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Battle of Mogadishu (1993)

The Battle of Mogadishu was part of Operation Gothic Serpent. It was fought on 3–4 October 1993, in Mogadishu, between forces of the United States—supported by UNOSOM II—and Somali militiamen loyal to the self-proclaimed president-to-be Mohamed Farrah Aidid; the initial Joint Special Operations Command force, Task Force Ranger, was a collaboration of various elite special forces units from the United States Army Special Operations Command, the Air Force Special Operations Command, the United States Naval Special Warfare Command. It consisted of members from the 75th Ranger Regiment and Delta Force. Task Force Ranger was dispatched to seize two of Aidid's high-echelon lieutenants during a meeting in the city; the goal of the operation was achieved, although conditions spiraled into the deadly Battle of Mogadishu. The initial operation of 3 October 1993, intended to last an hour, became an overnight standoff and rescue operation extending into the daylight hours of 4 October 1993. Task Force Ranger was created in August 1993, deployed to Somalia.

It consisted of various elite special operations units from Army, Air Force and Navy special services: U. S. Army Rangers from Bravo Company, 3rd Battalion 75th Ranger Regiment; as a multi-disciplinary joint special forces operation, Task Force Ranger reported to Joint Special Operations Command, led by Major General William F. Garrison. On 3 October 1993, Task Force Ranger began an operation that involved traveling from their compound on the city's outskirts to the center with the aim of capturing the leaders of the Habar Gidir clan, led by Mohamed Farrah Aidid; the assault force consisted of nineteen aircraft, twelve vehicles, 160 men. The operation was intended to last no longer than one hour. Shortly after the assault began, Somali militia and armed civilian fighters shot down two MH-60L Black Hawk helicopters; the subsequent operation to secure and recover the crews of both helicopters extended the initial operation into an overnight standoff and daylight rescue operation on 4 October. The battle resulted in 18 deaths, 73 wounded and one helicopter pilot captured among the U.

S. raid rescue forces. At least one Pakistani soldier and one Malaysian soldier were killed as part of the rescue forces on day two of the battle. American sources estimate between 3,000 Somali casualties, including civilians. During the operation, two U. S. Black Hawk helicopters were shot down by RPGs and three others were damaged; some of the wounded survivors were able to evacuate to the compound, but others remained near the crash sites and were isolated. An urban battle continued throughout the night. Early the next morning, a combined task force was sent to rescue the trapped soldiers, it contained soldiers from the Pakistan Army, the Malaysian Army and the U. S. Army's 10th Mountain Division, they assembled over one hundred vehicles, including Pakistani tanks and Malaysian Condor armored personnel carriers and were supported by U. S. MH-6 Little Bird and MH-60L Black Hawk helicopters; this task force rescued the survivors. At one occasion during this fight, some of the American soldiers became trapped and were taking on heavy fire in the Medina Bazaar when Pakistan's army came to their rescue and got the American soldiers out.

The second crash site had been overrun by hostile Somalis during the night. Delta snipers Gary Gordon and Randy Shughart had volunteered to hold them off until ground forces arrived. A Somali mob with thousands of combatants had overrun the two men; that site's lone surviving American, pilot Michael Durant, had been taken prisoner but was released. The exact number of Somali casualties is unknown, but estimates range from several hundred to a thousand militiamen and others killed, with injuries to another 3,000–4,000; the International Committee of the Red Cross estimated that 200 Somali civilians were killed and several hundred wounded in the fighting, with reports that some civilians attacked the Americans. The book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War estimates more than 700 Somali militiamen dead and more than 1,000 wounded, but the Somali National Alliance in a Frontline documentary on American television acknowledged only 133 killed in the whole battle; the Somali casualties were reported in The Washington Post as 814 wounded.

The Pentagon reported five American soldiers were killed, but the toll was 18 American soldiers dead and 73 wounded. Two days a 19th soldier, Delta operator SFC Matt Rierson, was killed in a mortar attack. Among U. N. forces, one Malaysian and one Pakistani died. At the time the battle was the bloodiest involving U. S. troops since the Vietnam War, it remained so until the Second Battle of Fallujah in 2004. On 24 July 1996, Aidid was wounded during a firefight between his militia and forces loyal to former Aidid allies, Ali Mahdi Muhammad and Osman Ali Atto, he suffered a fatal heart attack on 1 August 1996, either during or after surgery to treat his wounds. The following day, General Garrison retired. In January 1991, Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre was overthrown by a coalition of opposing clans, precipitating the Somali Civil War; the Somali National Army concurrently disbanded, some former soldiers reconstituted as irregular regional forces or joined the clan militias. The main rebel group in the capit

Prussian semaphore system

The Prussian Semaphore System was a telegraphic communications system used between Berlin and the Rhine Province from 1832 to 1849. It could transmit administrative and military messages by optical signal over a distance of nearly 550 kilometres; the telegraph line comprised 62 stations each furnished with a signal mast with six cable-operated arms. The stations were equipped with telescopes that operators used to copy coded messages and forward them to the next station. Three dispatch departments located in Berlin and Koblenz handled the coding and decoding of official telegrams. Although electric telegraphy made the system obsolete for military use, simplified semaphores were still used for railway signals. At the time of construction of the Prussian semaphore system, the technology had been known for thirty years, it was based on earlier designs by Claude Chappe and his brother which were in use in France on many telegraph lines from 1794. Soon Sweden and England had working optical telegraph systems while couriers remained in use throughout Germany.

The states that existed in German-speaking areas at the end of the 18th century were uninterested in a communications system that crossed multiple borders and the political conditions did not exist to put the necessary treaties and agreements in place among these states. Countries such as Sweden and France had the necessary centralized control for such a project, they confronted political and economic challenges such as securing long coastlines, controlling sea routes, they were therefore far more motivated to build an advanced communications network. Prussia was at that time the second largest German state in terms of area and it saw no structural or political necessity for the introduction of telegraphy after the Congress of Vienna of 1814-1815. Plans for the construction of a first telegraph line were delayed by resistance from the conservative Prussian military when the usefulness of mobile telegraphy in war is taken into account, it was this technology, used with success by Napoleon Bonaparte and this at least awakened the interest of the Prussian military.

However, Prussia was confronted with a fragile domestic political situation in its western provinces at the beginning of the 1830s. Nobles and liberals from the Rhine region were opposed to the administration in Berlin, they were strengthened in their movement for a national constitution by the July Revolution in France and the revolution in Belgium in 1830. In this time of turmoil, urgent official messages traveled by courier on horseback; this was unsatisfactory to the Prussian military, the proponents of a telegraph network could execute a plan for a line from Berlin to Koblenz via Cologne. The technical idea and the initiative to build the longest telegraph line in central Europe came from the Geheime Postrat Carl Philipp Heinrich Pistor. Pistor wrote a memorandum to the Prussian General Staff in December 1830 which laid out a draft proposal for a telegraph line within the Royal Prussian States. Pistor’s ideas were inspired by the Englishman Bernard L. Watson whose designs were based on the "Second Polygrammatic Telegraph" of William Pasley.

The design consisted of a mast with six telegraph arms. Pistor took the six-arm principle and reworked the mechanics of the construction. Further, his workshop developed the optical telescopes which were a necessary component of the system; the order for the construction of the system was given by an order of the Prussian Cabinet on July 21, 1832. The Prussian system remained the only state-run optical telegraph system within German territory. There were a couple of examples of run systems; the first existed between 1837 and 1850 and was created by the Altona businessman Johann Ludwig Schmidt who operated it as a signal system for ships between the mouth of the Elbe at Cuxhaven and Port of Hamburg. From 1841, this system was run by Friedrich Clemens Gerke, a pioneer in telegraphy for whom the modern telecommunications tower in Cuxhaven is named; the second created by Schmidt was inaugurated in 1847. This system ran between Bremen and Bremerhaven, but this second system was taken out of service by 1852 because a competing electric telegraph line, placed into service at the same time.

As with telegraph operations, the responsibility for the construction of the entire system fell to the Prussian Military. Major Franz August O'Etzel led the construction. O'Etzel trained as pharmacist, he knew the Rhineland as he had done survey work in the region. Along with the construction, O'Etzel concerned himself with the necessary codes for transmitting messages, he wrote the codebooks for the line. Once construction was complete, he was given the title of "Director of the Royal Prussian Telegraph" and he oversaw the operations of the entire system; the line began with Station #1 at the old Berlin Observatory in Dorotheenstrasse. The construction of the first section – with fourteen stations – was completed by November 1832; the route ran via the Telegraphenberg #4 in Potsdam across Brandenburg an der Havel to Magdeburg. The locations of the stations were chosen by O'Etzel himself. In choosing, he took into consideration of existing structures - for example the village church in Dahlem, he had his team construct towers on existing tall buildings.

In many places along the route, trees had to be felled or have their tops cut off in order to maintain the sight lines between stations. French telegraph operators had recognized that signals were hard to recognize if they came from stations placed before certain backgrounds, while sign


Elvet is an area of the city of Durham, in County Durham, in England. It is situated on the opposite side of the River Wear from Durham Cathedral and forms the south-eastern part of central Durham. Elvet is unparished; the word elvet means "swan" or "swan-stream", from the Old English elfetu or ilfetu. The Swan and Three Cygnets, a public house on Elvet Bridge, is a reminder of the historical name given to this part of the city. Elvet grew up from two medieval settlements based around Old Elvet and St Oswald's Church and includes Church Street, Hallgarth Street, Whinney Hill and much of Durham University's science site and the Roman Catholic chaplaincy at St Cuthbert's Church. Elvet is home to County Court and Magistrates' Court; the Crown Court centre was built for the Durham Assizes and is a grade II* listed building. Elvet House, a former Crown building in Hallgarth Street, is the base for Durham's Jobcentre Plus, Crown Prosecution Service, Driving Standards Agency and Tribunals Service; the County Court vacated its purpose-built 1960's annex to Elvet House in October 2008 to relocate alongside the Magistrates' Court.

Shire Hall, a grade II listed building, is located on Old Elvet. Ustinov College operates three student residences on Old Elvet; the local Masonic Lodge is at 36. The Masonic Hall was built in 1869; the architect was T C Ebdy. The Royal County Hotel is a grade II listed building, it has a staircase, taken from Loch Leven Castle. Number 32, used as an Adult Education Centre, is a grade II listed building. Elvet Methodist Church was begun in 1902. Number 34 is a grade II listed building, it has been used as the Graduate Society Offices. Elizabeth Milbanke and John Bacchus Dykes lived there at different times; the Dun Cow, a pub, number 37, is a grade II listed building. Numbers 1, 5, 6, 14, 15, 15A, 17, 18, 19, 19½, 20, 25, 26, 26A, 27, 28, 30, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 52, 53, 54, 55 and 55A are grade II listed buildings. Numbers are 47, 48 and 49 are grade II* listed buildings. Whinney Hill is a street on a hill of the same name in the Elvet area, that name being derived from the whin shrub that grows there in profusion.

The street runs north-south from Durham Prison and the Durham City Cricket Grounds, on the banks of the River Wear, to the roundabout on the Stockton-on-Tees road near the Durham University science site. The lower site of Durham Johnston Comprehensive School was located on it until September 2009 when the school's sites merged. Durham's third passenger railway station, Durham Elvet, opened in 1893 at the north end of Whinney Hill, closing in 1954, its site is now occupied by the university's Parsons Field buildings. Margot Johnson. "Elvet" in Durham: Historic and University City and surrounding area. Sixth Edition. Turnstone Ventures. 1992. ISBN 094610509X. Pages 16 to 18. Keith Proud. "Heart of the City". Northern Echo. 20 May 2011. Francis Frederick Johnson. Historic Staircases in Durham City. City of Durham Trust. Durham. 1970

Clarence Bolton

Clarence Wheeler Bolton was an American painter and lithographer from Woodstock, New York. He was a prominent member of the Woodstock Art Colony in the early and mid-20th century whose works have been exhibited throughout the United States and internationally. Bolton was raised in Wallingford, Connecticut, he attended the School of Fine Arts at Yale beginning in 1913, where he studied sculpture under Lee Lawrie, who created the sculpture of Atlas at Rockefeller Center in New York City. Because of his frail health, he was unable to complete his studies and graduate. In 1917 Bolton traveled to Woodstock to visit a friend who lived there and to play a musical gig, fell in love with the town. Bolton remained in Woodstock for the rest of his life. In 1921, he met Mary Louise Cashdollar, from a prominent Woodstock family, they married in 1922. In Woodstock, Bolton became enthralled with the local Catskill Mountains landscape, so, in his words, “sort of forsook” sculpture in favor of focusing on landscape painting.

He began studying landscape painting under John F. Carlson, a prominent landscape painter who in 1911-1918 had headed the summertime Woodstock School of the Art Students League. Bolton took up lithography, again focusing on landscapes, he was one of the first members of the Woodstock Artists Association. During the Great Depression, Bolton was engaged to paint federal government artwork, most notably working jointly with Charles Rosen in painting the murals at the Beacon, New York, Post Office, visited by Eleanor Roosevelt when it was nearing completion, it was during this work for the Works Progress Administration’s Federal Arts Project that Bolton became interested and studied lithography. Bolton produced woodcut and linoleum-cut prints, many of which appeared in his publication, The Clatter, he painted signs for Woodstock-area businesses. Bolton’s artwork was made into Christmas cards, he ventured into textile design, in 1928 won first prize out of some 1,500 entrants in the textile design competition held in New York City by the Art Alliance.

Bolton purchased a press, on which he published in 1930-1931 a magazine entitled The Clatter. The material was a mix of Bolton’s own articles and opinion pieces on art, the seasons, local events, as well as short stories and humor pieces, it was illustrated with his own linoleum-cut prints. Bolton was most notable for his lithographs for his high level of technical expertise and technique, his style has been described as being stylistically linked with Precisionism which flourished when Bolton was most active. While most of his subjects were traditional serene landscapes and scenes of local village life, he gave their portrayals a original, personal twist that reflected contemporary American and international trends in painting; this can be seen, for example, in his lithographs Politics, Country Church, In the Woods, Still Waters, Butternut Trees, March Winds, The Birches. Bolton’s work has been exhibited locally in the Catskills area, in major U. S. art venues and internationally. In addition to numerous local exhibitions and exhibitions at several university art museums, notable exhibition venues of his works have included the Library of Congress, the National Academy of Design, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Corcoran Gallery, the Kennedy Galleries in New York City, the Denver Art Museum, in London at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.

Bolton received a number of prizes and honors in addition to the above-mentioned textile design prize, including the Warren H. Manning Purchase Prize of the Southern Society, the Purchase Prize of the Oklahoma Art League, he and his wife Louise collaborated in local Woodstock business ventures. In the early and mid-1920s they owned a soda fountain café called The Nook, a hangout for the students at the Art Students League of New York who studied next door, where artworks were exhibited. After WWII, he assisted Louise in running her antique shop at The Red Barn, tending shop and refinishing early American furniture. Bolton retained his interest in music, he was an accomplished mandolinist, frequently played the piano at dances and social events. He played piano as the live musical accompaniment to silent movies in the local movie hall. Smith, Anita. Woodstock: History and Hearsay. Woodstock, New York: Woodstock Arts, 2nd ed. 2006. Evers, Alf. Woodstock: History of an American Town. Woodstock, New York: Overlook Press, 1987.

Heppner and Fallon-Mower, Janine. Legendary Locals of Woodstock. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2013, p. 57

Murder in the Blue Room

Murder in the Blue Room is a 1944 American film directed by Leslie Goodwins. It is the second remake of the 1933 American Pre-Code murder-mystery film Secret of the Blue Room, the first being Universal's 1938 remake, The Missing Guest. Faithful to the original plot, Murder in the Blue Room plays up the comedy with songs; the plot is based on the 1932 German film Secret of the Blue Room. A musical mystery about a young couple's attempt to solve a mysterious murder that occurred at their house. Anne Gwynne as Nan John Litel as Frank Baldrich Grace McDonald as Peggy Donald Cook as Steve June Preisser as Jerry Regis Toomey as Inspector McDonald Nella Walker as Dorothy Craig Andrew Tombes as Dr. Carroll Murder in the Blue Room on IMDb

Orlandina de Oliveira

Orlandina de Oliveira is a Brazilian-born, naturalized Mexican sociologist and professor. Her areas of expertise are on social inequality, the status of women and youth, the dynamics of labor markets, she has earned numerous honors for her academic research from international universities including the University of Texas at Austin, the University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle, Harvard University. Orlandina de Oliveira Barbosa was born on 25 April 1943 in Brazil, she earned a Bachelor's degree in Sociology and Politics in 1966 from the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and in 1968 obtained a Master's in sociology from Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociaes of Santiago, Chile. During 1969, de Oliveira worked as a research associate at FLACSO's in Santiago and in 1970 moved to Mexico, she began a professorship in February 1970 at the Center for Economic and Demographic Studies at El Colegio de México. In 1972, she became a naturalized Mexican citizen. De Oliveira earned her PhD in Sociology from the University of Texas at Austin in 1975.

After completing her doctorate, de Oliveira returned to the Colegio de México and has worked in the Center for Sociological Studies since that time, earning her promotion to the National System of Researchers in 1984. Between 1986 and 1987 she served as Academic Coordinator of the Center for Sociological Studies and from 1988 to 1993 was the Director of CES, she has held numerous posts as a visiting professor. From 1980 to 1981 she was visiting researcher at the Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning, São Paulo, Brazil and a visiting researcher in 1989 at the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Texas at Austin, she was honored as the Edward Larocque Tinker Chair by the University of Texas in 1992. In 1994 she was a visiting professor at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil. From 1994 to 1995 she was honored with the Simon Bolivar Chair from the Institut des Hautes Etudes de L'Amerique Latine at the University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle. In November 1998 she taught a seminar entitled "Démodynamiques" at the Institut national d'études démographiques in Paris.

From 2000 to 2002, de Oliveira was a researcher with the United Nations Research Institute For Social Development working on research about globalization and its effects on the employment of women. She returned to the University of Paris in the academic year 2001-2002, when she was honored as the Alfonso Reyes Chair for the Institut des Hautes Etudes de L'Amerique Latine, Paris, she was honored in the 2003-2004 academic year as the Madero Visiting Scholar for the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. From 2004 to 2005, she was visiting researcher at the Federal University of Brazil, she has continued to research and publish in Mexico, with many books and articles appearing through 2014. 1992 Edward Larocque Tinker Chair at the Institute of Latin American Studies, Department of Sociology, University of Texas at Austin, Texas 1994-1995 Simon Bolivar Chair at the Institut des Hautes Etudes d'Amérique Latine, University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle, France 2001-2002 Alfonso Reyes Chair at the Institut des Hautes Etudes d'Amérique Latine, University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle, France 2003-2004 Madero Scholar, Harvard University-David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Massachusetts.

De Oliveira Muñoz, Orlandina. Industrialization and entry labor force changes in Mexico City: 1930-1970 University of Texas at Austin: Austin, Texas de Oliveira, Orlandina. Migración y absorción de mano de obra en la ciudad de México, 1930-1970 Centro de Estudios Sociológicos: Mexico City, Mexico de Oliveira, Orlandina. Migración femenina, organización familiar y mercados laborales en México Centro de Estudios Sociológicos: Mexico City, Mexico de Oliveira, Orlandina. Trabajo, poder y sexualidad El Colegio de México: Mexico City, Mexico de Oliveira and Bryan R Roberts. Urban development and social inequality in Latin America University of Texas at Austin: Austin, Texas de Oliveira and Marina Ariza. Imágenes de la familia en el cambio de siglo, universo familiar y procesos demográficos contemporáneos Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales: Mexico City, Mexico de Oliveira, Orlandina and Brígida García Guzmán. Las familias en el México metropolitano: visiones femeninas y masculinas El Colegio de México: Mexico City, Mexico de Oliveira, Orlandina.

"Situación de clase y contenidos ideológicos" Revista Mexicana de Sociología, Vol. 33 No. 2 pp. 285–327 de Oliveira, Orlandina and Brígida García Guzmán. "Urbanization and the growth of large cities trends and implications in some developing countries" Internal Conference on Population, United Nations: New York City, New York de Oliveira and Humberto Muñoz García. "Concentración o desconcentración? datos e hipótesis sobre la ciudad de México y su región" Ciencia, Vol. 39, No. 3 pp. 165–177 de Oliveira, Orlandina. "Migration of women, family organization and labour markets in Mexico" Family and gender relations in Latin America, Kegan Paul International: London, pp. 101–118 de Oliveira, Orlandina. "Experiencias matrimoniales en el México urbano la importancia de la familia de origen" Estudios Sociológicos, Vol. 13, No. 38, pp. 283–308