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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, was an early-modern empire in South Asia. For some two centuries, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, Kashmir in the north, to the highlands of present-day Assam and Bangladesh in the east, the uplands of the Deccan plateau in South India; the Mughal empire is conventionally said to have been founded in 1526 by Babur, a warrior chieftain from what today is Uzbekistan, who employed aid from the neighboring Safavid- and Ottoman empires, to defeat the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi, in the First Battle of Panipat, to sweep down the plains of Upper India. The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur's grandson, This imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after the death of the last major emperor, during whose reign the empire achieved its maximum geographical extent. Reduced subsequently during the East India Company rule in India, to the region in and around Old Delhi, the empire was formally dissolved by the British Raj after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Although the Mughal empire was created and sustained by military warfare, it did not vigorously suppress the cultures and peoples it came to rule, but rather equalized and placated them through new administrative practices, diverse ruling elites, leading to more efficient and standardized rule. The base of the empire's collective wealth was agricultural taxes, instituted by the third Mughal emperor, Akbar; these taxes, which amounted to well over half the output of a peasant cultivator, were paid in the well-regulated silver currency, caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets. The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion. Burgeoning European presence in the Indian ocean, its increasing demand for Indian raw- and finished products, created still greater wealth in the Mughal courts. There was more conspicuous consumption among the Mughal elite, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms and architecture during the reign of Shah Jahan.

Among the Mughal UNESCO World Heritage Sites in South Asia are: Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri, Red Fort, Humayun's Tomb, Lahore Fort and the Taj Mahal, described as, "The jewel of Muslim art in India, one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage." Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves. The Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani; the use of "Mughal" derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of "Mongol", it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty. The term remains disputed by Indologists. Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Babur's ancestors were distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. Another name for the empire was Hindustan, documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and, described as the closest to an official name for the empire.

In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, by extension, the empire as a whole. The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler, descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side, from Genghis Khan on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions, he established himself in Kabul and pushed southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass. Babur's forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526; the preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India. The instability of the empire became evident under his son, forced into exile in Persia by rebels; the Sur Empire, founded by Sher Shah Suri interrupted Mughal rule. Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire.

Humayun's triumphant return from Persia in 1555 restored Mughal rule, but he died in an accident the next year. Akbar was born Jalal-ud-din Muhammad in the Rajput Umarkot Fort, to Humayun and his wife Hamida Banu Begum, a Persian princess. Akbar succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire in India. Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari River, he created a new ruling elite loyal to him, implemented a modern administration, encouraged cultural developments. He increased trade with European trading companies. India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and economic development. Akbar allowed freedom of religion at his court, attempted to resolve socio-political and cultural differences in his empire by establishing a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, with strong characteristics of a ruler cult, he left his son an internally stable state, in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge.

Jahangir was born to Akbar and his wife Mariam-uz-Zamani, an Indian Rajput princess. He "was addi

Rudolph Rothe

Rudolph Rothe was a Danish landscape architect, awarded the high-ranking title of etatsråd for his achievements. Talented in both the practical and theoretical aspects of landscape gardening, he exterted considerable influence on the development of the art in Denmark. After apprecticeships in Frederiksberg Park and Rosenborg Gardens, he took the gardening examination in 1821, he became assistant gardener in Copenhagen's Botanical Garden before qualifying in botany and botanical gardening in 1823. From 1828 to 1833, he performed the duties both of private secretary and palace gardener for A. W. Moltke at Bregentved, he was employed as landscape architect at Fredensborg Palace. He contributed to the development of Søndermarken. In addition to many publications, he was instrumental in founding the association Selskabet til Haveculturens Fremme in 1834 and was active in the company which launched the magazine Have-Tidende, Denmark's first gardening periodical. Rudolph Rothe is listed in the Danish Culture Canon in connection with Jægersborg Dyrehave

Conrad Gargett

Conrad Gargett is an Australian architectural practice, founded in Brisbane in 1890 and is one of Queensland's oldest architectural firms. The practice operates out of studios in Brisbane, Melbourne, Newcastle and Addis Ababa. Conrad Gargett Architecture was established as HW Atkinson in 1890 by Henry Wallace Atkinson with the winning design for the new Brisbane Head Fire Station. Charles McLay joined Atkinson to form the partnership HW Atkinson & Chas McLay in 1907; the practice subsequently assumed the position of Diocesan Architect to the Anglican Church, designing a number of schools and churches in South East Queensland. Following the death of McLay in 1918 the practice was renamed Atkinson & Conrad when Arnold Conrad became a partner; the new firm was noted for its use of the distinctive Spanish Mission style in many of its projects. The practice was appointed to the position of Hospital Architect by various hospital boards and played a large role in the design of hospitals in Queensland between 1920–80, including extensive projects at the Royal Brisbane Hospital, South Brisbane Auxiliary Hospital, Prince Charles Hospital and Gold Coast Hospital.

Following their appointment in 1926 as architects to the Brisbane and South Coast Hospital Board, the practice took on a new partner Lange Leopold Powell becoming Atkinson, Powell & Conrad. During the post-war era, the firm now called AH Conrad & TBF Gargett became a prominent designer of commercial office towers in the Brisbane CBD. Most notable of these were the SGIO Building including the SGIO Theatre and head offices for three of the big four banks; the MLC building, designed in 1955 with Bates Smart, was one of the first commercial office buildings to be built in the undecorated, modern style in Brisbane. In 2017 a book titled Conrad Gargett was published, detailing the history of the firm between 1890 and 2015; the book was edited by Robert Riddel and attempts to provide a broader historical and architectural context to the various phases in which the practice has operated. Conrad Gargett formed after Conrad Gargett Architecture undertook a series of mergers with Riddel Architecture and Ancher Mortlock Woolley.

The contemporary firm is a multi-disciplinary practice, which specialises in health, education and defence. Riddel Architecture was established in 1982 by Robert Riddel; the Brisbane-based practice focused on heritage and adaptive reuse projects. Notable works by the firm include the restoration and adaptive re-use of Brisbane's Customs House, the former Wests Furniture Showroom and the former Queensland National Bank at 308 Queen Street. Ancher Mortlock Woolley called Ancher Mortlock & Murray, was established in 1946 by Sydney Ancher, Bryce Mortlock and Stuart Murray; the Sydney-based practice was joined by Ken Woolley in 1964. The practice designed modern structures, winning both the Sir Zelman Cowen Award for Public Architecture and the Robin Boyd Award for Residential Architecture. Notable projects by the practice include Town Hall House and Sydney Square and more the Royal Agricultural Showground Exhibition Halls and restoration of the State Library of Victoria. Conrad Gargett has designed some of Australia's landmark buildings predominately in Queensland, including the following major architectural projects: Architecture of Australia Conrad Gargett website Digital Archive of Queensland Architecture Fryer Library Database Book review: Conrad Gargett