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Battle of Myriokephalon

The Battle of Myriokephalon, was a battle between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Turks in Phrygia in the vicinity of Lake Beyşehir in southwestern Turkey on 17 September 1176. The battle was a strategic reverse for the Byzantine forces, who were ambushed when moving through a mountain pass, it was to be the final, unsuccessful effort by the Byzantines to recover the interior of Anatolia from the Seljuk Turks. Between 1158 and 1161 a series of Byzantine campaigns against the Seljuk Turks of the Sultanate of Rûm resulted in a treaty favourable to the Empire, with the sultan recognising a form of subordination to the Byzantine emperor. After peace was negotiated the Seljuk sultan Kilij Arslan II visited Constantinople where he was treated by Emperor Manuel I Komnenos as both an honoured guest and an imperial vassal. Following this event there was no overt hostility between the two powers for many years, it was a fragile peace, however, as the Seljuks wanted to push from the arid central plateau of Asia Minor into the more fertile coastal lands, while the Byzantines wanted to recover the Anatolian territory they had lost since the Battle of Manzikert a century earlier.

During the long peace with the Seljuks Manuel was able to concentrate his military power in other theatres. In the west he imposed Byzantine control over all the Balkans. In the east he recovered Cilicia from local Armenian dynasts and managed to reduce the Crusader Principality of Antioch to vassal status. However, the peace with Byzantium allowed Killij Arslan to eliminate internal rivals and strengthen his military resources; when the strongest Muslim ruler in Syria Nur ad-Din Zangi died in 1174, his successor Saladin was more concerned with Egypt and Palestine than the territory bordering the Empire. This shift in power gave Kilij Arslan the freedom to destroy the Danishmend emirates of eastern Anatolia and eject his brother Shahinshah from his lands near Ankara. Shahinshah, Manuel's vassal, the Danishmend emirs fled to the protection of Byzantium. In 1175 the peace between Byzantium and the Sultanate of Rûm fell apart when Kilij Arslan refused to hand over to the Byzantines, as he was obliged to do by treaty, a considerable proportion of the territory he had conquered from the Danishmends.

The army gathered at Lopadion by Manuel was so large that it spread across ten miles, marched towards the border with the Seljuks via Laodicea, Lampe, Celaenae and Antioch. Arslan rejected a new peace, he sent part of the army under Andronikos Vatatzes towards Amasia while his larger force marched towards the Seljuk capital at Iconium. Both routes were through wooded regions, where the Turks could hide and set up ambushes; the Turks displayed Andronikos's head, impaled on a lance, during the fighting at Myriokephalon. The Turks destroyed crops and poisoned water supplies to make Manuel's march more difficult. Arslan harassed the Byzantine army in order to force it into the Meander valley, the mountain pass of Tzivritze near the fortress of Myriokephalon. Once at the pass Manuel decided to attack, despite the danger from further ambushes, despite the fact that he could have attempted to bring the Turks out of their positions to fight them on the nearby plain of Philomelion, the site of an earlier victory won by his grandfather Alexios.

The lack of forage, water for his troops, the fact that dysentery had broken out in his army may have induced Manuel to decide to force the pass regardless of the danger of ambush. All sources agree; the historian John Haldon estimates the army at 25,000–30,000 men, while John Birkenmeier puts it at around 35,000 men. The latter number is derived from the fact that sources indicated a supply train of 3,000 wagons accompanied the army, enough to support 30,000–40,000 men. Birkenmeier believes that the army contained 25,000 Byzantine troops with the remainder composed of an allied contingent of Hungarians sent by Manuel's kinsman Béla III of Hungary and tributary forces supplied by the Principality of Antioch and Serbia; the Byzantine army was divided into a number of divisions, which entered the pass in the following order: a vanguard of infantry. No estimates of Seljuk numbers for the battle have been possible. Primary sources have provided figures for other Seljuk campaigns. In 1160, John Kontostephanos defeated a force of 22,000 Seljuk Turks and about 20,000–24,000 Turks invaded the Maeander river valley in 1177.

