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Battle of Newburn

The Battle of Newburn, sometimes known as Newburn Ford, was fought on 28 August 1640 during the Second Bishops' War between a Scottish Covenanter army led by General Alexander Leslie and Royal forces commanded by Edward, Lord Conway. Conway outnumbered, was defeated, the Scots went on to occupy the town of Newcastle, obtaining a stranglehold on London's coal supply. Charles I of England had no choice but to agree on 26 October to the Treaty of Ripon, under which the Scottish army in northern England would be paid daily expenses, pending a final treaty of peace. To raise the necessary funds Charles had to call the Long Parliament, thus setting in motion a process that would lead to the outbreak of the English Civil War two years later. In attempting to force the Scots to accept a new Prayer Book in 1637, Charles sparked a crisis that led to the compilation and subscription of the National Covenant in early 1638, a document which rejected all innovations in worship that had not been subject to the approval of both the Scottish Parliament and the General Assembly of the church.

In November of the same year a General Assembly in Glasgow not only rejected the Prayer Book, but expelled the bishops from the church, as suspect agents of the crown. Charles' refusal to accept this led to the outbreak of the First Bishops' War in 1639; this war saw much posturing but little real action. In the end the two sides, reluctant to push the issue, concluded hostilities in the Pacification of Berwick, an agreement without an agreement, at best a breathing space; the Scots agreed that the Glasgow Assembly had been'illegal'. As none of the issues that had led to the signing of the National Covenant had been settled, it was obvious to all that the Edinburgh Assembly would confirm the decisions taken at Glasgow; this was to lead directly to the outbreak of the Second Bishops' War in which Newburn was the only battle. To raise the necessary funds Charles summoned a new Parliament to Westminster, the first to meet for eleven years, hoping to use English patriotism as a counter to the rebel Scots.

But the Short Parliament was more interested in raising various grievances long suppressed and was dismissed, leaving the king worse off than before. What mattered at Newburn was control of the crossing point of the River Tyne, upstream of the only other one between Newburn and the sea at Newcastle, under the control of whoever held the city; the Scots forces occupied better ground to the north of the river than the King's forces located on the marshes of Stella and Ryton, the latter were defeated as a consequence. The battle of Newburn is the location where Henry VIII lost his hat. A useful assessment of the engagement by English Heritage opined, "As a classical example of how to conduct an opposed river crossing, Newburn should be of interest to the student of military history. There are few examples of this form of operation to be found amongst other English battles", it is easy to confuse this battle of Newburn and the occupation of Newcastle with a repeat encounter which led to the Siege of Newcastle.

That took place in 1644. At stake was always the prize of controlling the coal trade from the Tyne. In 1640 the Newcastle corporation had to pay £38,888 to the Scots; this won them no friends and when on 20 June 1642 the king appointed a governor and erected batteries to guard the Tyne, no-one of consequence complained on Tyneside although Parliament was alarmed. Newcastle became a royalist city in the English civil war. Newburn was used as a bridging point by Scottish forces in 1644. Wars of the Three Kingdoms Donaldson, G. Scotland from James V to James VII, 1965 Fissel, M. C; the Bishops' War: Charles I's Campaigns against Scotland, 1638–1640, 1994 Hewison, J. K; the Covenanters, 1913 Matthew, D, Scotland Under Charles I, 1955 Russel, C, The Fall of the British Monarchies, 1637–1642, 1991 Stevenson, D. The Scottish Revolution, 1637–44, 1973 Turner, Sir James, Memoirs of his own Life and Times, 1632–1670, 1829 Terry, C. S; the Life and Campaigns of Alexander Leslie, 1899 Wedgwood, C. V; the King's Peace, 1637–1641, 1955 Matthews, R. England versus Scotland, 2003.

