon was forced to abdicate and was exiled to Elba in May 1814; the French Emperor Napoleon I attempted to militarily coerce Tsar Alexander I of Russia into rejoining his unpopular Continental System by invading Russia with about 650,000 troops, collectively known as the Grande Armée, occupied Moscow in late 1812, after the bloody yet indecisive Battle of Borodino.

However, the Russian Tsar refused to surrender as the French occupied the city, burnt by the time of its occupation. The campaign ended in complete disaster as Napoleon and his remaining forces retreated during the bitterly cold Russian winter, with sickness and the constant harrying of Russian Cossack marauders and partisan forces leaving the Grande Armée destroyed by the time it exited Russian territory. Making matters worse for Napoleon, in June 1813 the combined armies of Great Britain and Spain, under the command of Britain's Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington, had decisively routed French forces at the Battle of Vitoria in the Peninsular War, were now advancing towards the Pyrenees and the Franco-Spanish border. With this string of defeats, the armies of France were in retreat on all fronts across Europe. Anti-French forces joined Russia as its troops pursued the remnants of the destroyed Grande Armée across central Europe; the allies regrouped as the Sixth Coalition, comprising Russia, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain and certain smaller German states whose citizens and leaders were no longer loyal to the French emperor.

Napoleon hurried back to France and managed to mobilize an army about the size of the one he had lost in Russia, but severe economic hardship and news of battlefield reverses had led to war-weariness and growing unrest among France's citizenry. Despite opposition at home, Napoleon rebuilt his army, with the intention of either inducing a temporary alliance or at least cessation of hostilities, or knocking at least one of the Great Powers of the Coalition out of the war, he sought to regain the offensive by re-establishing his hold in Germany, winning two hard-fought tactical victories, at Lützen on 2 May and Bautzen on 20–21 May, over Russo-Prussian forces. The victories led to a brief armistice, he won a major victory at the Battle of Dresden on 27 August. Following this, the Coalition forces, under individual command of Gebhard von Blücher, Crown Prince Charles John of Sweden, Karl von Schwarzenberg, Count Benningsen of Russia, followed the strategy outlined in the Trachenberg Plan: they would avoid clashes with Napoleon, but seek confrontations with his marshals.

This policy led to victories at Großbeeren, Kulm and Dennewitz. After these defeats, the French emperor could not follow up on his victory at Dresden. Thinly-stretched supply lines spanning now somewhat hostile Rhineland German lands, coupled with Bavaria's switching of sides to the Coalition just eight days prior to the battle, made it impossible to replace his army's losses of 150,000 men, 300 guns and 50,000 sick. With the intention of knocking Prussia out of the war as soon as possible, Napoleon sent Marshal Nicolas Oudinot to take the Prussian capital of Berlin with an army of 60,000. Oudinot was defeated at the Battle of Großbeeren, by the Prussians under Von Bulow of Bernadotte's Army of the North, just south of the city. With the intact Prussian force threatening from the north, Napoleon was compelled to withdraw westward, he crossed the Elbe with much of his army between late September and early October, organized his forces around Leipzig, to protect his crucial supply lines and oppose the converging Coalition armies arrayed against him.

He deployed his army around the city, but concentrated his force from Taucha through Stötteritz, where he placed his command. The Prussians advanced from Wartenburg, the Austrians and Russians from Dresden, the Swedish force from the north; the French had around 160,000 soldiers along with 700 guns plus 15,000 Poles, 10,000 Italians, 40,000 Germans belonging to the Confederation of the Rhine, totaling to 225,000 troops on the Napoleonic side. The coalition had some 380,000 troops along with 1,500 guns, consisting of 145,000 Russians, 115,000 Austrians, 90,000 Prussians, 30,000 Swedes; this made Leipzig the largest battle of the Napoleonic wars, surpassing Borodino, Wagram and Auerstadt, Dresden. The French Grande Armée, under the supreme command of Emperor Napoleon, was in a weakened state. Napol

Molina de Aragón

Molina de Aragón is a municipality located in the province of Guadalajara, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. According to the 2009 census, the municipality had a population of 3,671 inhabitants, it holds the record for the lowest temperature measured by a meteorological station in Spain. It was the seat of the taifa of Molina, a Moorish independent state, before it was reconquered by the Christians of Alfonso I of Aragon in 1129. On 21 April 1154 Manrique Pérez de Lara issued a sweeping fuero to the town of Molina, which he was building into a semi-independent fief, he and his descendants claimed to rule Molina Dei gratia. Medieval alcazar, the largest in the province Roman bridge Convent of St. Francis Giraldo Church of Santa Clara Church of Santa María de San Gil Molina-Alto Tajo Geopark, Molina de Aragon is within this Geopark. Anchuela del Pedregal Cubillejo de la Sierra Cubillejo del Sitio Novella Tordelpalo Molina de Aragón has an atypical variety of the oceanic climate with semi-arid influences.

Due to its irregular precipitation patterns the location does not fall into the clear mediterranean zones to the south-west or the semi-arid, common in the region, with significant precipitation in the summer and low in the winter. Aragonite

Henri-François Gautrin

Henri-François Gautrin is a Quebec politician and physicist. He was the Member of National Assembly of Quebec for the riding of Verdun in the Montreal region, he represented the Quebec Liberal Party and was the former Minister of Governmental Services from February 2006 to February 2007. Gautrin went to Collège Stanislas before going to the Université de Montréal where he obtained a bachelor's degree in sciences, he obtained a master's degree in sciences at McGill University before heading to the Université de Dijon in France in 1971 where he received a State doctor's degree. He studied economics and public finance in Paris, he was a professor in the mathematics department at the Université de Montréal since 1969. In addition to his teaching duties at that university, he was an administration staff member and a member of the executive committee, he was active in politics as the leader of the New Democratic Party of Quebec from 1973 to 1979 and was the president of the NO committee in the Taillon riding in the 1980 referendum.

He was a candidate for the Liberals in the 1981 elections in the riding of Dorion, where he was defeated. Gautrin was elected in Verdun in the 1989 elections where he was named the Caucus chair of the MNAs in Western Montreal and was the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Education before the Liberals were defeated by the Parti Québécois, he was re-elected for two other terms as an MNA for the opposition party in 1994 and 1998. When the Liberals returned to power in 2003, Gautrin was named the Parliamentary secretary to Premier Jean Charest from 2003 to 2005. In 2005, he was named the Online Government Minister and in 2006 the Minister of Governmental Services. After being re-elected in 2007, he was named the Assistant House Leader of the Government and parliamentary assistant to the Premier, he was re-elected in the 2008 Quebec general election. "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec