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Battle of San Fernando de Omoa

The Battle of San Fernando de Omoa was a short siege and battle between British and Spanish forces fought not long after Spain entered the American Revolutionary War on the American side. On the 16 October 1779, following a brief attempt at siege, a force of 150 British soldiers and seamen assaulted and captured the fortifications at San Fernando de Omoa in the Captaincy General of Guatemala on the Gulf of Honduras; the British forces managed consisting of 365 men. The British only held the fort until November 1779, they withdrew the garrison, which tropical diseases had reduced, and, under threat of a Spanish counter-attack. When Spain entered the American Revolutionary War in June 1779, both Great Britain and Spain had been planning for the possibility of hostilities for some time. King Carlos III set the defence of the Captaincy General of Guatemala as one of his highest priorities in the Americas, after the conquest of British West Florida, his forces seized the initiative in North America, where they captured the British outpost at Baton Rouge in September 1779, before the British were able to marshal any kind of significant defensive force in the area.

The British sought to gain control over Spanish colonies in Central America, their first target was San Fernando de Omoa, a fortress that Matías de Gálvez, the Captain General of Guatemala, called "the key and outer wall of the kingdom". However, the Spanish struck first. In September the capture of Cayo Cocina gave them possession of the British settlement at St. George's Caye. Anticipating a British attack against the nearby port of Santo Tomás de Castilla, Gálvez withdrew the garrison there to Omoa; the Spanish had started building San Fernando de Omoa, principally with African slave labour, in the 1740s during the War of Jenkins' Ear. It became of the largest defensive fortifications in Central America, one of the Guatemalan Captaincy General's principal Caribbean ports; the decision by Gálvez to withdraw to Omoa upset British plans. Commodore John Luttrell, in command of three ships and 250 men, had intended an attack on the Santo Tómas, but his force was inadequate for an attack on Omoa.

When he and Captain William Dalrymple arrived at Omoa on the 25 September with 500 men, they were forced to retreat after a brief exchange of cannon fire. The British returned with twelve ships in early October; the British established some batteries to fire on the fort, supported them with fire from three ships. Simón Desnaux, the fort's commander, returned fire, he succeeded in damaging HMS Lowestoffe, which ran aground but was refloated. Although Desnaux was badly outnumbered, he refused an offer for surrender in the hope that Gálvez would be able to send reinforcements. On the night of the 20 October, a small number of British attackers climbed into the fort and opened one of the gates. After a brief exchange of small arms fire, Desnaux surrendered. Among the spoils the British won when they gained control of Omoa were two Spanish ships, anchored in the harbour, that held more than three million Spanish dollars of silver. Gálvez began planning a counterattack. On the 25 November his forces began besieging the fort, now under Dalrymple's control, engaging in regular exchanges of cannon fire.

Gálvez, whose force was smaller than Dalrymple's, magnified its apparent size by setting extra campfires around the fort. He attempted an assault on the 29 November but difficulties with his artillery caused him to call it off. Still, whose forces were reduced by tropical diseases, withdrew his men from the fort and evacuated them that same day; the British continued to make attacks on the Central American coast but were never successful in their goal of dividing the Spanish colonies and gaining access to the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish were unsuccessful in driving out the British settlements in Central America, most of which the British had recaptured by the war's end. Though a small engagement and a short lived victory, the storming of the fortifications at Omoa was the scene of an event that would be depicted by British engravers for years to come. Captain William Dalrymple, in his letter to Lord George Germain dated the 21 October 1779, wrote:Your lordship will pardon my mentioning an instance of an elevated mind in a British tar, which amazed the Spaniards, gave them a high idea of English valour: not content with one cutlass, he scrambled up the walls with two.

Beatson, Robert. Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain, from 1727 to 1783, Volume 6. Longman, Hurst and Orme. Contains surrender agreement. Chávez, Thomas E. Spain and the Independence of the United States: An Intrinsic Gift. UNM Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-2794-9. OCLC 149117944. Fernández Duro, Cesáreo. Armada Española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y Aragón. VII. Madrid, Spain: Est. tipográfico "Sucesores de Rivadeneyra". Fortescue, John William. A History of the British Army, Volume 3. Macmillan. Lovejoy, Paul E. Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of Ethnicity in the African Diaspora. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-4907-8. OCLC 475624274. Marley, David. Wars of the Americas: a chronolog

Santa Magdalena Jicotlán

Santa Magdalena Jicotlán is a town and municipality in Oaxaca in south-western Mexico. It is part of the Coixtlahuaca district in the Mixteca Region; the municipality covers an area of 48.48 km², surrounded by the Sierra Madre Oriental. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 92 inhabitants, while the municipality had a total population of 93, it is the smallest municipality in Mexico in population. The main economic activity is agriculture, with some people keeping goats and chickens; the town has a Catholic church dedicated to Mary Magdalene, built in the mid eighteenth century with baroque influences. It has a kindergarten and an elementary school, each with one teacher

Gale Norton

Gale Ann Norton served as the 48th United States Secretary of the Interior from 2001 to 2006 under President George W. Bush, she was the first woman to hold the position. Norton had served as Colorado's Attorney General. Norton was born in Kansas to Dale and Anna Norton, she was raised in Wichita and Thornton and graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa from the University of Denver in 1975. Norton earned her Juris Doctor degree with honors from that university's College of Law in 1978. In the late 1970s, she was a member of the Libertarian Party, was nearly selected as its national director in 1980, before becoming a Republican. Norton was influenced by the works of novelist Ayn Rand, has been associated with a number of groups in the "wise use" or "free-market environmentalist" movement such as the Property and Environmental Research Center, of which she is a fellow. Following her graduation from law school, Norton worked as a senior attorney at the Mountain States Legal Foundation from 1979 to 1983.

Norton was a National Fellow at the Hoover Institution during 1983–1984, before taking a position at the U. S. Department of Agriculture as an assistant to Deputy Secretary Richard Edmund Lyng. From 1985 to 1990, she served as Associate Solicitor for the United States Department of the Interior, in which capacity she managed attorneys employed by the National Park Service and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Norton returned to Colorado after her stint at the Department of the Interior, was elected as the state's first female Attorney General in 1991; as Attorney General, Norton led the state's attorneys in defending state laws, including Colorado Amendment 2, a 1992 state constitutional amendment that prohibited any level or branch of state government from recognizing homosexuals as a protected class. Challenges to Amendment 2 reached the United States Supreme Court, which invalidated the amendment in Romer v. Evans. Norton ran for election to the U. S. Senate in 1996 as a Republican, but was defeated in the primary by then-Congressman Wayne Allard.

During that year, Norton delivered a controversial speech in which she remarked that while state sovereignty had been misused to defend slavery prior to and during the Civil War, with the end of the war, the United States "lost the idea that the states were to stand against the federal government having too much power over our lives."With the attorneys general of 45 other states, Norton participated in the negotiation of the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement a settlement of Medicaid lawsuits by the states against U. S. tobacco companies for the recovery of public health costs attributed to the treatment of smoking-related illnesses. Norton's second term ended in 1999. Due to state term limits, she did not seek a third term. After leaving the Attorney General's Office, Norton was a senior counsel at Brownstein, Hyatt & Farber, a Denver-based law firm, she worked at Brownstein until President George W. Bush nominated her as the Secretary of the U. S. Department of the Interior in 2001. Norton, the first female to hold the position, was confirmed by the Senate and served as Secretary until 2006.

She was succeeded by Idaho governor Dirk Kempthorne. On January 29, 2002 she served as the designated survivor during President Bush's first State of the Union Address. On September 17, 2009, the United States Department of Justice opened a criminal investigation into whether Norton's employment at Royal Dutch Shell violated a law that bars federal employees from discussing employment with a company if the employee is involved in decisions that could benefit that company; the investigation focused on a 2006 decision by Norton's agency to grant oil shale leases to Royal Dutch Shell. The DOJ closed the investigation in 2010. At the time of her resignation as Secretary, Norton was considered "the Bush administration's leading advocate for expanding oil and gas drilling and other industrial interests in the West." After leaving Washington, she joined Royal Dutch Shell as a general counsel in its exploration and production business. As of 2017, Norton worked for Norton Regulatory Strategies, an Aurora-based consulting firm that deals with environmental regulations.

In 2012, she was a senior adviser for Clean Range Ventures, an energy venture capital firm. She serves as a board member for the Federalist Society, the Reagan Alumni Association, the Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute at the University of Colorado, the Denver-based hydraulic fracturing company, Liberty Oilfield Services 1996 United States Senate Republican Primary Wayne Allard, 57% Gale Norton, 43% Norton lives in Colorado with John Hughes, her second husband. List of female state attorneys-general in the United States List of female United States Cabinet Secretaries Official White House biography of Gale A. Norton, 2001–2006 University of Denver profile of Gale A. Norton Collection of Gale Norton quotes Appearances on C-SPAN A memo written by Gale Norton in 1987 on'endangered' Humans Remarks by Gale Norton at the opening of the Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site Gale Norton joining Royal Dutch Shell

Péter Komjáth

Péter Komjáth is a Hungarian mathematician, working in set theory combinatorial set theory. Komjáth is a professor at the Eötvös Loránd University, he is a visiting faculty member at Emory University in the department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Komjáth won a gold medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad in 1971, his Ph. D. advisor at Eötvös was András Hajnal, he has two joint papers with Paul Erdős. He received the Paul Erdős Prize in 1990, he is a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Komjáth, Péter and Vilmos Totik: Problems and Theorems in Classical Set Theory, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2006. ISBN 0-387-30293-X Komjáth, Péter, "A simplified construction of nonlinear Davenport–Schinzel sequences", Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series A, 49: 262–267, doi:10.1016/0097-316590055-6, MR 0964387. Komjáth, Péter, "Consistency results on infinite graphs", Israel Journal of Mathematics, 61: 285–294, doi:10.1007/BF02772573, MR 0941243. Komjáth, Péter, "The chromatic number of infinite graphs—A survey", Discrete Mathematics, 311: 1448–1450, doi:10.1016/j.disc.2010.11.004.

Péter Komjáth at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Hungarian Academy of Sciences Webpage Eötvös University Webpage Rutgers University Webpage

Universal, Indiana

Universal is a town in Clinton Township, Vermillion County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 362 at the 2010 census. Universal was founded in 1911 as a mining community; the town took its name from the nearby Universal Mines. A post office has been in operation at Universal since 1912. Universal is located in the far southern part of the county, just to the west of Indiana State Road 63. According to the 2010 census, Universal has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 362 people, 151 households, 103 families living in the town. The population density was 1,005.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 176 housing units at an average density of 488.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.4% White, 0.3% African American, 0.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population. There were 151 households of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 19.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.8% were non-families.

29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age in the town was 38.8 years. 27.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 52.5 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 420 people, 184 households, 117 families living in the town; the population density was 1,477.5 people per square mile. There were 207 housing units at an average density of 729.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.52% White, 0.24% African American and 0.24% Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.95% of the population. There were 184 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.86. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.0% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 32.7% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $36,042, the median income for a family was $39,327. Males had a median income of $28,068 versus $25,500 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,930. About 6.0% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.3% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over

Walk-in-the-Water (steamboat)

Walk-in-the-Water was a sidewheel steamboat that played a pioneering role in steamboat navigation on the Great Lakes. She was the first such craft to run on Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. Launched in 1818, she transported people and supplies to sites and points of interest around the Great Lakes, before being grounded and wrecked in a gale force storm in Buffalo's bay in 1821. According to some sources, Walk-in-the-Water's name originated from an Indian's impression of a steamboat moving on the water with no sails. Walk-in-the-Water was built in 1818 at Black Rock, New York for the Lake Erie Steamboat Company by Noah Brown, her keel was constructed at Scajaquada Creek, she was launched sideways on May 28, 1818. Walk-in-the-Water was 132 ft long with a beam of 32 ft and a draft of 8.5 ft. She had two masts, a quarterdeck raised 3.5 ft above the spar deck, a transom stern. A steamboat that ran on the Great Lakes in the early 19th century, there are no photos of the vessel, but there are several eyewitness accounts of its configuration.

The raised quarterdeck allowed space for the cabins below, better visibility for the helmsman as the ship's wheel was mounted on the quarterdeck at the stern. The hull was painted white overall, with two black stripes running the length of the vessel, gray below the waterline; the rails were green, the stem and transom were both ornamented with gold scrolling. Mounted in the bow was a four-pound wheeled cannon, used to announce the steamer's arrivals and presence, as steam whistles had yet to be invented. Walk-in-the-Water was powered by a single cylinder, 73-horsepower crosshead steam engine with a 40 in bore and 4 ft stroke, built in New York City by Robert McQueen; the engine was described as having "a curious arrangement of levers with as many cogs as a grist-mill", driving the paddlewheels, which were 16 ft in diameter, through a series of gears. "Old-fashioned" coupling boxes between the main shaft and the paddlewheel shafts enabled the two paddlewheels to be individually engaged or disengaged.

The boiler was built of copper 24 ft in length with a diameter of 9 ft, with a single 30 ft high smokestack. The fuel was wood, preferably "well-seasoned pine and hemlock split fine"; the vessel is said to have had a speed of somewhere between 6 and 10 mph. According to one of her captains, Baton Atkins, she was named after a Wyandot Indian chief, who lived about 12 mi south of the Detroit River. Alternatively, her name may have alluded to the expression "walks in the water", reputedly said by an Indian who had seen North River, Robert Fulton's pioneering steamboat, on the Hudson River in 1807. Walk-in-the-Water was considered the pioneer of steamboat navigation on several of the Great Lakes, the first steamboat to run on Lake Erie. Job Fish was Walk-in-the-Water's first captain. Chief engineer was Brock Grant, the second engineer was his cousin, William Whitney Grant. Fish was dismissed when he blamed it on the engine crew. While he was cussing through the megaphone, where the company that owned Walk-in-the-Water soon found a replacement.

Walk-in-the-Water's maiden voyage began on August 25, 1818, from Black Rock, New York, carrying 29 passengers, bound for Dunkirk, New York. Because she lacked sufficient power to make headway against the strong currents of the Niagara River, a team of 20 oxen were required to assist in hauling the steamboat out of the river on the first leg of this voyage; the vessel started her routine trips from Buffalo to Detroit on September 1, 1818. Buffalo at this time had no docks to accommodate large vessels; the steamboat traveled at about 9 mi per hour on average. The fare for the trip in a cabin was less than half that for a bunk in steerage. Upon arrival in Cleveland, most of the townspeople came to the shore to greet the vessel. In September 1818, Walk-in-the-Water ran aground near Erie. After repairs, she traveled in 1819 to Mackinaw City, via Lake Huron and to Green Bay, thus becoming the first steamboat to operate on both Lakes Huron and Michigan; the anticipated trip was announced in the May 1819 issue of the New York Mercantile Advertiser.

It took ten days for the Walk-in-the-Water to travel from Buffalo to Detroit and back again carrying supplies and goods for the American Fur Company. During her employment on the Great Lakes, Walk-in-the-Water's passengers included many notable people, including generals Winfield Scott and Henry Leavenworth; the steamboat could accommodate one hundred cabin passengers along with a good number in the steerage deck. The vessel included a dining room, smoking room, baggage room. On November 1, 1821, Walk-in-the-Water was wrecked at night during gale force weather while near Buffalo, becoming the first steamboat wreck to occur on Lake Erie, she carried 18 passengers. Bound for Detroit, the vessel, commanded by Captain J. Rogers, had departed Buffalo at 4 p.m. on October 31 and proceeded to cross Lake Erie en route. Before reaching Point Abino some 11 mi west of Buffalo on the Canadian shore of the lake, gale-force winds had developed. Captain Rogers was unsuccessful, it was raining and dark. The vessel was leaking badly, due to structural stress from the turbulent waters.

In the late evening, the captain realized that it was impossible to continue, so he turned about and proceeded back to Buffalo. After declining a dangerous proposal to dock in the river, the captain attempted to navigate to the city's pier; the light from