Bengal Subah

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Subah of Bengal
‍بلالفشيش (Persian)
বাংলার সুবাহ (Bengali)
Subdivision of the Mughal Empire

 

 

 

1576–1757
 

 

 

 

Capital
Government Viceregal
Historical era Early modern period
 •  Battle of Raj Mahal 1576
 •  Nawabs of Bengal 1717
 •  Battle of Plassey 1757
Today part of

The Bengal Subah was a subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing modern Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Orissa between the 16th and 18th centuries. The state was established following the dissolution of the Bengal Sultanate, when the region was absorbed into one of the largest empires in the world. The Mughals played an important role in developing modern Bengali culture and society.

Bengal Subah was the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province.[1] Bengal Subah generated 50% of the empire's GDP and 12% of the world's GDP,[2] globally dominant in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding,[3][4][5] with the capital Dhaka having a population exceeding a million people.[2] It was an exporter of silk and cotton textiles, steel, saltpeter, and agricultural and industrial produce.[2] By the 18th century, Mughal Bengal emerged as a quasi-independent state, under the Nawabs of Bengal, before being conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, which directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain[3][4][5][6] (such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution), but led to deindustrialization and famine in Bengal.[3][4][5][2]

History[edit]

Mughal Empire[edit]

Akbar developed the modern Bengali calendar

After the defeat of expansionist Bengal Sultan Daud Khan Karrani at Rajmahal in 1576, Mughal padshah (emperor) Akbar the Great announced the creation of Bengal as one of the original twelve Subahs (top-level provinces), bordering Bihar and Orissa subahs, as well as Burma.

Bengal’s physical features gave it such a fertile soil, and a favourable climate that it became a terminus of a continent-wide process of Turko-Mongol conquest and migration, informs Prof. Richard Eaton.[7] The Mughal conquest of Bengal began with the decisive victory of Akbar’s army over the independent Afghan ruler of the province Daud Karrani, at Tukaroi (near Danton, Midnapore district) on March 3, 1575. It took many years to overcome the resistance of ambitious and local chiefs. By a royal decree of November 24, 1586 Akbar introduced uniform subah administration throughout the empire. However, in Tapan Raychaudhuri’s view the consolidation of Mughal power in Bengal and the pacification of the province really began in 1594.[8]

Most prominent local chiefs or landlords being the 'Bara Bhuiyas' or Baro-Bhuyans (twelve bhuiyas). Many of the chiefs subjugated by the Mughals, some of the Bara Bhuiyas in particular, were Hindu or Pathan upstarts who grabbed territories during the transition from Afghan to Mughal rule, but a few such as the Rajas of Bishnupur, Susang, and Chandradwip; were older Hindu princes who had ruled independently from time immemorial.[9] By the 17th century, the Mughals subdued opposition from the Baro-Bhuyans landlords, notably Isa Khan. Bengal was integrated into a powerful and prosperous empire; and shaped by imperial policies of pluralistic government. The Mughals built a new imperial metropolis in Dhaka from 1610, with well-developed fortifications, gardens, tombs, palaces and mosques. It served as the Mughal capital of Bengal for 75 years.[10] The city was renamed in honour of Emperor Jahangir. Dhaka emerged as the commercial capital of the Mughal Empire, given that it was the centre for the empire's largest exports: cotton muslin textiles.[11]

The Mughal conquest of Chittagong in 1666 defeated the (Burmese) Kingdom of Arakan and reestablished Bengali control of the port city, which was renamed as Islamabad.[12] The Chittagong Hill Tracts frontier region was made a tributary state of Mughal Bengal and a treaty was signed with the Chakma Circle in 1713.[13]

Between 1576 and 1717, Bengal was ruled by a Mughal Subedar (imperial governor). Members of the imperial family were often appointed to the position. Viceroy Prince Shah Shuja was the son of Emperor Shah Jahan. During the struggle for succession with his brothers Prince Aurangazeb, Prince Dara Shikoh and Prince Murad Baksh, Prince Shuja proclaimed himself as the Mughal Emperor in Bengal. He was eventually defeated by the armies of Aurangazeb. Shuja fled to the Kingdom of Arakan, where he and his family were killed on the orders of the King at Mrauk U. Shaista Khan was an influential viceroy during the reign of Aurangazeb. He consolidated Mughal control of eastern Bengal. Prince Muhammad Azam Shah, who served as one of Bengal's viceroys, was installed on the Mughal throne for four months in 1707. Viceroy Ibrahim Khan II gave permits to English and French traders for commercial activities in Bengal. The last viceroy Prince Azim-us-Shan gave permits for the establishment of the British East India Company's Fort William in Calcutta, the French East India Company's Fort Orleans in Chandernagore and the Dutch East India Company's fort in Chinsura. During Azim-us-Shan's tenure, his prime minister Murshid Quli Khan emerged as a powerful figure in Bengal. Khan gained control of imperial finances. Azim-us-Shan was transferred to Bihar. In 1717, the Mughal Court upgraded the prime minister's position to the hereditary Nawab of Bengal. Khan founded a new capital in Murshidabad. His descendants formed the Nasiri dynasty. Alivardi Khan founded a new dynasty in 1740. The Nawabs ruled over a territory which included Bengal proper, Bihar and Orissa.

Nawabs of Bengal[edit]

The authority of the Mughal Court rapidly disintegrated in the 18th century, following the rise of the Maratha Empire in India and foreign invasions by Nader Shah of Persia and Ahmad Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. In Bengal, the system saw most wealth hoarded by the elites, with low wages for manual labour.

The Nawabs of Bengal entered into treaties with numerous European colonial powers, including joint-stock companies representing Britain, Austria, Denmark, France and the Netherlands.

Maratha invasions[edit]

The resurgent Hindu Maratha Empire launched brutal raids against the prosperous Bengali state in the 18th century, which further added to the decline of the Nawabs of Bengal. A decade of ruthless Maratha invasions of Bengal from the 1740s to early 1750s forced the Nawab of Bengal to pay Rs. 1.2 million of tribute annually as the Chauth of Bengal and Bihar to the Marathas, and the Marathas agreed not to invade Bengal again.[14][15] The expeditions, led by Raghuji Bhonsle of Nagpur, also established the De facto Maratha control over Orissa, which was formally incorporated in the Maratha Dominion in 1752.[16][17][18] The Nawab of Bengal also paid Rs. 3.2 million to the Marathas, towards the arrears of chauth for the preceding years.[19] The chauth was paid annually by the Nawab of Bengal to the Marathas upto 1758, till the British occupation of Bengal.[20]

During their occupation of Bihar[21] and western Bengal up to the Hooghly River,[22] the Maratha invaders, called "Bargi" in Bengali, perpetrated atrocities against the local population.[22] The Marathas are estimated to have killed about 400,000 people.[23][21] This devastated Bengal's economy, as many of the people killed in the Maratha raids included merchants, textile weavers,[21] silk winders, and mulberry cultivators.[23] The Cossimbazar factory reported in 1742, for example, that the Marathas burnt down many of the houses where silk piece goods were made, along with weavers' looms.[21]

British colonization[edit]

British soldiers firing at Bengali forces underneath a mango orchard in Plassey (Palashi), 1757

By the late-18th century, the British East India Company emerged as the foremost military power in the region, defeating the French-allied Siraj-ud-Daulah at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, that was largely brought about by the betrayal of the Nawab's once trusted general Mir Jafar. The company gained administrative control over the Nawab's dominions, including Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. It gained the right to collect taxes on behalf of the Mughal Court after the Battle of Buxar in 1765. Bengal, Bihar and Orissa were made part of the Bengal Presidency and annexed into the British colonial empire in 1793. The Indian mutiny of 1857 formally ended the authority of the Mughal court, when the British Raj replaced Company rule in India.

Other European powers also carved out small colonies on the territory of Mughal Bengal, including the Dutch East India Company's Dutch Bengal settlements, the French colonial settlement in Chandernagore, the Danish colonial settlement in Serampore and the Habsburg Monarchy Ostend Company settlement in Bankipur.

Military campaigns[edit]

Daud Khan receives a robe from Munim Khan, Viceroy of Bengal

The following table covers a list of notable military engagements by Mughal Bengal:-

Conflict Year(s) Leader(s) Enemy Rival Leader(s) Result
Battle of Tukaroi 1575 Akbar Bengal Sultanate Daud Khan Karrani Mughal victory
Battle of Raj Mahal 1576 Khan Jahan I Bengal Sultanate Daud Khan Karrani Mughal victory
Conquest of Bhati 1576–1611 Baro-Bhuyan Mughal victory
Ahom-Mughal conflicts 1615–1682 Ahom kingdom Ahom kings Assamese victory
Mughal-Arakan War 1665–66 Shaista Khan Kingdom of Mrauk U Thiri Thudhamma Mughal victory
Maratha invasions of Bengal 1741–1751 Alivardi Khan Maratha Empire Raghuji Bhonsle
Janoji Bhonsle
Maratha victory
Battle of Plassey 1757 Siraj-ud-Daulah British Empire Robert Clive British victory

Architecture[edit]

Mughal architecture proliferated Bengal in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, with the earliest example being the Kherua Mosque in Bogra (1582).[24] They replaced the earlier sultanate-style of architecture. It was in Dhaka that the imperial style was most lavishly indulged in. Located on the banks of the Buriganga River, the old Mughal city was described as the Venice of the East.[25] Its Lalbagh Fort was an elaborately designed complex of gardens, fountains, a mosque, a tomb, an audience hall (Diwan-i Khas) and a walled enclosure with gates. The Great Caravanserai and Shaista Khan Caravanserai in Dhaka were centres of commercial activities. Other monuments in the city include the Dhanmondi Shahi Eidgah (1640), the Sat Gambuj Mosque (c. 1664–76), the Shahbaz Khan Mosque (1679) and the Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque (1704).[24] The city of Murshidabad also became a haven of Mughal architecture under the Nawabs of Bengal, with the Caravanserai Mosque (1723) being its most prominent monument.

In rural hinterlands, the indigenous Bengali Islamic style continued to flourish, blended with Mughal elements. One of the finest examples of this style is the Atiya Mosque in Tangail (1609).[24] Several masterpieces of terracotta Hindu temple architecture were also created during this period. Notable examples include the Kantajew Temple (1704) and the temples of Bishnupur (1600–1729).

Art[edit]

An authentic Bengali-Mughal art was reflected in the muslin fabric of Jamdani (meaning "flower" in Persian). The making of Jamdani was pioneered by Persian weavers. The art passed to the hands of Bengali Muslim weavers known as juhulas. The artisan industry was historically based around the city of Dhaka. The city had over 80,000 weavers. Jamdanis traditionally employ geometric designs in floral shapes. Its motifs are often similar to those in Iranian textile art (buta motif) and Western textile art (paisley). Dhaka's jamdanis enjoyed a loyal following and received imperial patronage from the Mughal court in Delhi and the Nawabs of Bengal.[26][27]

A provincial Bengali style of Mughal painting flourished in Murshidabad during the 18th century. Scroll painting and ivory sculptures were also prevalent.

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Bengal's population is estimated to be 30 million in 1769, after the British East India Company's conquest of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and prior to the resulting Great Bengal famine of 1770.[28] In comparison, the entire Indian population is estimated to be 190 million in 1750[29] (with Bengal accounting for 16% of its population), the Asian population is estimated at 502 million in 1750[30] (with Bengal accounting for 6% of its population), and the world population is estimated at 791 million in 1750[30] (with Bengal accounting for 3.8% of its population).

Prior to British rule, Bengal's capital city of Dhaka had a population exceeding a million people.[2]

Religion[edit]

Bengal was an affluent province with a Bengali Muslim majority, along with a large Bengali Hindu minority.[3]

Immigration[edit]

There was a significant influx of migrants from the Safavid Empire into Bengal during the Mughal period. Persian administrators and military commanders were enlisted by the Mughal government in Bengal.[31] An Armenian community settled in Dhaka and was involved in the city's textile trade, paying a 3.5% tax.[32]

Economy and trade[edit]

A Dutch trading post in Mughal Bengal, 1665

The Bengal Subah had the largest regional economy in the Mughal Empire. It was described as the paradise of nations. 50% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the empire was generated in Bengal. The region exported grains, fine cotton muslin and silk, liquors and wines, salt, ornaments, fruits, metals and pearls. European companies set up numerous trading posts in Mughal Bengal during the 17th and 18th centuries. Dhaka was the largest city in Mughal Bengal and the commercial capital of the empire. Chittagong was the largest seaport, with maritime trade routes connecting the port city to Arakan, Ayuthya, Balasore, Aceh, Melaka, Johore, Bantam, Makassar, Ceylon, Bandar Abbas, Mecca, Jeddah, Basra, Aden, Masqat, Mocha and the Maldives.[33][2][34]

Real wages and living standards in 18th-century Bengal were higher than in Britain, which in turn had the highest living standards in Europe.[35]

Local Sufi leaders combined Islamic and Bengali cultural practices which developed Bengali Muslim society.[36]

Agrarian reform[edit]

The Mughals launched a vast economic development project in the Bengal delta which transformed its demographic makeup.[36] The government cleared vast swathes of forest in the fertile Bhati region to expand farmland. It encouraged settlers, including farmers and jagirdars, to populate the delta. It assigned Sufis as the chieftains of villages. Emperor Akbar re-adapted the modern Bengali calendar to improve harvests and tax collection. The region became the largest grain producer in the subcontinent.

Being so fertile and climatically favourable for agriculture, Bengal became one of the most important khalisa or crown lands and the most desired jagirs, as it was one of the highest revenue yielding subahs. For instance, in the year 1595-6 it is said to have yielded 25,69,94,043 dams in revenue.[37]

We find meagre accounts of the Bengal revenue administration in Abul Fazl’s Ain-i-Akbari and some in Mirza Nathan’s Baharistan-i-Ghaybi.[38] According to the Ain,

“The demands of each year are paid by installments in eight months, they (the ryots) themselves bringing mohurs and rupees to the appointed place for the receipt of revenue, as the division of grain between the government and the husbandman is not here customary. The harvests are always abundant, measurement is not insisted upon, and the revenue demands are determined by estimate of the crop.”[38]

From the above extract we learn that the payment of the annual revenue demand was carried out in eight monthly instalments. However, Raychaudhuri points out that according to the Baharistan, there were two collections a year following the two harvests in autumn and spring. Secondly, it tells us that the payments were made in cash, and directly to the government. The last fact obviously refers to only khalisa lands. Finally, the most important fact that we come across is that the method of crop-estimation and not land measurement was current in Bengal.[38] However, the other point that poses itself as pointed out by Sir Irfan Habib is that, since, in Bengal the authorities levied revenue not upon the peasants but upon the zamindars, it does not become immediately clear where in this passage Abul Fazl is speaking of the payment of revenue by the peasants to the zamindars and where of the payment by the zamindars to the state. The initial statements, as they contain an explicit reference to the peasants would seem to be referring to them only. It seems that the resort to measurement took place in Bengal largely when the old jama fixed on the zamindars was thought to be completely obsolete. A mid- eighteenth century manual Risala-i-Zira’at describes this as a recognised practice in Bengal. This may really be the meaning of Abul Fazl’s rather vague statement that measurement was not objected to. It is possible that since such measurements were so rarely employed, and then with the use of local standards, no regular area statistics could be compiled on its basis. Abul Fazl’s statement that the revenue demand was based on nasaq must then refer to the demand on the zamindars being retained at the same set of figures for long periods of years.[39]

Bengali peasants were quick to adapt to profitable new crops between 1600 and 1650. Bengali peasants rapidly learned techniques of mulberry cultivation and sericulture, establishing Bengal Subah as a major silk-producing region of the world.[40]

The increased agricultural productivity led to lower food prices. In turn, this benefited the Indian textile industry. Compared to Britain, the price of grain was about one-half in South India and one-third in Bengal, in terms of silver coinage. This resulted in lower silver coin prices for Indian textiles, giving them a price advantage in global markets.[35]

Industrial economy[edit]

The Mughal Empire had 25% of the world's GDP. Under the Mughals, Bengal Subah generated 50% of the empire's GDP, and thus had 12% of the world's GDP.[2] Bengal was an affluent province that was globally dominant in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding.[3][4][5] Bengal's capital city of Dhaka was the empire's financial capital, with a population exceeding a million people, and with an estimated 80,000 skilled textile weavers. It was an exporter of silk and cotton textiles, steel, saltpeter, and agricultural and industrial produce.[2] Bengal's industrial economy in the Mughal era has been described as a form of proto-industrialization.[41]

The plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain,[3][4][5][6] with the capital amassed from Bengal used to invest in British industries such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and greatly increase British wealth, while at the same time leading to deindustrialization and famines in Bengal.[3][4][5][2]

Textile industry
A woman in Dhaka clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century

Under Mughal rule, Bengal was a center of the worldwide muslin, silk and pearl trades.[42] During the Mughal era, the most important center of cotton production was Bengal, particularly around its capital city of Dhaka, leading to muslin being called "daka" in distant markets such as Central Asia.[43] Domestically, much of India depended on Bengali products such as rice, silks and cotton textiles. Overseas, Europeans depended on Bengali products such as cotton textiles, silks and opium; Bengal accounted for 40% of Dutch imports from Asia, for example, including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks.[44] From Bengal, saltpeter was also shipped to Europe, opium was sold in Indonesia, raw silk was exported to Japan and the Netherlands, and cotton and silk textiles were exported to Europe, Indonesia and Japan.[45]

Shipbuilding industry

Bengal had a large shipbuilding industry. In terms of shipbuilding tonnage during the 16th–18th centuries, the annual output of Bengal alone totaled around 2,232,500 tons, larger than the combined output of the Dutch (450,000–550,000 tons), the British (340,000 tons), and North America (23,061 tons).[46]

Bengali shipbuilding was advanced compared to European shipbuilding at the time. Ship-repairing, for example, was very advanced in Bengal, where European shippers visited to repair vessels.[46] An important innovation in shipbuilding was the introduction of a flushed deck design in Bengal rice ships, resulting in hulls that were stronger and less prone to leak than the structurally weak hulls of traditional European ships built with a stepped deck design. The British East India Company later duplicated the flushed deck and hull designs of Bengal rice ships in the 1760s, leading to significant improvements in seaworthiness and navigation for European ships during the Industrial Revolution.[47]

Administrative divisions[edit]

In the revenue settlement by Todar Mal in 1582, Bengal Subah was divided into 24 sarkars (districts), which included 19 sarkars of Bengal proper and 5 sarkars of Orissa. In 1607, during the reign of Jahangir Orissa became a separate Subah. These 19 sarkars were further divided into 682 parganas.[48] In 1658, subsequent to the revenue settlement by Shah Shuja, 15 new sarkars and 361 new parganas were added. In 1722, Murshid Quli Khan divided the whole Subah into 13 chakalahs, which were further divided into 1660 parganas.

Initially the capital of the Subah was Tanda. On 9 November 1595, the foundations of a new capital were laid at Rajmahal by Man Singh I who renamed it Akbarnagar.[49] In 1610 the capital was shifted from Rajmahal to Dhaka[50] and it was renamed Jahangirnagar. In 1639, Shah Shuja again shifted the capital to Rajmahal. In 1660, Muazzam Khan (Mir Jumla) again shifted the capital to Dhaka. In 1703, Murshid Quli Khan, then diwan (prime minister in charge of finance) of Bengal shifted his office from Dhaka to Maqsudabad and later renamed it Murshidabad.

A 16th century map of Bengal

The sarkars (districts) and the parganas (tehsils) of Bengal Subah were:[48]

Sarkar Pargana
Udamabar (Tanda) 52 parganas
Jannatabad (Lakhnauti) 66 parganas
Fathabad 31 parganas
Mahmudabad 88 parganas
Khalifatabad 35 parganas
Bakla 4 parganas
Purniyah 9 parganas
Tajpur 29 parganas
Ghoraghat 84 parganas
Pinjarah 21 parganas
Barbakabad 38 parganas
Bazuha 32 parganas
Sonargaon 52 parganas
Sylhet 8 parganas
Chittagong 7 parganas
Sharifabad 26 parganas
Sulaimanabad 31 parganas
Satgaon 53 parganas
Mandaran 16 parganas

Government[edit]

The state government was headed by a Viceroy (Subedar Nizam) appointed by the Mughal Emperor between 1576 and 1717. The Viceroy exercised tremendous authority, with his own cabinet and four prime ministers (Diwan). The three deputy viceroys for Bengal proper, Bihar and Orissa were known as the Naib Nazims. An extensive landed aristocracy was established by the Mughals in Bengal. The aristocracy was responsible for taxation and revenue collection. Land holders were bestowed with the title of Jagirdar. The Qadi title was reserved for the chief judge. Mansabdars were leaders of the Mughal Army, while faujdars were generals. The Mughals were credited for secular pluralism during the reign of Akbar, who promoted the religious doctrine of Din-i Ilahi. Later rulers promoted more conservative Islam.

In 1717, the Mughal government replaced Viceroy Azim-us-Shan due to conflicts with his influential deputy viceroy and prime minister Murshid Quli Khan.[51] Growing regional autonomy caused the Mughal Court to establish a hereditary principality in Bengal, with Khan being recognised in the official title of Nazim. He founded the Nasiri dynasty. In 1740, following the Battle of Giria, Alivardi Khan staged a coup and founded the short-lived Afsar dynasty. For all practical purposes, the Nazims acted as independent princes. European colonial powers referred to them as Nawabs or Nababs.[52]

List of Viceroys[edit]

Man Singh I, the Rajput Viceroy of Mughal Bengal (1594–1606)
Shaista Khan, Viceroy (1664–1688)
Viceroy Muhammad Azam Shah (1678–1679), later the Mughal Emperor
Viceroy Azim-us-Shan (1697–1712), later the Mughal Emperor
Personal Name[53] Reign
Munim Khan Khan-i-Khanan
منعم خان، خان خاناں
25 September 1574 – 23 October 1575
Hussain Quli Beg Khan Jahan I
حسین قلی بیگ، خان جہاں اول
15 November 1575 – 19 December 1578
Muzaffar Khan Turbati
مظفر خان تربتی
1579–1580
Mirza Aziz Koka Khan-e-Azam
میرزا عزیز کوکہ،خان اعظم
1582–1583
Shahbaz Khan Kamboh
شھباز خان کمبوہ
1583–1585
Sadiq Khan
صادق خان
1585–1586
Wazir Khan Tajik
وزیر خان
1586–1587
Sa'id Khan
سعید خان
1587–1594
Raja Man Singh I
راجہ مان سنگھ
4 June 1594 – 1606
Qutb-ud-din Khan Koka
قطب الدین خان کوکہ
2 September 1606 – May 1607
Jahangir Quli Beg
جہانگیر قلی بیگ
1607–1608
Sheikh Ala-ud-din Chisti Islam Khan Chisti
اسلام خان چشتی
June 1608 – 1613
Qasim Khan Chishti
قاسم خان چشتی
1613–1617
Ibrahim Khan Fateh Jang
ابراہیم خان فتح جنگ
1617–1622
Mahabat Khan
محابت خان
1622–1625
Mirza Amanullah Khan Zaman II
میرزا أمان اللہ ، خان زماں ثانی
1625
Mukarram Khan
مکرم خان
1625–1627
Fidai Khan
فدای خان
1627–1628
Qasim Khan Juvayni Qasim Manija
قاسم خان جوینی، قاسم مانیجہ
1628–1632
Mir Muhammad Baqir Azam Khan
میر محمد باقر، اعظم خان
1632–1635
Mir Abdus Salam Islam Khan Mashhadi
اسلام خان مشھدی
1635–1639
Sultan Shah Shuja
شاہ شجاع
1639 -1660
Mir Jumla II
میر جملہ
May 1660 – 30 March 1663
Mirza Abu Talib Shaista Khan I
میرزا ابو طالب، شایستہ خان
March 1664 – 1676
Azam Khan Koka, Fidai Khan II
اعظم خان کوکہ، فدای خان ثانی
1676–1677
Sultan Muhammad Azam Shah Alijah
محمد اعظم شاہ عالی جاہ
1678- 1679
Mirza Abu Talib Shaista Khan I
میرزا ابو طالب، شایستہ خان
1679–1688
Ibrahim Khan ibn Ali Mardan Khan
ابراہیم خان ابن علی مردان خان
1688–1697
Sultan Azim-us-Shan
عظیم الشان
1697–1712
Others appointed but did not show up from 1712 to 1717 and managed by Deputy Subahdar Murshid Quli Khan.
Murshid Quli Khan
مرشد قلی خان
1717–1727

List of Nawab Nazims[edit]

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Nasiri Dynasty
Murshid Quli Jafar Khan.jpg Jaafar Khan Bahadur Nasiri Murshid Quli Khan 1665 1717– 1727 30 June 1727
Sarfaraz Khan.jpg Ala-ud-Din Haidar Jang Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 1727-1727 29 April 1740
Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan.jpg Shuja ud-Daula Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan Around 1670 (date not available) July 1727 – 26 August 1739 26 August 1739
Sarfaraz Khan.jpg Ala-ud-Din Haidar Jang Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 13 March 1739 – April 1740 29 April 1740
Afsar Dynasty
Alivardi Khan.jpg Hashim ud-Daula Muhammad Alivardi Khan Bahadur Before 10 May 1671 29 April 1740 – 9 April 1756 9 April 1756
Siraj ud-Daulah.jpg Siraj ud-Daulah Muhammad Siraj-ud-Daulah 1733 April 1756 – 2 June 1757 2 July 1757

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ M. Shahid Alam (2016). Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 32. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Khandker, Hissam (31 July 2015). "Which India is claiming to have been colonised?". The Daily Star (Op-ed). Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Junie T. Tong (2016), Finance and Society in 21st Century China: Chinese Culture Versus Western Markets, page 151, CRC Press
  4. ^ a b c d e f John L. Esposito (2004), The Islamic World: Past and Present 3-Volume Set, page 190, Oxford University Press
  5. ^ a b c d e f Ray, Indrajit (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757-1857), Routledge, ISBN 1136825525
  6. ^ a b Shombit Sengupta, Bengals plunder gifted the British Industrial Revolution, The Financial Express, February 8, 2010
  7. ^ Eaton, Richard M. (1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier:1204-1760. Oxford University Press. pp. p. xxiii. ISBN 0-520-20507-3. 
  8. ^ Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1953). Bengal under Akbar and Jahangir: An Introductory Study in Social History. Calcutta: A. Mukherjee. p. 2. 
  9. ^ Ibid. pp. 17–18. 
  10. ^ "Dhaka". Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
  11. ^ Schmidt, Karl J. (2015). An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History. Routledge. Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
  12. ^ Wheeler, Sir Robert Eric Mortimer (1953). The Cambridge History of India: The Indus civilization. Supplementary volume. Cambridge University Publishers. pp. 237–. 
  13. ^ Saradindu Shekhar Chakma. Ethnic Cleansing in Chittagong Hill Tracts. p. 23.
  14. ^ "Forgotten Indian history: The brutal Maratha invasions of Bengal". 
  15. ^ OUM. pp. 16, 17
  16. ^ "Forgotten Indian history: The brutal Maratha invasions of Bengal". 
  17. ^ OUM. pp. 16, 17
  18. ^ Nitish K. Sengupta. "Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib". 
  19. ^ Jaswant Lal Mehta. "Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813". 
  20. ^ Jadunath Sarkar. "Fall Of The Mughal Empire". 
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