Majadahonda is a municipality in Spain, situated 16 km northwest of Madrid, in the Community of Madrid. It lies alongside the motorway A6 Madrid-A Coruña, the Puerta de Hierro university hospital was relocated to Majadahonda from the western part of the city of Madrid into a newly built medical complex in 2009. According to tradition, a small village emerged as a station called Majadahonda. By the 16th century Majadahonda had become a village, with a population of about 400 inhabitants. At the end of the 16th century there were almost two hundred houses and some 800 inhabitants, Majadahonda is mentioned in Miguel de Cervantes Don Quixote and El Buscón by Francisco de Quevedo. The centre of the village at the time was the Church of Santa Catherine, a small hospital, the town extended through streets named San Roque, Calle Real, and Calle Christ. In the 17th century a dramatic reduction of population occurred, in the 18th century there was a considerable population increase, reaching a total of some 800 inhabitants, according to the census of Floridablanca.
The majority of the men were day laborers, serving a minority of rich farmers, in the early 19th century bad harvests, the plague, and the effects of the wars left the town almost desolate. In 1812, during the War of Spanish Independence, it was the site of a battle between the French and British troops which left the town in ruins and civil confiscation enforced the sale of land, which was acquired by the rich and powerful nobility. The Spanish Civil War greatly damaged the area, like Madrid, was mostly Republican, from 1936 to 1939 the town was mostly deserted. The town was reconstructed with a more modern grid format. Throughout the 1960s a process of transformation and population increase took place. Majadahonda abandoned agricultural activities, becoming a town for Madrid. The population increase prompted the paving of the streets, the construction of systems. In 1970, alongside the motorway A6, a series of private “garden cities” appeared and these were followed by a great number of closed apartment blocks, which now predominate.
The political changes across Spain have been supported by Majadahonda. In the first municipal elections, the old oligarchy lost the power, near Majadahonda, at Las Rozas, is the most powerful broadcasting station in Spain, which transmits the programs of RNE-1 on 585 kHz at 600 kW. The antenna is on a 264 meters tall mast built in 1962, the facility has a second mast,130 metres tall used for broadcasting RNE-5 on 657 kHz and COPE Madrid on 999 kHz at 50 kW power
Second Siege of Badajoz (1811)
After failing to force a surrender, Wellington withdrew his army when the French mounted a successful relief effort by combining the armies of Marshals Nicolas Soult and Auguste Marmont. The action was fought during the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars, Badajoz is located 6 kilometres from the Portuguese border on the Guadiana River in western Spain. While Wellington faced Marshal André Massénas Army of Portugal in the north, Beresford invested the city in April but Philippons garrison successfully fended off his attacks. The siege was lifted while the Battle of Albuera was fought on 16 May. Though both sides suffered casualties, Beresford emerged the victor and Soult retreated to the east. Wellington brought reinforcements from the north and resumed the siege, Massénas replacement Marmont brought large forces south to join Soult. The British commander lifted the siege after being menaced by the numerically superior French army led by Soult, hoping to assist Marshal André Massénas invasion of Portugal, Emperor Napoleon ordered Marshal Nicolas Soult to act.
Accordingly, Soult set out in January 1811 with 13,500 foot soldiers,4,000 horse, in a preliminary operation, Soult captured Olivenza in a two week siege that ended on 23 January. The French seized 4,161 Spanish prisoners and 18 guns for a loss of only 15 killed and 40 wounded. On 27 January, Soults army invested Badajoz, despite the interference of a 15, 000-man Spanish relief army, the results were all the French could have hoped for. On 19 February, Soult sent Marshal Édouard Mortier to deal with the Spanish army, Mortier won a crushing victory in the Battle of the Gebora. The Spanish lost 850 killed and wounded plus 4,000 men,17 guns, turning to the siege, Soult forced a surrender on 11 March. The 4, 340-man Spanish garrison plus 2,000 fugitives from the Battle of the Gebora lost about 1,000 killed and wounded while the rest became prisoners, the French sustained 1,900 casualties in the siege. Leaving Mortier and 11,000 soldiers to hold Badajoz and environs, Mortier besieged and captured Campo Maior on 21 March.
In the Battle of Campo Maior on 25 March, the British 13th Light Dragoons scored an initial success, in the confusion, Latour-Maubourg kept his head and, with the help of Mortier, managed to save the artillery convoy except for one artillery piece. Nevertheless, the appearance of Beresford and 18,000 Allied troops threw the French onto the defensive. A field marshal in the service of Portugal, Beresford had available the 2nd Division, the 4th Division, Major General John Hamiltons Portuguese Division, if he could have invested Badajoz at the end of March, Beresford might have found the defenses of the fortress in poor shape. However, problems arose to delay the operation until the French effected repairs, the 4th Division was immobilized by a lack of shoes and had to wait for a new shipment from Lisbon
The Anglo-Portuguese Army was the combined British and Portuguese army that participated in the Peninsular War, under the command of Arthur Wellesley. The Army is referred to as the British-Portuguese Army and, in Portuguese, the new Portuguese battalions were supplied with British equipment, trained to British standards and thoroughly re-organised. Incompetent or corrupt officers were cashiered and appropriate replacements were appointed or promoted from amongst promising Non-commissioned officers, at the same time he was appointed by the Portuguese Government as Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army. He came to have the two armies under his command, transforming them into an integrated army. The Army was organised into divisions, most of them including mixed British-Portuguese units, each one had two British and one Portuguese brigades. In the elite Light Division, the brigades themselves were mixed, the following tables show the order of battle and commanders of the Anglo-Portuguese Army at various stages in the Peninsular War.
Army of Spain Lines of Torres Vedras Kings German Legion Bluth, the Oxford History of the British Army. Wellingtons Peninsula Regiments, The Light Infantry, dreams of Empire and the first World War, 1792–1815. The Peninsular War 1807–1814, A Concise Military History, British Infantry of the Napoleonic Wars. Weapons & Equipment of the Napoleonic Wars, english Battles and Sieges in the Peninsula. British Colours and Standards 1747–1881, following the Drum, The Lives of Army Wives and Daughters Past and Present
King's German Legion
The Kings German Legion was a British Army unit of mostly expatriate German personnel during the period 1803–16. The Legion achieved the distinction of being the only German force to fight without interruption against the French during the Napoleonic Wars, the Legion was formed within months of the dissolution of the Electorate of Hanover in 1803, and constituted as a mixed corps by the end of 1803. The Legion was disbanded in 1816, several of the units were incorporated into the army of the Kingdom of Hanover, and became a part of the Imperial German Army after unification in 1871. The British German Legion, recruited for the Crimean War, is erroneously referred to as the Kings German Legion. After the occupation of Hanover by Napoleonic troops the Convention of Artlenburg, called the Convention of the Elbe, was signed on 5 July 1803, the Electors army was disbanded. Many former Hanoverian officers and soldiers fled the French occupation of Hanover to Britain, George III, the same year, Major Colin Halkett and Colonel Johann Friedrich von der Decken were issued warrants to raise a corps of light infantry, to be named The Kings German Regiment.
On 19 December 1803, Halketts and von der Deckens levies were combined as a basis of a mixed corps renamed the Kings German Legion, the KGL infantry were quartered in Bexhill-on-Sea and the cavalry in Weymouth, Dorset. Some units were involved in a fight in Tullamore, Ireland with a British Light infantry unit in the so-called Battle of Tullamore. The number of Officers and Other Ranks grew over time to approximately 14,000 and it saw active service as an integral part of the British Army from 1805–1816, after which its units were disbanded. In the Peninsular Campaign, the Germans enhanced the veteran core of the British army, at Sabugal, in April 1811, several hundred German hussars augmented the Light Division, and the Hussars found the proper ford of the Coa River. At the Battle of Garcia Hernandez, the Dragoons performed the feat of smashing two French square formations in a matter of minutes. At the Battle of Waterloo, the 2nd Light Battalion — with members of the 1st Light Battalion, after a six-hour defence, without ammunition, or reinforcements, the Germans were forced to abandon the farm, leaving the buildings in shambles and their dead behind.
The Legion was known for its excellent discipline and fighting ability, the cavalry was reputed to be among the best in the British army. According to the historian Alessandro Barbero, the Kings German Legion had such a degree of professionalism that it was considered equal in every way to the best British units. After the victory at Waterloo, the Electorate of Hanover was re-founded as the Kingdom of Hanover, the army of Hanover had been reconstituted even before the final battle, so that there were two Hanoverian armies in existence. In 1816 the Legion was dissolved and some officers and men were integrated into the new Hanoverian army, the Waterloo Companion London, Aurum Press,2001 ISBN 1-85410-764-X Barbero, Alessandro. Walker and Company,2005, ISBN 0-8027-1453-6, history of the Kings German Legion vol 1,1832 reprint Naval and Military Press,1997 ISBN 0-9522011-0-0 Beamish, N. Ludlow. History of the Kings German Legion vol 2,1832 reprint Naval and Military Press,1997 ISBN 0-9522011-0-0 Chappell, Die Kings German Legion 1803–1816, Lebenswirklichkeit in einer militärischen Formation der Koalitionskriege
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers, Joseph was born in 1768 to Carlo Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino at Corte, the capital of the Corsican Republic. In the year of his birth, Corsica was invaded by France and his father was originally a follower of the Corsican Patriot leader, Pasquale Paoli, but became a supporter of French rule. As a lawyer and diplomat, Joseph served in the Cinq-Cents and was the French ambassador to Rome, in 1795 Joseph was a member of the Council of Ancients, where he used his position to help his brother overthrow the Directory four years later. The Château de Villandry had been seized by the French Revolutionary government, in 1806, Joseph was given military command of Naples, and shortly afterward was made king by Napoleon, to be replaced two years by his sisters husband, Joachim Murat.
Joseph was made King of Spain in August 1808, soon after the French invasion, Joseph somewhat reluctantly left Naples, where he was popular, and arrived in Spain where he was extremely unpopular. His arrival sparked the legitimate Spanish revolt against French rule, Joseph temporarily retreated with much of the French Army to northern Spain. Joseph and his supporters never established complete control over the country, King Josephs Spanish supporters were called josefinos or afrancesados. During his reign, he ended the Spanish Inquisition, partly because Napoleon was at odds with Pope Pius VII at the time, during Josephs rule of Spain and Venezuela declared independence from Spain. King Joseph abdicated and returned to France after the main French forces were defeated by a British-led coalition at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813. He was seen by Bonapartists as the rightful Emperor of the French after the death of Napoleons own son Napoleon II in 1832, Josephs home was located near the confluence of Crosswicks Creek and the Delaware River.
He considerably expanded Sayres home and created extensive gardens in the picturesque style, when his first home was destroyed by fire in January 1820 he converted his stables into a second grand house. At Point Breeze, Joseph entertained many of the leading intellectuals, reputedly some Mexican revolutionaries offered to crown him Emperor of Mexico in 1820, but he declined. Joseph Bonaparte returned to Europe, where he died in Florence, Italy and he married Marie Julie Clary daughter of François Clary on 1 August 1794 in Cuges-les-Pins, France. They had three daughters, Julie Joséphine Bonaparte, zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte, married, in 1822 to Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Charlotte Napoléone Bonaparte, married, in 1826 to Napoleon Louis Bonaparte and he claimed the two surviving daughters as his heirs. He sired two children with Maria Giulia, the Countess of Atri, Giulio Teresa, Joseph had two American daughters born at Point Breeze, his estate in Bordentown, New Jersey, by his mistress, Annette Savage, Pauline Anne, died young.
He was asked by his brother Napoleon to monitor freemasonry as Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France, with Cambacérès he managed the post-revolution rebirth of the Order in France
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
His defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 put him in the top rank of Britains military heroes. Wellesley was born in Dublin, belonging to the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland and he was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. He was elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons and he was a colonel by 1796, and saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general, following Napoleons exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the army which defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellesleys battle record is exemplary, he participated in some 60 battles during the course of his military career. Wellington is famous for his defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses.
