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Battle of Stoney Creek

The Battle of Stoney Creek was fought on 6 June 1813, during the War of 1812 near present-day Stoney Creek, Ontario. British units made a night attack on an American encampment. Due in large part to the capture of the two senior officers of the American force, an overestimation of British strength by the Americans, the battle was a victory for the British, a turning point in the defence of Upper Canada. On 27 May, the Americans had won the Battle of Fort George, forcing the British defenders of Fort George into a hasty retreat, with heavy casualties; the British commander, Brigadier General John Vincent, gathered in all his outposts along the Niagara River, disbanded the militia contingents in his force and retreated to Burlington Heights, with about 1,600 men in total. The Americans under the overall leadership of General Henry Dearborn, elderly and ill, were slow to pursue. A brigade under Brigadier General William H. Winder first followed up Vincent, but Winder decided that Vincent's forces were too strong to engage, halted at the Forty Mile Creek.

Another brigade joined him, commanded by Brigadier General John Chandler, the senior, took overall command. Their combined force, numbering 3,400, advanced to Stoney Creek; the two generals set up their headquarters at the Gage Farm. Vincent sent his Deputy Assistant Adjutant General, Lieutenant Colonel John Harvey, to reconnoitre the American position. Harvey recommended a night attack, reporting that "the enemy's guards were negligent; the American dispositions described by Harvey account for the statement in the post-battle report of the U. S. Assistant Adjutant-General that only 1,328 American troops were engaged against the British, out of Chandler's total force of 3,400. A British column of five companies from the 1/8th Regiment of Foot and the main body of the 49th Regiment of Foot, about 700 men in all, was formed. Out of the 700 soldiers fighting on the British side, 14 were Canadian locals and the remainder were British regulars. Although Vincent accompanied the column, he placed Harvey in command.

At this point, the story of Billy Green comes to light. Billy Green was a 19-year-old local resident who had witnessed the advance of the Americans from the top of the Niagara Escarpment earlier in the day. Billy's brother-in-law, Isaac Corman, had been captured by the Americans, but was released after he convinced them that he was the cousin of American General William Henry Harrison. In order to be able to pass through the American lines, he was given the challenge response password for the day – "WIL-HEN-HAR", he gave his word of honour. He kept his word, but did reveal the word to Billy Green, who rode his brother-in-law's horse part way, ran on foot the rest of the way to Burlington Heights. Here, he revealed the password to Lieutenant James FitzGibbon, he was provided with a sword and uniform and used his knowledge of the terrain to guide the British to the American position. Billy Green was present at the battle. However, it has been suggested that the password was obtained by Lieutenant Colonel Harvey.

According to an account given after the war by Frederick Snider, a neighbour of the Gages, Harvey had executed a ruse on the first sentry to be accosted. Pretending to be the American officer of the day making Grand Rounds, he approached the sentry and when challenged, came close to the sentry's ear as if to whisper the countersign, but with bayonet secreted in hand, he grabbed the surprised sentry by the throat and threw him to the ground. With the bayonet at his throat, the sentry gave up the password; this suggestion illustrates the incomplete research into several aspects of the Battle of Stoney Creek. Snider gave this account not long before his death in 1877 and his source for it was the April 1871 issue of The Canadian Literary Journal. Snider was confusing Harvey with Colonel Murray, June 1813 with December 1813 and Stoney Creek with Youngstown near Fort Niagara. Snider makes several obvious errors, such as "the British General St. Vincent was found some days after wandering about in the woods nearly dead of hunger."

His name was Vincent and he did not wander about the woods for days. Snider's source for the provenance of the countersign should thus be considered to be unreliable; the British left their camp at Burlington Heights at 11:30 p.m. on June 5. While Vincent was the senior officer present, the troops were placed under the conduct and direction of Lieutenant Colonel Harvey, who led them silently toward Stoney Creek, they had removed the flints from their muskets to ensure that there were no accidental discharges and dared not utter a whisper. A sentry post of American soldiers was surprised and either killed by bayonet. Billy Green is said to have bayoneted one of the American sentries although this is not mentioned in any official British record; the British continued advancing toward the American campfires in silence. However at the repeated urging of Second Lieutenant Ephraim Shaler, the U. S. 25th Regiment which had earlier been camped there had been moved from their previous exposed position, leaving behind only the cooks who were preparing the troops' meal for the next day.

Shaler had returned to the original position when he heard a sentry cry out as he was being tomahawked after being shot with an arrow from one of John Norton's small band of First Nations warriors. Around the same time, a group of Vincent's staff officers who had come forwa

Stranraer and Wigtownshire Free Press

The Stranraer and Wigtownshire Free Press is a local weekly newspaper based in Stranraer, Wigtownshire, which serves Stranraer and the Rhins area but Wigtownshire and parts of Dumfries and Galloway. Known locally as the "Free Press", it is published every Thursday but is distributed on Wednesday afternoons, it is the most popular newspaper in Wigtownshire with 92% of adults living within a thirty-minute drive of Stranraer reading the paper. Over 7,500 copies are sold each week; the current Editor is John Cooper. The paper employs two journalists, Louise Kerr and Jennifer Jones. Previous reporters include Euan Maxwell, Nick Dowson, Jen Stout and Dan Palmer. Stranraer and Wigtownshire Free Press WebsiteStair Estates Website

Feed Me Oil

Feed Me Oil is a physics-based puzzle game developed by Russian studio HolyWaterGames for iOS, Windows Phone devices. The game was released on the iTunes App Store in June 2011 and Google Play in July 2012, by publisher Chillingo Ltd; the Windows Phone version of the game was published by Electronic Arts and released on the Windows Phone Store in April 2012. The game was featured as the iPhone Game of the Week, as well as the number-one paid app in the United States and other countries; the objective in the game is to fill the creature's mouth with oil. As the player progresses through the game by completing levels, subsequent levels become more complex; the amount of oil varies between level to level, there are multiple creatures to feed oil to. Additionally, there may be a certain color or type of oil that the creature wants. Players will be provided objects to use; some of these provided objects include: solid bars, oil filters, tornados. Each of these objects perform a different task. There are special objects in some levels, such as buttons, which may activate another pathway or lift an obstacle in order to be able to complete the level.

The less objects that the player uses to complete the level, the more points the player will be awarded. The amount of time it takes to complete the level is a factor when calculating the score. Additional level packs included with updates to the game introduced new special objects and mechanics, such as anti-gravity and oil-mixing. Feed Me Oil was developed by independent game developer Alexander Ilin, was published by Chillingo. Production began in August 2010, when Ilin was inspired to create a game with the core mechanic based around fluid after watching the trailer for The Unfinished Swan. According to Ilin, his primary goal when developing Feed Me Oil was "paying attention to every aspect of the design, from the physics to the graphics to the overall mechanics", he attempted to create gameplay mechanics that would function on any mobile device, regardless of screen size. The game was developed using Cocos2d. Feed Me Oil was first released for iOS devices on June 2, 2011. In its initial week of release, it became the top selling app in several countries, including the United States and Australia.

It was released for the Windows Phone on April 30, 2012, Android devices on July 3, 2012, PlayStation Mobile on June 26, 2013. Ilin hired five people to help with developing updates after the game's release, founded Holy Water Games with his new employees. Feed Me Oil received positive reviewers from critics; the aggregate-review website Metacritic rated the iOS version 86/100, based on 17 reviews. HolyWaterGames official website

Player escort

Player escort (also called match mascot or child mascot is a child who accompanies football player entering the pitch. Player escorts hold hands with the footballer while they walk in and stay with the player during the playing of the national anthem; the children are between 6 and 18 years old. In addition to assisting players, they have duties such as carrying flags, helping the sideline ball crew and playing matches with each other. There are various reasons; these include promoting children rights campaigns, bringing the element of innocence to the game, fulfilling children dreams or making profit of it, reminding players that children are looking up to them. Children have appeared with football players at least since the 1990s either as one mascot for each team or one for every player; the UEFA Euro 2000 was one of the first major events where player escorts appeared with every footballer, replacing the previous practice where the players on the team linked arms with each other. In club games children are members of youth teams or contest winners.

Since 2002, World Cup or European Championship escorts are selected in a competition hosted by McDonald's, sponsor of the event. Being a child mascot may or may not be free. Among FA Premier League clubs, some may charge £350-£600 depending on the fixture while others offer some free places through competitions and charities, other clubs do not have a charge at all. On some occasions there can be special escorts. For example, Ajax Amsterdam players walked out with their mothers on Mother's Day and São Paulo FC players walked out with dogs to raise awareness to stray dogs problem; some famous players like Wayne Rooney used to be player escorts in their childhood. Media related to player escorts at Wikimedia Commons

Zlil Sela

Zlil Sela is an Israeli mathematician working in the area of geometric group theory. He is a Professor of Mathematics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Sela is known for the solution of the isomorphism problem for torsion-free word-hyperbolic groups and for the solution of the Tarski conjecture about equivalence of first order theories of finitely generated non-abelian free groups. Sela received his Ph. D. in 1991 from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where his doctoral advisor was Eliyahu Rips. Prior to his current appointment at the Hebrew University, he held an Associate Professor position at Columbia University in New York. While at Columbia, Sela won the Sloan Fellowship from the Sloan Foundation. Sela gave an Invited Address at the 2002 International Congress of Mathematicians in Beijing, he gave a plenary talk at the 2002 annual meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, he delivered an AMS Invited Address at the October 2003 meeting of the American Mathematical Society and the 2005 Tarski Lectures at the University of California at Berkeley.

He was awarded the 2003 Erdős Prize from the Israel Mathematical Union. Sela received the 2008 Carol Karp Prize from the Association for Symbolic Logic for his work on the Tarski conjecture and on discovering and developing new connections between model theory and geometric group theory. Sela's early important work was his solution in mid-1990s of the isomorphism problem for torsion-free word-hyperbolic groups; the machinery of group actions on real trees, developed by Eliyahu Rips, played a key role in Sela's approach. The solution of the isomorphism problem relied on the notion of canonical representatives for elements of hyperbolic groups, introduced by Rips and Sela in a joint 1995 paper; the machinery of the canonical representatives allowed Rips and Sela to prove algorithmic solvability of finite systems of equations in torsion-free hyperbolic groups, by reducing the problem to solving equations in free groups where the Makanin-Razborov algorithm can be applied. The technique of canonical representatives was generalized by Dahmani to the case of hyperbolic groups and played a key role in the solution of the isomorphism problem for toral hyperbolic groups.

In his work on the isomorphism problem Sela introduced and developed the notion of a JSJ-decomposition for word-hyperbolic groups, motivated by the notion of a JSJ decomposition for 3-manifolds. A JSJ-decomposition is a representation of a word-hyperbolic group as the fundamental group of a graph of groups which encodes in a canonical way all possible splittings over infinite cyclic subgroups; the idea of JSJ-decomposition was extended by Rips and Sela to torsion-free finitely presented groups and this work gave rise a systematic development of the JSJ-decomposition theory with many further extensions and generalizations by other mathematicians. Sela applied a combination of his JSJ-decomposition and real tree techniques to prove that torsion-free word-hyperbolic groups are Hopfian; this result and Sela's approach were generalized by others to finitely generated subgroups of hyperbolic groups and to the setting of hyperbolic groups. Sela's most important work came in early 2000s when he produced a solution to a famous Tarski conjecture.

Namely, in a long series of papers, he proved that any two non-abelian finitely generated free groups have the same first-order theory. Sela's work relied on applying his earlier JSJ-decomposition and real tree techniques as well as developing new ideas and machinery of "algebraic geometry" over free groups. Sela pushed this work further to study first-order theory of arbitrary torsion-free word-hyperbolic groups and to characterize all groups that are elementarily equivalent to a given torsion-free word-hyperbolic group. In particular, his work implies that if a finitely generated group G is elementarily equivalent to a word-hyperbolic group G is word-hyperbolic as well. Sela proved that the first-order theory of a finitely generated free group is stable in the model-theoretic sense, providing a brand-new and qualitatively different source of examples for the stability theory. An alternative solution for the Tarski conjecture has been presented by Olga Kharlampovich and Alexei Myasnikov; the work of Sela on first-order theory of free and word-hyperbolic groups influenced the development of geometric group theory, in particular by stimulating the development and the study of the notion of limit groups and of hyperbolic groups.

Sela, Zlil. II.", Geometric and Functional Analysis, 7: 561–593, doi:10.1007/s000390050019, MR 1466338 Sela, Zlil. I. Makanin-Razborov diagrams", Publications Mathématiques de l'IHÉS, 93: 31–105, doi:10.1007/s10240-001-8188-y, MR 1863735 Sela, Zlil, "Diophantine geometry over groups. II. Completions and formal solutions", Israel Journal of Mathematics, 134: 173–254, doi:10.1007/BF02787407, MR 1972179 Sela, Zlil, "Diophantine geometry over groups. VI; the elementary theory of a free group", Geometric and Functional Analysis, 16

Murray Bridge Speedway

The Murray Machining & Sheds Murray Bridge Speedway is a Dirt track racing venue, located in the town of Murray Bridge, South Australia, only 66 km from Adelaide. Racing at the speedway takes place between September and May meetings are held every second Saturday night. Racing has been held at the venue continuously since opening in 1958 Murray Bridge based car dealer, known South Australian speedway identity Kevin Fischer, along with Les Schulz, a dry cleaner, started Riverview Speedway in 1958 on the unpopulated eastern side of the Murray River; the track was cut into the side of a hill which provided spectators with an unimpeded view of the entire track. The speedway itself has changed over the years growing in size to cope with the speed of the cars. In 1977 the track was increased to 300 metres. While the track was good, there were complaints from the Super Sedan drivers that the tight nature of the track produced processional racing. During the mid-late 1980s and through most of the 1990s this saw most of the top South Australian drivers based at Adelaide's 430 metres long Speedway Park race at Murray Bridge.

The surface of the track was crushed dolomite which suited both bikes and cars, though it wasn't uncommon to see smoke billowing from overheated car tyres in a 15 or 20 lap feature race from the Hot Rods. During the 1980s, the small size of the track saw the sports most popular category Sprintcars not race at Riverview. Riverview would remain a 300-metre track until 1999 when the Murray Bridge Sporting Car Club and Motorcycle Club decided that to compete it needed a track long enough to attract Sprintcar and Speedcar racing, as well as one capable of top level sedan racing. In order to do this the track was lengthened and widened to its present 360 metres length with 6° of banking, clay was added to the dolomite surface. Due to the location of the track, a massive amount of earthworks was needed to fill in what was a 15m drop beyond the back straight to allow for the addition of 60 metres worth of track. During this time the pit area was enlarged to be able to house more cars for the expected championship and high profile meetings of the future.

Since its beginning, Riverview Speedway has run both bikes and cars during their meetings with the track being a regular stop for numerous Australian championships including Sprintcars, Super Sedans, Street Stocks, Modified Production, Hot Rods, Solos and Formula 500's, as well as many South Australian State titles, the World Series Sprintcars. Due to the addition of clay to the track surface in 1999, Solos and Sidecars have been seen less and less at the speedway; until 2007 Riverview had a smaller, 130 metres junior track for Under-16 speedway riders on its infield from the early 1980s. The riders were those who rode at Adelaide's Sidewinders Speedway, with meetings taking place before the main meeting started; the junior track was replaced by a concrete Burnout pad. On 12 November 2011, Riverview Speedway hosted the 2011 World Sidecar Speedway Championship, the first time the track hosted a World Championship event. New South Wales based rider Darrin Treloar and his Murray Bridge-based passenger Jesse Headland won the World championship.

Headland was the defending champion of the event having won the title as passenger to his father Mick Headland at the Brandon Stadium in Coventry, England, in 2010. Since its opening in 1958, the Riverview Speedway has played host to numerous Australian Championships for both bikes and cars. Australian Formula 500 Championship - 1971, 1977, 1985, 1993, 2001 Australian Solo Championship - 1988, 1998, 2001 Australian Sidecar Championship - 1990, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005 Australian Under-21 Solo Championship - 1992 Australian Modified Production Sedan Championship - 1997, 2003 Australian Super Sedan Championship - 2004, 2014 Australian Sprintcar Championship - 2005 Australian Junior Sedan Championship - 2005, 2011 Australian 360 Sprintcar Championship - 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014 Australian Street Stock Championship - 2008 Australian Speedcar Championship - 2009, 2018 as of November 2015 410 Sprintcars: 00:10.96 - Brooke Tatnell, 27 December 2010 360 Sprintcars: 00:11.9 - Darryl Wright, 17 March 2008 Riverview Speedway official site