However, modern historians have estimated that the various Seljuk successor states could field at most 10,000–15,000 men. This is a closer estimate for the possible Seljuk strength at Myriokephalon considering the much larger and united Seljuk Empire fielded around 20,000–30,000 men at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071; the Sultanate of Rum was much smaller territorially than the Seljuk Empire and had smaller armies, for example its army at the Battle of Dorylaeum in 1097 has been estimated at between 6,000–8,000 men. The Byzanti

Cadillac Fairview

Cadillac Fairview Corporation Limited is a Canadian company that invests in, manages commercial real estate in Canada and the United States. As of March 2017, the company had 73 properties, encompassing 38 million square feet, worth over $29 billion; as of September 2017, Cadillac Fairview's portfolio consisted of 60% Canadian retail and 26% Canadian office buildings. Cadillac Fairview is owned by the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan; the name "Cadillac Fairview" came into existence in 1974 as a result of the merger between Cadillac Development Corporation Ltd and Fairview Corporation. Cadillac Development Corporation was founded by partners Ephraim Diamond, Joseph Berman, Jack Kamin in Toronto in 1953 as a developers of high-rise apartment buildings. Fairview Corporation was established in 1958 as the real estate division of Cemp Investments, the holding company of the Bronfman family. Before merging and Fairview had strong ties since 1968. Bronfman-held Cemp Investments sold Cadillac Fairview in 1986.

The company was purchased by the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan in March 2000. In 2006 it expanded its operations to Brazil by buying 46 percent of Multiplan Emprendimentos Imobiliarios SA, a Brazilian shopping center manager worth more than $1 billion. In 2013, it was sued for causing hundreds of birds to die due to the glass panes at one of its Toronto office buildings, it won the case. In 2012, Cadillac Fairview bought out the leases of Sears Canada in five stores for $400 million, including the lease of the flagship Sears at Toronto Eaton Centre. Many of the former Sears locations, including the one at Eaton Centre, became Nordstroms. In 2014, it purchased the Toronto flagship store of Hudson's Bay Company for $650 million. On September 21, 2015, Cadillac Fairview rebranded its shopping centre properties, adding the prefix "CF" in front of each shopping centre name and phasing out individual mall logos in favour of a standardized logo format and image campaign. In January 2017, Cadillac Fairview sold half of its Vancouver portfolio to the Ontario Pension Board and the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board.

Financial terms were not disclosed, but the deal involved 4 million square feet of leasable space in the Pacific Centre and 12 office properties. In September 2017, it announced it would become a national partner to the Canadian Olympic Committee. Cadillac Fairview owns and manages property and large office and retail spaces across the Western Hemisphere in North America. Cadillac Fairview has developed suburban housing, such as the Erin Mills "New Town". Among its Canadian assets are one New Brunswick property, six Quebec properties, twenty-five Ontario properties, two Manitoba properties, eight Alberta properties, fourteen British Columbia properties. Cadillac Fairview's malls are large and high-quality, with high-end stores and high sales per square foot. For instance, sales at the Toronto Eaton Centre, a CF mall, were $1500 per square foot, while lower-end malls have sales closer to $325 per square foot. Cadillac Fairview has tried to sell weak malls, reducing its mall count from a high of 40 to around 20 in 2017.

Notable properties managed by Cadillac Fairview, some co-owned with other investors, are listed below. In July 2018, Cadillac Fairview was criticized for having facial recognition software installed on their mall directories, which collect anonymized information of the estimated age and gender of kiosk users. Official website

2014 Venezuelan protests

In 2014, a series of protests, political demonstrations, civil insurrection began in Venezuela due to the country's high levels of urban violence and chronic shortages of basic goods attributed to economic policies such as strict price controls. Mass protesting began in earnest in February following the attempted rape of a student on a university campus in San Cristóbal. Subsequent arrests and killings of student protesters spurred their expansion to neighboring cities and the involvement of opposition leaders; the year's early months were characterized by large demonstrations and violent clashes between protesters and government forces that resulted in nearly 4,000 arrests and 43 deaths, including both supporters and opponents of the government. Since Hugo Chávez was elected President of Venezuela in 1998, he and his political ambitions proved to be controversial. Under Chávez, oil revenues in the 2000s brought funds not seen in Venezuela since the 1980s, with Chávez's government becoming "semi-authoritarian and hyper-populist", investing in public works which benefited Venezuelans.

His government failed to save funds earned while oil prices were high and soon after his death, Venezuela's economy became dilapidated. Under Chávez's tenure, corruption in Venezuela, as well as crime in Venezuela, had increased, causing more frustration among Venezuelans. Frustrations were seen in the polls when during the 2013 Venezuelan presidential election, Nicolas Maduro narrowly won the election with 50.6% of the vote, ahead of the 49.1% of candidate Henrique Capriles Radonski close compared to previous elections in the country. The opposition's defeat in the 8 December 2013 municipal elections, which it had framed as a'plebiscite' on Maduro's presidency, would ignite an internal debate over strategy. Moderate opposition leaders Henrique Capriles and Henri Falcón argued for'unity' and dialogue with the government, attended meetings held by the President to discuss cooperation among the country's mayors and governors. Other opposition leaders, such as Leopoldo López and Marina Corina Machado, opposed dialogue and called for a new strategy to force an immediate change in the government.

According to the Venezuelan Observatory of Social Conflict, 9,286 protests occurred in 2014, the greatest number of protests occurring in Venezuela in decades. The majority of protests, 6,369 demonstrations, occurred during the first six months of 2014 with an average of 35 protests per day. SVCO estimated; the main reason of protest was against President Maduro and the Venezuelan government with 52% of demonstrations and the remaining 42% of protests were due to other difficulties such as labor, insecurity and shortages. Most protesting began in the first week of February, reaching peak numbers in the middle of that month following the call of students and opposition leaders to protest; the number of protests declined into mid-2014 only to increase in late 2014 into 2015 following the drop in the price of oil and due to the shortages in Venezuela. Demonstrations against violence in Venezuela began in January 2014 following the murder of actress and former Miss Venezuela Mónica Spear, continued, when former presidential candidate Henrique Capriles shook the hand of President Maduro.

According to the Associated Press, well before protests began in the Venezuelan capital city of Caracas, the attempted rape of a young student on a university campus in San Cristóbal, in the western border state of Táchira, led to protests from students "outraged" at "long-standing complaints about deteriorating security under President Nicolas Maduro and his predecessor, the late Hugo Chávez. But what set them off was the harsh police response to their initial protest, in which several students were detained and abused, as well as follow-up demonstrations to call for their release"; these protests expanded, attracted non-students, led to more detentions. Leopoldo López, a leading figure in the opposition to the government, began to lead protests. During events surrounding the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt, Lopez "orchestrated the public protests against Chávez and he played a central role in the citizen's arrest of Chavez's interior minister", Ramón Rodríguez Chacín, though he tried to distance himself from the event, López, alongside María Corina Machado launch a campaign on 23 January 2014 to remove Maduro from office, named La Salida, with an intent to have President Maduro resign through protests with Machado publicly stating “We must create chaos in the streets through responsible civic struggle”.

On 1 February, López called upon students to protest peacefully against the scarcity and shortages. The next day, opposition leaders call for a march on 12 February in recognition of National Youth Day. On 12 February, major opposition protests began with student marches led by opposition leaders in 38 cities across Venezuela simultaneous with the national celebrations for the bicentennial year anniversary of Youth Day and the Battle of La Victoria. After the protests, smaller groups threw stones at government forces; the protests turned more violent after government security forces used excessive force on protesters and shot at groups of unarmed people. Bassil Da Costa was the first protester to die after getting a bullet to the head; that day, another protester, Robert Reddman, a pro-government

