Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the peaceful sea. Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the reached the Spice Islands in 1521. Magellan did not complete the voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521. Magellan had already reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east, by visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. The Magellanic penguin is named after him, as he was the first European to note it. Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. He was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, in March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D.
Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India, although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa and Quilon. He participated in battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu and he sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to an ending in retreat. Magellan had a role, warning Sequeira and saving Francisco Serrão. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, after the conquest their ways parted, Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the Spice Islands in the Moluccas and he married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah.
His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories, after taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp and he was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no offers of employment after 15 May 1514. Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a member on a Portuguese ship
Taytay is a first class municipality in the province of Palawan, an island of the Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 70,837 people, since 2002, its Cathedral of St. Joseph the Worker is the episcopal see of the pre-diocesan missionary Apostolic Vicariate of Taytay. Before the Spanish colonization, The Kingdom of Taytay was ruled by a noted as followed everywhere at any given time by ten scribes. The crew of Ferdinand Magellan held the Taytay king and queen for ransom after escaping the Battle of Mactan where Magellan was slain and they intended to secure more supplies as they plan to cross into the Moluccas where the Portuguese were so help can be sought. The native king and his subjects complied with the demands and even added more food supplies than what they asked for and this was duly recorded by Antonio Pigafetta, Magellans chronicler, who was on board in one of the ships when these events took place. Pigafetta took note of one thing in the kingdom. He found the natives fond of cockfighting, long before this pastime was seen or even heard of in the Western Hemisphere, during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, Taytay was formally founded in 1623.
Taytay became the capital of the province of Calamianes, the territory of Paragua, in 1818, and the province of Castilla. No other sovereign royal datu after him ruled in his kingdom, king Cabaylos descendants include the present clans of Cabaylo-Manlavi-Gabinete-Macolor as main genealogical roots. During the American era, Taytay ceased being Palawans capital, and this famous relic was completed in 1738. It was mainly used to defend against Muslim warrior-raiders in their war boats while the Spanish soldiers fire at them with their huge cannons. The forts small chapel and cannons are still intact, the fort is now under the supervision of the National Museum. The Moro action must be not as an act of piracy but as a showdown of power. It can be viewed as the Tausugs efforts to recover what was once theirs, similar raids were carried out against Christian converts in Spanish Cuyo, Dumaran and Culion. In 1957, the Island of Dibangan was constituted into a barrio, Taytay is politically subdivided into 31 barangays.
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Rajahnate of Maynila
It is one of the settlements mentioned by the Philippines earliest historical record, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. Thus, it became a force in trade throughout Southeast Asia. Tondos regional prominence further culminated during the period of its associated trade, and by around 1500, the kingdom reached its peak as a thalassocratic force in the northern part of the archipelago. Following contact with the Spanish Empire beginning in 1570 and the defeat of local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1571, Tondo was ruled from Manila. The kingdoms absorption into the Spanish Empire effectively ended its status as an independent kingdom, numerous theories on the origin of the name Tondo have been put forward. Filipino National Artist Nick Joaquin suggested that it might be a reference to high ground, french linguist Jean-Paul Potet, has suggested that the River Mangrove, Aegiceras corniculatum, which at the time was called tundok, is the most likely origin of the name. The bay area in which Tondo can be found was named Lusong or Lusung and this name was eventually used as the modern name of the entire island of Luzon.
Rajah Alon, King of Tondo and son of Lakan Timamanukum, expanded the Kingdom of Tondo by conquering neighboring territories such as Kapampangan chiefdoms, Kumintang and he was succeeded by his grandson Rajah Gambang. The Tondo Dynasty lasted until the end of the 15th century, the first reference to Tondo occurs in the Philippines oldest historical record — the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. This legal document was written in Kawi, and dates back to Saka 822, the article mentioned that other places in the Philippines and their Rulers, Puliran Kasumuran, Binwangan. While the document does not describe the relationship of the King of Tundun with these other rulers. The next historical reference to Ancient Tondo can be found in the Ming Shilu Annals and her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings. This reference places Tondo into the context of Chinese trade with the aboriginals of the Philippine archipelago. But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippine aborigines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song Dynasties and it is believed that the people of Tondo kingdom were related to Malay of Malay peninsula and Sumatra.
They belonged to the nobility class similar to the Timawa of the Visayan people. In modern Filipino, the term itself has come to mean royal nobility. The different type of culture prevalent in Luzon gave a stable and more complex social structure to the pre-colonial Tagalog barangays of Manila, Pampanga. The more complex structure of the Tagalogs was less stable during the arrival of the Spaniards because it was still in a process of differentiating
Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery
In 1991, the National Museum archaeological team discovered anthropomorphic secondary burial jars in Ayub Cave, Barangay Pinol, Sarangani Province, Philippines. The jars are commonly known today as Maitum jars and they are made of earthenware, and are characterized by their design that suggests human figures with complete or partial facial features of the first inhabitants in Mindanao. Furthermore, they give emphasis to the Filipinos’ popular belief of life after death, according to Dr. Eusebio Dizon, head of the archaeological team, this type of burial jars are “remarkably unique and intriguing” because they have not been found elsewhere in Southeast Asia. These jars have characteristics that belong to the Developed Metal Age Period in the Philippines, according to the laboratory results determined through radiocarbon dating, these secondary burial jars date back to the Metal Age. Two conventional dates were 1830 +/-60 B. P. and 1920 +/-50 B. P, experts used soot samples taken from the walls of a small earthenware vessel found inside one of the larger burial jars.
