Battle of Plassey

The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive, possible due to the defection of Mir Jafar Ali Khan, Siraj-ud-Daulah's commander in chief. The battle helped the Company seize control of Bengal. Over the next hundred years, they seized control of Myanmar; the battle took place at Palashi on the banks of the Hooghly River, about 150 kilometres north of Calcutta and south of Murshidabad capital of Bengal. The belligerents were the Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, the British East India Company. Siraj-ud-Daulah had become the Nawab of Bengal the year before, he ordered the English to stop the extension of their fortification. Robert Clive bribed Mir Jafar, the commander-in-chief of the Nawab's army, promised him to make him Nawab of Bengal. Clive captured Calcutta; the battle was preceded by an attack on British-controlled Calcutta by Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah and the Black Hole massacre.

The British sent reinforcements under Colonel Robert Clive and Admiral Charles Watson from Madras to Bengal and recaptured Calcutta. Clive seized the initiative to capture the French fort of Chandernagar. Tensions and suspicions between Siraj-ud-daulah and the British culminated in the Battle of Plassey; the battle was waged during the Seven Years' War, and, in a mirror of their European rivalry, the French East India Company sent a small contingent to fight against the British. Siraj-ud-Daulah made his stand at Plassey; the British, worried about being outnumbered, formed a conspiracy with Siraj-ud-Daulah's demoted army chief Mir Jafar, along with others such as Yar Lutuf Khan, Jagat Seths and Rai Durlabh. Mir Jafar, Rai Durlabh and Yar Lutuf Khan thus assembled their troops near the battlefield but made no move to join the battle. Siraj-ud-Daulah's army with 50,000 soldiers, 40 cannons and 10 war elephants was defeated by 3,000 soldiers of Col. Robert Clive, owing to the flight of Siraj-ud-Daulah from the battlefield and the inactivity of the conspirators.

The battle ended in 11 hours. This is judged to be one of the pivotal battles in the control of Indian subcontinent by the colonial powers; the British now wielded enormous influence over the Nawab and acquired significant concessions for previous losses and revenue from trade. The British further used this revenue to increase their military might and push the other European colonial powers such as the Dutch and the French out of South Asia, thus expanding the British Empire; the British East India Company had a strong presence in India with the three main stations of Fort St. George in Madras, Fort William in Calcutta and Bombay Castle in western India; these stations were independent presidencies governed by a president and a council, appointed by the Court of Directors in England. The British adopted a policy of allying themselves with various princes and Nawabs, promising security against usurpers and rebels; the Nawabs gave them concessions in return for the security. By the 18th century all rivalry had ceased between the British East India Company and the Dutch or Portuguese counterparts.

The French had established an East India Company under Louis XIV and had two important stations in India – Chandernagar in Bengal and Pondicherry on the Carnatic coast, both governed by the presidency of Pondicherry. The French were a late comer in India trade, but they established themselves in India and were poised to overtake Britain for control; the War of the Austrian Succession marked the beginning of the power struggle between Britain and France and of European military ascendancy and political intervention in the Indian subcontinent. In September 1746, Mahé de La Bourdonnais landed off Madras with a naval squadron and laid siege to the port city; the defences of Madras were weak and the garrison sustained a bombardment of three days before surrendering. The terms of the surrender agreed by Bourdonnais provided for the settlement to be ransomed back for a cash payment by the British East India Company. However, this concession was opposed by Joseph François Dupleix, the governor general of the Indian possessions of the Compagnie des Indes Orientales.

When Bourdonnais left India in October, Dupleix reneged on the agreement. The Nawab of the Carnatic Anwaruddin Khan intervened in support of the British and the combined forces advanced to retake Madras, but despite vast superiority in numbers, the army was crushed by the French; as retaliation to the loss of Madras, the British, under Major Lawrence and Admiral Boscawen, laid siege to Pondicherry but were forced to raise it after thirty-one days. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 forced Dupleix to yield Madras back to the British in return for Louisbourg and Cape Breton Island in North America; the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle prevented direct hostilities between the two powers but soon they were involved in indirect hostilities as the auxiliaries of the local princes in their feuds. The feud Dupleix chose was for the succession to the positions of the Nizam of the Deccan and the Nawab of the dependent Carnatic province; the British and the French both nominated their candidates for the two posts.

In both cases, Dupleix's candidates usurped both thrones by two assassinations. In mid-1751, the French candidate for the Nawab's post, Chanda Sahib, laid siege to the British candidate Wallajah's last stronghold Trichinopoly, where Wallajah was holed up

Comcast Ventures

Comcast Ventures is a corporate venture capital firm headquartered in San Francisco and has offices in New York and Pennsylvania. Since 2011, Amy Banse has been Head of Funds; the firm’s partners include Gil Beyda, Andrew Cleland, Sam Landman, Dinesh Moorjani, Rick Prostko, David Zilberman, Daniel Gulati, Kim Armor. In early 2011, Comcast and NBCUniversal combined their two venture arms, Comcast Interactive Capital founded in 1999 and the Peacock Fund, to form Comcast Ventures. In 2012, Comcast Ventures set up the Catalyst Fund with $20 million under management to invest in underrepresented entrepreneurs. Comcast has been ranked the 4th Corporate Startup Investor in the World. In the past six years, the corporation has invested in 105 early-stage companies; these companies include Acorns, Away, b8ta, BitSight, CloudPassage, CreativeLive, Dandelion Energy, FanDuel, Madison Reed, Slack Technologies, Vox Media, WhoSay, YouNow, ZeroFox and Zoomdata. Comcast Ventures website

Sakura Press

Sakura Press was a Russian licensor and publisher of manga with headquarters in Moscow. The company was established in 2003, it was headed by general director Sergei Kharlamov. According to their official website, it was the first Russian company; the first two volumes of Ranma ½ were released on April 2005. Sakura Press reversed the pages in all releases, it stopped publishing manga and updating their site in 2011 and became defunct in 2016. Battle Royale Chrono Crusade Ranma ½ Fushigi Yūgi Ai Yori Aoshi Gunslinger Girl anime*magazine was a bi-monthly anime and manga news and reviews magazine, published between May 2003 and July 2004, it started as a collaboration project between Sakura Press and the authors of online magazine Animemaniacs Magazine Online. Firstly it was all black and white became coloured and accompanied with CD. Anime*magazine featured review sections of anime and video games, news and articles about Japanese culture and history, it was closed in 2004 when the main sponsors, including MC Entertainment, switched to the rival magazine AnimeGid.

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