Tayna Lawrence

Tayna Lawrence is a Track and field sprint athlete, competing internationally for Jamaica. She is an Olympic gold medalist in the 4 x 100 meter relay race. Lawrence graduated from Florida International University, in Miami, Florida, USA, she sustained a leg injury and had to undergo surgery in 2003, missing the World Championships in Paris. She was hampered by a series of stress fractures in 2001, which ruled her out of the World Championships. * Marion Jones, the American athlete who finished in first place, was stripped of her gold medal in October 2007 following a doping scandal. Ekaterini Thanou, the Greek athlete who finished second place, was suspended for two years following various scandals at the 2004 Summer Olympics. Flotrack Videos of Tayna Lawrence Tayna Lawrence at World Athletics Evans, Hilary. "Tayna Lawrence". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC

Specialty Coffee Association of Indonesia

The Specialty Coffee Association of Indonesia is a trade association that represents stakeholders of Indonesia coffee Industry. The organization was founded in 2007 and as of December 2017 have more than 700 active members. "Excellence in Diversity" is the motto for SCAI, due to the facts Indonesia may have the most variety of coffee in the world and representing its members that comes from diverse background but shares same idealism on how to develop Indonesia coffee industry. Indonesia is the fourth largest exporter of coffee in the world, with production of 648.000 metric tons of coffee in 2017. Of this total, around 70% exported and the rest were consumed domestically. Of the exports, 25% are Coffea arabica and the balance is Coffea canephora; the specialty coffee market is the best opportunity for growth in Indonesia's coffee industry. In the U. S. specialty coffee has increased its market share from 1% to 20% in the last 25 years. Because of the uniqueness of the taste of Indonesian Robusta, popularity of Indonesian Fine Robusta is rising among coffee aficionados.

Farmers are now set aside their red picked coffee cherries to be processed in more elaborate method. Their efforts will be rewarded by the exceptional flavor. SCAI members export 45% of Indonesia’s Arabica coffee; the value of this coffee is more than $65 million, based on an average Free On Board price for Indonesia specialty coffee of $3,200 per metric ton. More than 8,000 Indonesian farmers have joined SCAI through their cooperatives. Coffee retailers who are members of SCAI are active in barista championships, as judges and participants.. SCAI have the sanctions to send its best baristas to compete in the world championships. Members are encouraged to participate in regular trainings and initiatives. 2017 marks the beginning of "Coffee for Earth" initiatives, whereby indigenous people around forest area are trained to plant coffee without damaging the environment. This is a collaboration of SCAI with research agencies and private sectors. Arabica coffee from Indonesia has been an integral part of many coffee blends for hundreds of years.

Mocha Java, a blend of Yemeni and Indonesian coffee, was developed in the 18th century. However, unscrupulous dealers are blending Indonesian coffee with lower priced coffee from other origins, confusing the marketplace. SCAI is ending this practice by supporting the creation of geographical indications for Indonesia’s Arabica coffee origins with other institutions; as of 2017 there are 20 Geographical Indication of Indonesian Coffee, additional areas will follow soon. SCAI is working with institutions from other countries to improve the quality of Indonesia’s specialty coffee. In July, 2008, SCAI hosted the Director of the Coffee Quality Institute, who provided training on quality certification of coffee. SCAI collaborates with key institutions in the coffee industry. In May, 2008, SCAI signed a Letter of understanding with the International Relations Council of the Specialty Coffee Association of America.. In 2016 SCAI joined efforts of cooperation among ASEAN members in ACF Indonesian coffee Arabica coffee production in Indonesia

Ideal Woman Sought

Ideal Woman Sought is a 1952 Austrian musical film directed by Franz Antel and starring Inge Egger, Jeanette Schultze and Waltraut Haas. It was made at the Schönbrunn Studios in Vienna. Inge Egger as Irene Mertens Jeanette Schultze as Ruth Waltraut Haas as Luise Susi Nicoletti as Chérie Wolf Albach-Retty as Robby Holm Gunther Philipp as Stefan Blitz Oskar Sima as Bierhaus Rudolf Carl as Krappl Cornelia Froboess as Cornelia, Sängerin Fritz von Friedl as Peter Ilse Peternell as Isolde Jutta Bornemann as Frl. Wurm Hilde Jaeger as Frl. Aufrecht Peter Preses as Dir. Maier Raoul Retzer as Gigantino Hellmuth Schönemaker Otto Stuppacher Theodor Grieg Rita Paul as Singer Robert Dassanowsky. Austrian Cinema: A History. McFarland, 2005. Ideal Woman Sought on IMDb

Alexander Crum

Alexander Crum was a Scottish printer and Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1880 to 1885. Crum was the eldest son of Walter Crum FRS of Thornliebank and his wife Jesse Graham, daughter of William Graham of Burntshiel, Renfrewshire; the Crum family were associated with the printworks, founded in Thornliebank in 1778. Crum's father Walter Crum was a chemist and businessman, who replaced the spinning and weaving business by calico printing. Crum ran the printworks, the main employment in the village, he was a major benefactor supporting housing and leisure facilities in the village, he provided funds for the village club and Thornliebank Parish Church. He was a J. P. and Deputy Lieutenant of Renfrewshire. Crum was elected unopposed as the Member of Parliament for Renfrewshire at a by-election in November 1880, he held the seat until the constituency was divided at the 1885 general election, when he did not stand again. Crum died at the age of 65 and was commemorated by the library in Thormliebank, opened in 1897.

Crum married in Margaret Nina Ewing, daughter of Rt Rev Alexander Ewing, Bishop of Argyll. Their daughter Margaret married Lord Kelvin. Kelvin, said of Crum "Alexander never tired of doing good, he laboured incessantly - They had only to look round the village and the works." Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Alexander Crum

Florida's Turnpike Enterprise

Florida's Turnpike Enterprise is a business unit of the Florida Department of Transportation, employing private sector business practices to operate its 461-mile system of limited-access toll highways for the benefit of Florida's traveling public. The current Executive Director is Paul Wai; the Florida State Turnpike Authority was authorized by the Florida Legislature and signed into law by Governor Dan McCarty as the Turnpike Authority Act on July 11, 1953. The Authority was reorganized and incorporated into the newly formed Florida Department of Transportation in July 1969; the Turnpike’s functions became part of the FDOT pursuant to the reorganization of the State Government Act. At that time, individual FDOT Districts managed the Turnpike work program and maintenance in their areas. In 1988, the Florida Legislature created the Office of Florida's Turnpike. In 1990, the Legislature passed Senate Bill 1316, authorizing the expansion of Florida's Turnpike to include construction of non-contiguous road projects as an alternative to assist in meeting the state’s backlog of needed highway facilities.

The Legislature set environmental and financial feasibility standards, authorized toll increases on the existing system and allowed higher rate per mile tolls on the new projects through Chapter 339.2275 of the Florida Statutes. The Legislature approved expansion projects and new interchanges subject to verification of economic feasibility, determination that the projects are consistent, to the maximum extent feasible, with approved local government comprehensive plans were projects are located, completion of a statement of the project’s significant environmental impacts. Fifty road projects were submitted for consideration and ten new roads were identified for possible construction, subject to meeting the feasibility requirements, 15 new interchanges. On April 11, 2002, Governor Jeb Bush signed House Bill 261, creating Florida's Turnpike Enterprise, directing the Turnpike to pursue innovation and best private-sector business practices, to improve cost-effectiveness and timeliness in project delivery, to increase revenues and expand its capital program, to improve quality of service to its customers.

At that time, the Office of Toll Operations a separate division of the State of Florida, was folded into the FTE and is exempt from FDOT policies and standards, subject to the secretary having the authority to apply any such policies and standards to the FTE from time to time as deemed appropriate. The flagship route of the FTE is Florida's Turnpike along with the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike; the FTE owns Polk Parkway, Suncoast Parkway, Veterans Expressway, Sawgrass Expressway, the Seminole Expressway and Southern Connector portions of SR 417, the southern 11 miles of Daniel Webster Western Beltway and the western eight miles of Beachline Expressway, known as Beachline West. The FTE collects tolls on the portion of Interstate 75 known as Alligator Alley, the Sunshine Skyway Bridge, the Pinellas Bayway System and the Beachline East, all FDOT-owned roads and bridges, it provides toll collection services for the Garcon Point and Mid-Bay Bridges in Florida's Panhandle