Three days after, the archaeologist received photographs of artifacts collected by local residents. The artifacts have high probability of not only to the history of Maguindanao. That’s why when they found a sponsor for Dr. Dizon’s trip to Mindanao, he still went despite the unpredictable climate. The Maitum Archaeological Project of the National Museum team formally started on November 6,1991, Ayub Cave, now referred to as Pinol Cave, is a Miocene limestone formation located approximately 1,000 meters due south of the Mindanao shoreline with an elevation of 6 meters. The site is on the area of Pinol, Maitum. The first phase of the ended on December 1991, the second was from April 8 to May 3,1992. Unfortunately, the conflict between the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front during the 70’s resulted in casualties in this historical site. It threatened future discoveries and prevented preservation, no complete Maitum jar in the form of a female has survived, but there are still evidence of its existence such as the many pottery shards of female breasts.
This is an indication of equality in terms of the practice of jar burials, altogether, a total of 29 burial jars and approximately 33 baskets or about 4 cubic meters of archaeological material have been collected. Most of them are now in the possession and care of the National Museum while some are on display at the level of Maitum Municipal Hall in an exhibit called as The Treasures of Maitum. And because of its significance the Pinol Cave was declared by the National Museum of the Philippines as an “Important Cultural Property” on May 5,2009, while there are three types of heads, Plain and Painted red and black from hematite and organic material. The black paint may indicate where the hair of the dead has once been, some jars are decorated with glass beads and shell scoops and pendants. All of these features represent and reflect the Maitum potters’ creativity, the heads of the anthropomorphic covers portray different facial expressions and emotions, ranging from happiness and contentment to sadness and grief
In politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies, some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception. The metropolitan state is the state that rules the colony, in Ancient Greece, the city that founded a colony was known as the metropolis. Mother country is a reference to the state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony. There is a United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, unlike a puppet state or satellite state, a colony has no independent international representation, and its top-level administration is under direct control of the metropolitan state. The term informal colony is used by historians to refer to a country under the de facto control of another state. The word colony comes from the Latin word colōnia and this in turn derives from the word colōnus, which means colonist but implies a farmer.
Cologne is an example of a settlement preserving this etymology, less obvious settlements that began as Roman colonia include cities from Belgrade to York. A tell-tale sign of a settlement once being a Roman Colony is a city centre with a grid pattern. The terminology is taken from architectural analogy, where a column pillar is beneath the head capital, so colonies are not independently self-controlled, but rather are controlled from a separate entity that serves the capital function. Roman colonies first appeared when the Romans conquered neighbouring Italic peoples and these were small farming settlements that appeared when the Romans had subdued an enemy in war. A colony could take many forms, as a trade outpost or a base in enemy territory. Its original definition as a settlement created by migrating from a central region to an outlying one became the modern definition. Kandahar formed as a Greek colony during the Hellenistic era by Alexander the great in 330 BC, alaska, a colony of Russia from the middle 18th century until sold to the United States in 1867.
It became the 49th American state in 1959, angola, a colony of Portugal since the 16th century. Australia was formed as an independent country in 1901 from a federation of six distinct British colonies which were founded between 1788 and 1829, was a colony of Great Britain important in the Atlantic slave trade. It gained its independence in 1966, brazil, a colony of Portugal since the 16th century. Canada, colonized first by France as New France, under British rule, Democratic Republic of the, a colony of Belgium from 1908 to 1960
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron. It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia with exceptions, meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt ore, remove impurities. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, the earliest known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering, meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the record from the middle Bronze Age. While terrestrial iron is abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC.
Tins low melting point of 231, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of iron production in around 1200 BC. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of objects was fast. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during this time, more widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. Increasingly, the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, and ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe, the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II.
Iron I illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly alloys which were produced with a carbon content between approximately 0. 30% and 1. 2% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available, and alloys that were easier to make, such as wrought iron, were more common in lower-priced goods
The Igorot Society is the term for the collection of several ethnic groups in the Philippines that come from the Cordillera Administrative Region of Luzon. They inhabit the six provinces of Abra, Benguet, Kalinga and they are a pre-Hispanic highland society that has survived through Spanish colonization. This Prehispanic state is the oldest in the Philippines and this society predates the other prehispanic states in the Philippines which are maritime civilizations, in contrast to this society which is a mountainous high-land society. This society is composed of tribes, mainly the Bontoc, Isnag, Kalinga
It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools, probably by Homo habilis initially,2.6 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene around 10,000 BP. The Paleolithic era is followed by the Mesolithic, the date of the Paleolithic–Mesolithic boundary may vary by locality as much as several thousand years. During the Paleolithic period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, the Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers, due to their nature, surviving artifacts of the Paleolithic era are known as paleoliths. About 50,000 years ago, there was a increase in the diversity of artifacts. For the first time in Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record, the first evidence of human fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have led to the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Humankind gradually evolved from members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis. The climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures, by c. 50,000 – c. 40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia. By c. 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61°N latitude in Europe, by c. 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by c. 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia, above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed Beringia, the term Paleolithic was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek, παλαιός, old, and λίθος, stone, human evolution is the part of biological evolution concerning the emergence of anatomically modern humans as a distinct species. The Paleolithic Period coincides almost exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time and this epoch experienced important geographic and climatic changes that affected human societies.
During the preceding Pliocene, continents had continued to drift from possibly as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current location. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama, most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas. Africas collision with Asia created the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean, climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by a shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic. Mid-latitude glaciation probably began before the end of the epoch, the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas