Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the peaceful sea. Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the reached the Spice Islands in 1521. Magellan did not complete the voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521. Magellan had already reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east, by visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. The Magellanic penguin is named after him, as he was the first European to note it. Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. He was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, in March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D.
Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India, although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa and Quilon. He participated in battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu and he sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to an ending in retreat. Magellan had a role, warning Sequeira and saving Francisco Serrão. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, after the conquest their ways parted, Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the Spice Islands in the Moluccas and he married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah.
His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories, after taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp and he was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no offers of employment after 15 May 1514. Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a member on a Portuguese ship
The Camotes Sea is a small sea within the Philippine archipelago, situated between the Eastern Visayan and the Central Visayan regions. It is bordered by the islands of Leyte to the north and east, Bohol to the south, the sea is connected to the Visayan Sea to the northwest, and to the Bohol Sea to the south by the Canigao Channel and Cebu Strait. It contains the Camotes Islands and Mactan Island, the major cities of the area are Ormoc and Baybay in Leyte province, and Cebu City, Cebu
Battle of Mactan
The Battle of Mactan was fought in the Philippines on 27 April 1521, prior to Spanish colonization. On 16 March 1521, Magellan sighted the mountains of what is now Samar while on a mission to find a route to the Moluccas Islands for Spain. This event marked the arrival of the first documented Europeans in the Archipelago, the following day, Magellan ordered his men to anchor their ships on the shores of Homonhon Island. There, Magellan befriended Rajah Kolambu and Rajah Siagu the chieftain of Limasawa and he and his queen were baptized into the Catholic faith, taking the Christian names Carlos, in honor of King Charles of Spain, and Juana, in honor of King Charles mother. To commemorate this event, Magellan gave Juana the Santo Niño, as a result of Magellans influence with Rajah Humabon, an order had been issued to the nearby chiefs that each of them were to provide food supplies for the ships, and convert to Christianity. However, Datu Lapu-Lapu, one of the two chiefs within the island of Mactan, was the chieftain to show his opposition.
Lapu-Lapu refused to accept the authority of Rajah Humabon in these matters, Rajah Humabon and Datu Zula suggested that Magellan go to the island of Mactan and force his subject chieftain Datu Lapu-Lapu to comply with his orders. Magellan saw an opportunity to strengthen the existing friendship ties with the ruler of the Visayan region and we reached Mactan three hours before dawn. They replied that if we had lances they had lances of bamboo and they said that in order to induce us to go in search of them, for they had dug certain pit holes filled with spikes between the houses in order that we might fall into them. Pigafetta writes how Magellan deployed forty-nine armored men with swords, shields and guns, a number of native warriors converted to Christianity came to their aid. Filipino historians note that because of the rocky outcroppings, and coral near the beach, forced to anchor their ships far from shore, Magellan could not bring his ships cannons to bear on Lapu-Lapus warriors, who numbered more than 1,500.
When morning came, forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, the boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other men remained behind to guard the boats, when we reached land, had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred persons. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with ear-shattering loud cries, the musketeers and crossbow-men shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly. The musketeers were too far back to aim, and could only shoot halfway from the distance of the natives and his men tried to scare them off by burning some houses in Bulaia. But the natives surprised them by raining a barrage of arrows, seeing that, Magellan sent some men to burn their houses in order to terrify them. When they saw their houses burning, they were roused to greater fury, some of our men were killed near the houses, while we burned twenty or thirty houses. So many of them rained down upon us that the captain was shot through the leg with a poisoned arrow
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
The Cebuano people The Cebuano people reside in the Cebu Province in the Central Visayas of the Philippines. It may refer to the group who speak the Cebuano language as their mother tongue in different parts of the country. Oceanic or Austronesian people called Malayo-Polynesians settled Cebu island and the rest of the Philippines around 30,000 years ago, most Cebuanos today have Malayo-Polynesian ancestry. The Cebuano language has been spoken since the Proto-Austronesian era in the Sugbu heartland, pintados was the term used by Spanish colonists to describe the tattooed indigenous Cebuano Visayan people. They were found on the islands of Cebu, eastern part of Negros, the word itself means painted, and was first used during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines. The ancient Cebuanos developed a culture with significant influence from mainly Japan, China and they traded pearls and coral for silk, gold and spices. The early Cebuanos held animist beliefs and worshiped anitos until the introduction of Roman Catholicism, the famous encounter between explorer Magellan and the local chieftain Lapu-Lapu ended in the death of Magellan at the Battle of Mactan.
