Leipzig is the most populous city in the German federal state of Saxony. With a population of 600,000 inhabitants as of 2019, it is Germany's eighth most populous city as well as the second most populous city in the area of former East Germany after Berlin. Together with Halle, the largest city of the neighbouring state of Saxony-Anhalt, the city forms the polycentric conurbation of Leipzig-Halle. Between the two cities lies Leipzig/Halle International Airport. Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin in the Leipzig Bay, which constitutes the southernmost part of the North German Plain, at the confluence of the White Elster River and two of its tributaries: the Pleiße and the Parthe; the name of the city as well as the names of many of its boroughs are of Slavic origin. Leipzig has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire; the city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and the Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig was once one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing.
After the Second World War and during the period of the German Democratic Republic Leipzig remained a major urban centre in East German terms, but its cultural and economic importance declined. Events in Leipzig in 1989 played a significant role in precipitating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe through demonstrations starting from St. Nicholas Church; the immediate effects of the reunification of Germany included the collapse of the local economy, which had come to depend on polluting heavy industry, severe unemployment, urban blight. Starting around 2000, decline was first arrested and reversed. Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of major historical buildings, the demolition of derelict properties of little historical value, the development of new industries and a modern transport infrastructure. Leipzig today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank.
The city is one of two seats of the German National Library, as well as the seat of the German Federal Administrative Court. Leipzig Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system. Leipzig is listed as a Gamma World City, Germany's "Boomtown" and as the European City of the Year 2019. Leipzig has long been a major centre for music, both classical as well as modern "dark alternative music" or darkwave genres; the Oper Leipzig is one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany. Leipzig is home to the University of Music and Theatre "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy", it was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller wrote his poem "Ode to Joy". The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, established in 1743, is one of the oldest symphony orchestras in the world. Johann Sebastian Bach is one among many major composers who worked in Leipzig.
The name Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees stand". An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic; the Latin name Lipsia was used. The name is cognate with Lipetsk in Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig. Since 1989 Leipzig has been informally dubbed "Hero City", in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime – the name alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War; the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de. More the city has sometimes been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups.
Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, has become an event of international importance and is the oldest surviving trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleiße in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas. There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the Barfußgäßchen is named and a monastery of Irish monks near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg; the foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, towards being the location of the Reichsgericht and the German National Library. During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig
Eynhallow is a small, presently uninhabited island, part of Orkney, off the north coast of mainland Scotland. Eynhallow lies in Eynhallow Sound between Mainland and Rousay, it is 75 hectares in area. An unnamed skerry is situated 100 metres to the north-east of the island, separated by Fint Sound. Sheep Skerry adjoins the southern end of the island. There is no ferry to the island. Otherwise, visitors have to arrange their own transport to the island by private local boat hire. Access can be problematic, as there are strong tidal surges in the surrounding strait, squeezed between Mainland of Orkney and Rousay; the island's main attraction is Eynhallow Church dating from the twelfth century or earlier, originally part of a monastery. The site is maintained by Historic Scotland. In 1841 the island had a population of 26, it has been uninhabited since the landowner cleared crofters away in 1851. It is now a bird sanctuary, it has its own folklore, concerning the initial finding of the island. Eynhallow was believed to be the summer residence of the shape-shifting mer-people the Finfolk, who were driven away by the farmer, Guidman o' Thorodale from Evie.
Gurness Haswell-Smith, Hamish. The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7. Anderson, Joseph The Orkneyinga Saga. Translated by Jón A. Hjaltalin & Gilbert Goudie. Edinburgh. Edmonston and Douglas; the Internet Archive. Retrieved 26 August 2013. Photographs of the island
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Hanover County, Virginia. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Hanover County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map. There are 42 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 3 National Historic Landmarks; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 28, 2020. List of National Historic Landmarks in Virginia National Register of Historic Places listings in Virginia National Register of Historic Places listings in Richmond, Virginia