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Battle of Rozgony

The Battle of Rozgony or Battle of Rozhanovce was fought between King Charles I of Hungary and the family of Palatine Amade Aba on 15 June 1312, on the Rozgony field. Chronicon Pictum described it as the "most cruel battle since the Mongol invasion of Europe". Despite many casualties on the King's side, his decisive victory brought an end to the Aba family's rule over the eastern Kingdom of Hungary, weakened his major domestic opponent Máté Csák III, secured power for Charles I of Hungary. After the senior line of the Árpád dynasty died out in 1301, the succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Hungary became contested by several foreign monarchs and other runners-up. One of them was Charles Robert of the Pope's champion. Over several years Charles drove his foreign opponents out of the country and installed himself on the Hungarian throne. At that time Hungary was a confederation of small kingdoms and dukedoms. However, his rule remained nominal in many parts of the Kingdom because several powerful magnates, local kings and princes still did not recognize him as the supreme king.

Charles's chief adversary was Máté Csák, who controlled several counties in western and northern parts of the Hungary. However he allied himself with the Aba family, which ruled the eastern Hungarian Kingdom. In 1312, Charles besieged Sáros Castle, controlled by the Abas. After the Abas received additional reinforcement from Máté Csák, Charles Robert of Anjou was forced to retreat to the loyal Szepes county, whose Saxon inhabitants subsequently reinforced his own troops; the Abas benefited from the retreat. They decided to use the gathered opposition forces to attack the town of Kassa because of its strategic importance, due to the fact that just few months before Charles had Amadeus Aba assassinated by the Kassa's German colonists. Charles engaged his adversaries; the opposition forces abandoned the siege of Kassa and positioned their troops on a hill near the Tarca. Charles I of Hungary was forced to position his troops in flat agricultural land under that hill. Although the numbers are uncertain, the king's army consisted of his own men, an Italian unit of Knights Hospitaller, a 1,000-men strong infantry unit of Zipser Saxons.

Because of contradicting versions in contemporary chronicles, it is not clear to what extent the Aba family was helped by Máté Csák's forces. The battle commenced when the rebels made a surprise attack during or just after the Mass in the king's camp. A bloody mêlée followed. At one point the king's battle standard was lost and Charles himself had to fight under the standard of the Knights Hospitaller. In the crucial moment of the battle, a reinforcement from Kassa saved the king's cause; the rebel army, after it lost its commanders in the battle, was routed. Some of the key leaders of the Aba perished in the battle and part of their domain was divided between the King and his loyal followers; the loss of the key ally was an important blow to Máté Csák. Although he managed to control much of his territories until his death in 1321, his power started to decline just after the battle and he could never again launch any major offensive against the king; the immediate consequence was that Charles I of Hungary gained control over the northeastern part of the country.

But the long-term consequences of the victory were more important. The battle drastically reduced magnates' opposition against him; the King extended his power prestige. The position of Charles as King of Hungary was now secured militarily and resistance against his rule came to its end. However, the Angevin rule over Hungary lasted only 74 years and the Abas continued to play an important role in Hungary during the Angevin administration. Chronicon pictum, Marci de Kalt, Chronica de gestis Hungarorum, Official Websites: The Battle of Rozgony

Ángeles González-Sinde

Ángeles González-Sinde Reig is a Spanish scriptwriter, film director and politician. She was Culture Minister of Spain from April 2009 until December 2011. González-Sinde studied Classics at the Complutense University of Madrid and did a Masters in Cinema Scriptwriting at the AFI Conservatory in Los Angeles, she was president of AACCE since 2006 until April 2009. Her appointment was received with anger and rejection by the Spanish Internet Community, due to González-Sinde's opposition to P2P file sharing and the alleged conflict of interest due to her ties to the film industry. A strict anti-piracy law enacted in Spain in December 2011 has become known colloquially as Ley Sinde, or the Sinde Law, as she was seen as the primary backer of the measure, she is the daughter of José María González-Sinde, Sr.. Her brother, José María González-Sinde, Jr. is involved in the film industry. La casa de los líos —television series. La buena estrella, by Ricardo Franco. Lágrimas negras, by Ricardo Franco. Segunda piel, by Gerardo Vera.

Las razones de mis amigos, by Gerardo Herrero. Antigua vida mía, by Héctor Olivera. Cuéntame cómo pasó — television series. El misterio Galíndez, by Gerardo Herrero. Manolito Gafotas, by Antonio Merecero. La suerte dormida. La vida que te espera, by Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón. La puta y la ballena, by Luis Puenzo. Madrid 11M: Todos íbamos en ese tren, by several directors. Entre vivir y soñar, by Alfonso Albacete and David Menkes. Heroína, by Gerardo Herrero. Los aires difíciles, by Gerardo Herrero. Todos estamos invitados, by Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón. Una palabra tuya. Mentiras y Gordas. La suerte dormida. Madrid 11M: Todos íbamos en ese tren — «Como los demás». Una palabra tuya. Goya Award for La buena estrella, by Ricardo Franco. Goya Award for Best New Director for La suerte dormida. Prize Turia for Best New Work La suerte dormida. XX Festival de Cine Español de Málaga, Best Script for Heroína, by Gerardo Herrero. Premio Planeta de Novela, runner-up for El buen hijo On April 2009, Ángeles González-Sinde was appointed Culture Minister.

This sparked a movement against her from the Spanish Internet users community, represented by the Asociacion de Internautas. They stated that she was unable to fulfill the needs and obligations of her position because of a conflict of interest, as she had personal ties with businesses involved in the film industry and would not be impartial. Moreover, Spanish law 5/2006 of April 10, 2006 regulates conflicts of interest among high-ranking positions in the Spanish government. Ángeles González Sinde on IMDb

Ohio Women's Convention at Salem in 1850

The Ohio Women's Convention at Salem in 1850 met on April 19–20, 1850 in Salem, Ohio, a center for reform activity. It was the third in a series of women's rights conventions that began with the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848, it was the first of these conventions to be organized on a statewide basis. About five hundred people attended. All of the convention's officers were women. Men were not allowed to sit on the platform or speak during the convention; the convention sent a memorial to the convention, preparing a new Ohio state constitution, asking it to provide for women's right to vote. The Ohio Women's Convention at Salem met on April 19 -- 1850 in Salem, Ohio. About five hundred people attended, it met at the Friends Meeting House. It was the third in a series of women's rights conventions that began with the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 and continued with the Rochester Convention two weeks later. Both of these were regional gatherings in western New York State; the Salem convention was the first women's rights convention to be organized on a statewide basis.

The first to be organized on a national basis was the National Women's Rights Convention in Worcester, Massachusetts in October, 1850. Salem was a center for reform activity, its inhabitants included a number of anti-slavery activists, many of them Quakers. The Anti-Slavery Bugle, an abolitionist newspaper, was published in Salem beginning in 1845. A local group of the Progressive Friends, an association of Quakers who separated from the main body so they could be freer to work for such causes as abolitionism and women's rights, was formed in Salem in 1849; the local school board was composed of abolitionists from both wings of that movement: the followers of William Lloyd Garrison, who opposed involvement in political activity, supporters of the Liberty Party, an abolitionist political party. All eight members of the school board had female relatives; the call to the Salem convention declared that its purpose would be, "o secure to all persons the recognition of equal rights, the extension of the privileges of government without distinction of sex, or color".

Betsy Mix Cowles was elected president of the convention. Cowles, who had ties to both wings of the abolitionist movement, was a long-time advocate for the rights of African Americans, she led the campaign against laws that discriminated against black children in public schools in Ohio. In 1835 she became the leader of the Female Anti-Slavery Society of Ashtabula County. Jane Elizabeth Jones, an abolitionist lecturer, gave the convention's main address. Josephine Griffing, another prominent activist against slavery and for women's rights, served on the business committee. All of the convention's officers were women. Men were not allowed to sit on the platform or speak during the convention; the male spectators were supportive and when the convention was over, they created an organization of their own and endorsed the actions of the women's convention. The convention met less than a month prior to the opening of the state convention that revised the Ohio state constitution in 1850–1851; the Salem convention approved a memorial, forwarded to the constitutional convention along with 8000 signatures.

The memorial concluded by saying: The law should sustain and protect all who come under its sway, not create a state of dependence and depression in any human being. The laws should not make woman a mere pensioner on the bounty of her husband, thus enslaving her will and degrading her to a condition of absolute dependence. Believing that woman does not suffer alone when subject to oppressive and unequal laws, but that whatever affects injuriously her interests, is subversive of the highest good of the race, we earnestly request that in the New Constitution you are about to form for the state of Ohio, women should be secured, not only the right of suffrage, but all the political and legal rights that are guaranteed to men." Letters were read to the convention from prominent women's rights leaders who were unable to attend, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Lucy Stone. Isenberg, Nancy. Sex and Citizenship in Antebellum America, University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2442-9 Stanton, Elizabeth Cady.

History of Woman Suffrage. Volume 1 of 6. Rochester, NY: Susan B. Anthony. Oliver Johnson, ed.. "The Women's Convention" and related articles. The Anti-Slavery Bugle. Salem, Ohio. Pp. 2–4

Joe Bradshaw (footballer)

Joe Bradshaw was an English football player and manager. As a player, he started out at Woolwich Polytechnic before turning professional at Woolwich Arsenal, where his father, Harry Bradshaw, was manager. After his father left to manage Fulham in 1904, Bradshaw had brief spells at West Norwood and Southampton before rejoining his father at his new club, he had stints at Chelsea, Queens Park Rangers and Southend United. His brother, William played for Woolwich Arsenal and Fulham under their father, he became player-manager of Southend United in 1912, winning promotion to the Southern League First Division, seeing the club through World War I. In 1919 he moved to Swansea Town and spent seven years there, winning the Third Division South title in 1924–1925, before being tempted by one of his former clubs, his reign at Fulham was not auspicious - overseeing relegation to the Third Division South and failing to regain promotion. In 1929 he moved to Bristol City, whom he managed for three years

Margaret of Beverley

Margaret of Beverley known as Margaret of Jerusalem, was a Christian pilgrim during the 1180s–1190s in the Holy Land. An incomplete account of her life and travels during the 1180s survives in a book entitled Hodoeporicon et percale Margarite Iherosolimitane written by her brother Thomas of Froidmont. According to the Hodoeporicon, Margaret was born while her parents were on a pilgrimage to Palestine during the mid-12th century, her parents died. Thomas cites this as the reason. Margaret spent a large portion of her life living in Beverley in England, hence her epithet, though there is no evidence of this. Margaret travelled to the Holy Land around the mid-1180s, however she reached Jerusalem just before the encroachment of Saladin's forces and the siege of the city in 1187. While trapped within Jerusalem, Margaret took an active role in helping the crusaders defend the city walls, she used a cooking pot as a helmet to protect herself, though this is a plot device. Following Saladin's capture of the city, he agreed on a ransom price for the inhabitants of the city.

Margaret was able to pay for her share of the ransom and leave the city, however she was captured by Muslims shortly afterwards and spent 15 months as a slave. She was freed by a Christian noble from Tyre along with numerous other Christians, enslaved. Margaret became an itinerant worker, doing washing to gather the funds to resume her pilgrimage; when she had gathered the money she needed. Margaret traveled to Antioch, where again she became involved in the fighting between crusaders and Muslim armies, she participated in the plundering of the dead after the battle. While making her way toward Tripoli, Margaret was enslaved a second time; the Muslim who captured her did so after recognising some of the trinkets that Margaret had taken from the Muslim casualties at Antioch. After regaining her freedom, Margaret reached Acre from there travelled back to Europe. Upon Margaret's return to Europe she did not head home to England. Instead she began travelling around the continent visiting shrines and popular pilgrimage sites before seeking out her brother Thomas at his monastery in Froidmont, Picardy.

Margaret died around 1215 while living as a nun in a cistercian monastery in Montreuil-sous-Laon in France. Schmidt, P. G.. "Peregrinatio Periculosa: Thomas Von Froidmont über die Jerusalemfahrten seiner Schwester Margareta". In Stache, U. J.. Kontinuität und Wandel: Lateinische Poesie von Naevius bis Baudelaire. Franco Munari zum 65. Geburtstag. Hildesheim: Weidmannsche

Network Route Utilisation Strategy

The Network Route Utilisation Strategy is a Route Utilisation Strategy produced by Network Rail. The Network RUS is one of only two. Uniquely the Network RUS is divided into four separate workstreams each of which has its own management team and documentary outputs an RUS in its own right. RUSs are established by the Office of Rail Regulation within 60 days; as at mid-March 2010 two workstreams had been established. By definition the geographic scope is the whole Network Rail network; this workstream was published in June 2009. It was to be called the Review of RUSs/Long Distance train statement, an appropriate scoping document was accordingly published on the website. By shortly before the publication of the draft document, the perspective had been changed to Long distance services and Scenarios, continued to be described as such on the Network Rail map after publication of the draft, which like the final version had the above title. By the time of the publication of the draft the original scoping document was removed from the website, not replaced, with no explicit explanation.

Unlike other RUSs and the electrification workstream this workstream does not consider any specific rail interventions. Instead the main focus of the document is to promote the concept of the use of'Scenarios' to help determine possible variations in future demand for rail travel, in particular for trips over 50 miles. In contrast to other RUSs there is no consideration of medium-term factors; as with other RUSs, the Scenarios workstream RUS invited responses from interested parties. The NR website acknowledged a number of responses, including the Office of Rail Regulation; this workstream was published on 28 October 2009, having been issued as a draft for consultation in May 2009. The workstream identified four types of'gap' fulfilled by further electrification: Type A: where electrification would enable more efficient operation of passenger services Type B: where electrification would enable more efficient operation of freight services Type C: where electrification could provide diversionary route capacity Type D: where electrification could enable a new service to operateFour tables provide a matrix of potential lines to be electrified under one or more of the above types.

Possible passenger lines are ranked into 6 tiers. To some extent the final conclusions of the workstream were overtaken during consultation by the Government's announcement of the approval of the electrification of major parts of the Great Western Main Line and the Liverpool-Chat Moss-Manchester line. However, no further announcements have been made as regards the two further main projects recommended by the workstream, the Midland Main Line and the Gospel Oak to Barking Line. A Final remit was agreed in 2007. According to the Network Rail website, a draft for consultation was expected in November 2009; as at early November 2009, the website stated that the date of publication of both the draft and the final version were "To be determined". A publication that appears to fulfill part of the Stations remit is included on the NR website under the Other publications link of the Network RUS page. A Final remit was agreed in 2007; as at early November 2009, the NR website stated that the date of publication of both the draft and the final version were "To be determined".