He is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, after ending his active military career, Wellington returned to politics. He was twice British prime minister as part of the Tory party, from 1828 to 1830 and he oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832. He continued as one of the figures in the House of Lords until his retirement. As such, he belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy and his biographers mostly follow the contemporary newspaper evidence in saying that he was born 1 May 1769, the day that he was baptised. He was most likely born at his parents townhouse,24 Upper Merrion Street, but his mother Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. He spent most of his childhood at his familys two homes, the first a house in Dublin and the second Dangan Castle,3 miles north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath. In 1781, Arthurs father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his fathers earldom and he went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr Whytes Academy when in Dublin, and Browns School in Chelsea when in London.
He enrolled at Eton, where he studied from 1781 to 1784, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of funds due to his fathers death, forced the young Wellesley. Until his early twenties, Arthur showed little sign of distinction and his mother grew concerned at his idleness, stating. A year later, Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed significantly, becoming a good horseman and learning French, upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Battle of Villagarcia
Cotton intended to trap the French cavalry, which was separated by a number of miles from the main body of the French army, by executing simultaneous frontal and flank attacks. The plan came close to disaster when the forces making the frontal assault pushed forward prematurely, the situation was saved by the timely arrival of John Le Marchants force on the French left flank. The recent fall of the French occupied fortress city of Badajoz, on 6 April 1812, the French rearguard under General DErlon were under orders to fall back towards Seville if pressed hard. Hills cavalry, under Sir Stapleton Cotton, were indeed pressing those French forces still remaining in the province of Extremadura hard, Stapleton Cottons cavalry consisted of John Le Marchants heavy brigade, John Slades heavy brigade and Frederick Ponsonbys light brigade. Only Ponsonbys brigade and the 5th Dragoon Guards were involved in the fighting, the French cavalry force, attached to DErlons two infantry divisions, commanded by General François Charles Lallemand was composed of the 2nd Hussars and the 17th and 27th Dragoons.
On the evening of 10 April 1811, General Cotton climbed the steeple of a church in Bienvenida and he knew that the French were occupying Llerena and saw that there were considerable numbers of French cavalry five miles closer to him near the village of Villagarcia. Cotton decided that he should attempt to trap the French cavalry with his superior forces, slade was instructed to concentrate his brigade on Bienvenida, though he seems to have been tardy in moving. Cotton retained the 16th Light Dragoons as a reserve, ponsonby subsequently found his two regiments faced by the three strong regiments under Lallemand and had to make a controlled withdrawal whilst skirmishing against heavy odds. Following his orders, Le Marchant had moved his brigade though the night over tortuous terrain for a considerable distance. Coming down from rugged hills bordering the plain where the action was fought Le Marchant, Le Marchant realised that an immediate charge was needed before Ponsonbys squadrons were forced into the congested and broken ground to their rear.
Lallemand, it is recorded, caught a glimpse of red-coated figures in the woods to his left and rode to alert General Peyremmont, Peyremmont scorned Lallemands concerns, saying that the British dragoons were probably a small detachment who had lost their way. At this point the advantage that the French had enjoyed in the action was suddenly reversed, Le Marchant led his dragoon guards out of the woods and they formed their ranks whilst accelerating into the charge. The 5th Dragoon Guards attacked with their squadrons in echelon, their left refused, simultaneously with Le Marchants charge the 16th Light Dragoons, led by Cotton, appeared to Ponsonbys right-rear, they jumped a stone wall in line, and charged. The French cavalry were thrown into instant confusion and were swiftly broken, the British pursuit, continuing to inflict casualties and take prisoners, was conducted all the way back to the walls of Llerena where the bulk of DErlons force was concentrated. The French rallied briefly at a ditch halfway to Llerena, a few hours the French abandoned Llerena and continued their retreat out of Extremadura.
The French lost 53 killed or wounded, plus 136 captured and were induced to leave the province of Extremadura, the British lost 51 troopers killed or wounded. Cotton had shown initiative in conceiving a plan to trap the French cavalry, however, as a result, it was probably rather too complex and came dangerously close to breaking down in execution. However, Cotton was flexible in extemporising once his plan was rendered irrelevant when his central force made its presence known to the enemy too soon