Jesus nut

Jesus nut, or Jesus pin, is a slang term for the main rotor retaining nut, which holds the main rotor to the mast of some helicopters, such as the UH-1 Iroquois helicopter. The term Jesus nut may have been coined by American soldiers in Vietnam; the term may have originated with the PBY Catalina, which had two Jesus bolts holding the wing into the fuselage. If the Jesus pin were to fail in flight, the helicopter would detach from the rotor and the only thing left for the crew to do would be to "pray to Jesus." Real examples of the Jesus pin failing are few and far between. However, the pin must be checked before the flight; some more recent helicopter systems do not have a Jesus nut. More in generic engineering the concept has widened to include any single component of a system whose failure would cause catastrophic failure of the whole system. Another use for the term is found in rock climbing, in which it refers to the first piece of protection placed on a pitch; this piece must be placed to resist an outward pull as well as a downward pull in order to avoid the possibility of a "zipper", in which the outward pull on the rope from the belayer arresting a falling climber pulls protection pieces from the bottom up.

In addition, the Jesus nut prevents the possibility of a factor-two fall onto the belay anchor. In literature, the term "Jesus nut" was used in Chickenhawk by Robert Mason, a narrative about his experiences as a pilot in the Vietnam War. Circlip known as a "Jesus clip" Linchpin

Oliver Thompson

Oliver Thompson is an English guitarist and singer. He has toured with Roxy Music and Bryan Ferry since 2005, playing with guitarists including Phil Manzanera, Chris Spedding and Johnny Marr, he has played on Ferry's solo tours, festival dates and recording projects since he began working with him at age 17. He played on Ferry's 2007 solo album Dylanesque and was the principal guitarist on the 2010 Olympia, which featured David Gilmour, Nile Rodgers, Johnny Greenwood and Phil Manzanera, he toured with The Bryan Ferry Orchestra in 2013 for The Jazz Age. When asked in a 2013 interview about his favorite guitarists to work with, Ferry said, In recent years, there has been my young guitarist Oliver Thompson... Nile Rodgers... Neil Hubbard, Waddy Wachtel, Phil Manzanera, John Porter, David Gilmour, Mark Knopfler and Johnny Marr... all of whom have played wonderful things on my records. Thompson was given his first guitar at 13 and soon started playing in his first band White Vinyl, he started the band Rubber Kiss Goodbye where he was the singer and guitarist.

The latter included Bryan Ferry's son Tara Ferry on drums and Peter Perrett Jr. on bass. Festival appearances for Rubber Kiss Goodbye included the 2009 SXSW in Austin, The Great Escape Festival in Brighton and the Lodestar Festival in Cambridgeshire, England. In 2013, he started his first solo project, under his first two names Ollie Forrest, he launched his first single in London on 20 June 2014, featuring the songs "Gun To Your Baby" and "Wild's Rent". Dylanesque Olympia Avonmore Ollie Forrest at Soundcloud.com Ollie Forrest's "Gun To Your Baby", February 2014. YouTube. Review of a show at the Royal Albert Hall. November 2013; the Quietus. SXSW on Grooveshark, featuring Rubber Kiss Goodbye's "We See Lights". Groove Shark. Rubber Kiss Goodbye's "We See Lights". YouTube

The Town (Strindberg)

The Town is a 1903 oil painting by August Strindberg. It is shown at the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. August Strindberg had no training in art, he painted only in periods landscapes and seascapes with dramatic waves and skies. He painted choppy sea in the storm with seething waves, clouds of rebellion and burnings that whips against the rocky shores, his painting method remained improvised. He painted in periods of crisis, when he had difficulty writing, he did not have a breakthrough as a painter until long after his death. He has come to be regarded as a pioneer of expressionism as an art form in Sweden. In the 1870s he spent time with several young artists such as Carl Larsson and others in Grez-sur-Loing himself began attempts in painting, he worked as an art critic. The Town is an oil painting made with a palette knife, with thick layers of paint laid on the canvas, it is a landscape painting, with a town in the distance, its tallest building reflected in the water's surface. The painting is dominated by the dark colors of the high sky and clouds, with a color scheme in white and gray, with the brightly lit town's trees depicted in green