The Cebuanos held off colonization for a while until a Spanish explorer colonized Cebu, along with the rest of the Philippines, Cebu was governed from Spain and Mexico, and as a result received heavy Spanish and Mexican influence. There are thousands of Mexican Spanish loanwords in Cebuano and Spanish influence is evident in the cuisine, traditional costumes, music, festivals and crafts. Cebuano culture is characterized as a blend of Malay and Hispanic traditions with influences from Asia. The majority of Cebuanos are Roman Catholic, among the islands notable festivities are the Sinulog festival, which is a mixture of Christian and native cultural elements, celebrated annually every third week of January. The Cebuano language is spoken by about 25,000,000 people in the Philippines and is the most widely spoken of the Visayan languages. Most speakers of Cebuano are found in Cebu, Siquijor, Biliran and Southern Leyte, eastern Negros, demographics of the Philippines Ethnic groups in the Philippines Cebu Cebuano language Visayan people Rajahnate of Cebu
Olango Island Group
The Olango Island Group is a group of islands found in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines and is a part of Cebu Province. It comprises Olango island and 6 satellite islets namely, Gilutongan, Caohagan, Pangan-an, Olango Island and its neighboring islets has a total land area of approximately 1,030 ha. The island group is divided under the jurisdiction of the city of Lapu-Lapu and it lies 5 kilometres east of Mactan Island and is a major tourist destination in Cebu. It is known for its wildlife sanctuary, the Olango Group of islands consists of seven islands. Located 5 kilometres east of Mactan Island, Olango Island and its satellite islets lies between the Cebu Strait to the south and the Camotes Sea to the north. To the east is the Olango Channel while to the west is the Gilutungan Channel, Olango Islands has a total land area of approximately 1,030 hectares. The reef flat-lagoon surrounding the island of Olango is considered one of the most extensive areas in the Central Visayas.
The Olango group of islands is a group composed of the island of Olango. The six neighboring islets are Sulpa, Nalusuan, Pangan-an and these are bound by continuous fringing reefs and reef flats. The islands are low-lying with elevation reaching no more than 10 metres above sea level, at the center of these islands is a vast tidal flat, which includes the 920-hectare area of the Olango Island Wildlife Sanctuary. Olango Islands are raised coral reefs, like most of Cebu province, the lithology of the island consists of two unit types, As a consequence of the geology, water supplies are hard. The climate is typically equatorial – temperature range over the year is less than 3 degrees Celsius change, january to April inclusive are less wet than the other months. This supports at least two rice crops per year, the dry season starts in February and lasts through April sometimes extending to mid‑May. Olango has a climate, which is typical to the Central Visayas. Most months of the year are marked by significant rainfall, the short dry season has little impact.
This location is classified as Am by Köppen–Geiger climate classification system, the area is relatively hot and humid, with a mean daily temperature range of 23.2 to 33.1 °C. Daily mean relative humidity ranges from 60 to 94 percent, the annual rainfall averages about 1,562 mm at Mactan-Cebu International Airport and 1,440 mm in brgy Maribago, which is located along the eastern coastline of Mactan Island. Although, the Philippine archipelago lies within the belt, the island of Olango is shielded from typhoons by the islands of Mactan
Cebu is a 1st provincial income class island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, and consisting of the main island itself and 167 surrounding islands and islets. Its capital is Cebu City, the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, Cebu City forms part of the Cebu Metropolitan Area together with four neighboring cities and eight other local government units. Mactan-Cebu International Airport, located in Mactan Island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines, Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines, with Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade and industry in the Visayas. In a decade it has transformed into a hub for shipping, furniture-making, business processing services. The name Cebu came from the old Cebuano word sibu or sibo and it was originally applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Alternate renditions of the name by traders between the 13th to 16th centuries include Sebu, Zubu, or Zebu, among others, Sugbu, in turn, was derived from the Old Cebuano term for scorched earth or great fire.
The Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which existed in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. It was founded by Sri Lumay otherwise known as Rajamuda Lumaya and he was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead. The arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 established a period of Spanish exploration and colonization, losing favor for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands from king Manuel I of Portugal, by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On 20 September 1519, Magellan led five ships with a crew of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda en route to southeast Asia via the Americas and they reached the Philippines on 16 March 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, arriving in Cebu City, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu and persuaded the natives of allegiance to Charles I of Spain.
Humabon and his wife were given Christian names and baptized as Carlos, the Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On 14 April Magellan erected a wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized, Magellan soon heard of datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu. It was thought that Humabon and Lapu–Lapu had been fighting for control of the trade in the area. On 27 April the Battle of Mactan occurred where the Spaniards were defeated, according to Italian historian and chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, Magellans body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels. Magellans second-in-command, Juan Sebastián Elcano took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed their fleet back to Spain, survivors of the Magellan expedition brought tales of a savage island in the East Indies with them when they returned to Spain.
Consequently, several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure, in 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailing from Mexico, arrived in 1565, and established a colony
Lapu-Lapu was a ruler of Mactan in Visayas. Modern Philippine society regards him as the first Filipino hero because he was the first native to resist Spanish colonization and he is best known for the Battle of Mactan that happened at dawn on April 27,1521, where he and his soldiers defeated Ferdinand Magellan. Monuments to Lapu-Lapu have been built in Manila and Cebu while the Philippine National Police, besides being a rival of Rajah Humabon of Cebu, little is known about the life of Lapu-Lapu. The only existing documents about his life are those written by Antonio Pigafetta and his name, origins and fate are still a matter of controversy. Lapu-Lapu is known under the names Çilapulapu, Si Lapulapu, Salip Pulaka, Cali Pulaco, the historical name of Lapu-Lapu is debated. The earliest record of his name comes from Italian diarist Antonio Pigafetta who accompanied Magellans expedition, Pigafetta notes the names of two chiefs of the island of Matan, the chiefs Zula and Çilapulapu. The honorific Çi or Si is a corruption of the Sanskrit title Sri, in an annotation of the 1890 edition of Antonio de Morgas Sucesos de las islas Filipinas, José Rizal spells this name as Si Lapulapu.
The Aginid chronicle calls him Lapulapu Dimantag, the title Salip is frequently used as an honorific for Lapu-lapu and other Visayan datus. Despite common misconception, it is not derived from the Islamic title Khalīfah, like the cognate Si, it was derived from the Sanskrit title Sri Paduka, denoting His Highness. The title is used today in Malaysia as Seri Paduka. The 17th century mestizo de sangley poet Carlos Calao mentions Lapu-Lapu under the name of Cali Pulaco in his poem Que Dios Le Perdone, the name, spelled Kalipulako, was adopted as one of the pseudonyms of the Philippine hero, Mariano Ponce, during the Philippine Revolution. The 1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence of Cavite II el Viejo, there had been many folk accounts surrounding Lapu-lapu’s origin. One oral tradition is that the Sugbuanons of Opong was once ruled by datu named Mangal, another is from oral chronicles from the reign of the last king of Cebu, Rajah Tupas. This was compiled and written in Baybayin in the book Aginid, the chronicle records the founding of the Rajahnate of Cebu by a certain Sri Lumay, who was a prince from the Hindu Chola dynasty of Sumatra.
His sons, Sri Alho and Sri Ukob, ruled the neighboring communities of Sialo and Nahalin, the islands they were in were collectively known as Pulua Kang Dayang or Kangdaya. Sri Lumay was noted for his policies in defending against Moro raiders and slavers from Mindanao. His use of scorched earth tactics to repel invaders gave rise to the name Kang Sri Lumayng Sugbo to the town, which was shortened to Sugbo. Upon his death in a battle against the raiders, Sri Lumay was succeeded by his youngest son, Sri Bantug, Sri Bantug died of an epidemic and was succeeded by his son Rajah Humabon
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth