Juan de Zavala
After fighting in the First Carlist War, the Marquess served as the 46th Prime Minister of Spain. Luis de Zavala, 26th Duke of Nájera, married to Guillermina Heredia y Barrón, maría del Pilar de Zavala, 20th Marquise of Aguilar de Campoo, married to Ventura García-Sancho, 1st Count of Consuegra. Juana de Zavala, 7th Countess of Villaseñor, married to Camilo Hurtado de Amézaga, maría Grimanesa de Zavala, 7th Marquise of San Lorenzo del Valleumbroso, married to Juan Larios y Enríquez
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantrys small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach fortifications, and led to heavy, as technology improved, more mobile field artillery developed for battlefield use. This development continues today, modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the largest share of an armys total firepower, in its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers primarily armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour. In common speech, the artillery is often used to refer to individual devices, along with their accessories and fittings. However, there is no generally recognised generic term for a gun, mortar, and so forth, the United States uses artillery piece, the projectiles fired are typically either shot or shell. Shell is a widely used term for a projectile, which is a component of munitions.
By association, artillery may refer to the arm of service that customarily operates such engines, in the 20th Century technology based target acquisition devices, such as radar, and systems, such as sound ranging and flash spotting, emerged to acquire targets, primarily for artillery. These are usually operated by one or more of the artillery arms, Artillery originated for use against ground targets—against infantry and other artillery. An early specialist development was coastal artillery for use against enemy ships, the early 20th Century saw the development of a new class of artillery for use against aircraft, anti-aircraft guns. Artillery is arguably the most lethal form of land-based armament currently employed, the majority of combat deaths in the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, and World War II were caused by artillery. In 1944, Joseph Stalin said in a speech that artillery was the God of War, although not called as such, machines performing the role recognizable as artillery have been employed in warfare since antiquity.
The first references in the historical tradition begin at Syracuse in 399 BC. From the Middle Ages through most of the era, artillery pieces on land were moved by horse-drawn gun carriages. In the contemporary era, the artillery and crew rely on wheeled or tracked vehicles as transportation, Artillery used by naval forces has changed significantly also, with missiles replacing guns in surface warfare. The engineering designs of the means of delivery have likewise changed significantly over time, in some armies, the weapon of artillery is the projectile, not the equipment that fires it. The process of delivering fire onto the target is called gunnery, the actions involved in operating the piece are collectively called serving the gun by the detachment or gun crew, constituting either direct or indirect artillery fire. The term gunner is used in armed forces for the soldiers and sailors with the primary function of using artillery. The gunners and their guns are usually grouped in teams called either crews or detachments, several such crews and teams with other functions are combined into a unit of artillery, usually called a battery, although sometimes called a company
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations air forces or marines. The term general is used in two ways, as the title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, the adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of General is known in countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks and it has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies. The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in military forces are typically known as field officers or field-grade officers. There are two systems of general ranks used worldwide. In addition there is a system, the Arab system of ranks. Variations of one form, the old European system, were used throughout Europe.
It is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth. The other is derived from the French Revolution, where ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a general or a colonel general rank. The rank of marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank. Many countries actually used two brigade command ranks, which is why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major, confusion arises because a lieutenant is outranked by a major. Originally the serjeant major was, the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general, the distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was eventually dropped from both titles, creating the modern rank titles
Muhammad IV of Morocco
Moulay Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman, known as Muhammad IV was the Sultan of Morocco from 1859 to 1873. He was a member of the Alaouite dynasty, born in Fez, Moulay Muhammad was a son of the Alawite sultan Abd al-Rahman of Morocco. During his fathers reign, Muhammad commanded the Moroccan army which was defeated by the French at the Battle of Isly in August 1844. After the defeat, with his fathers permission, Moulay Muhammad used his capacity as chief to launch on a series of significant military reforms in 1845. Muhammad IV set up the madrasa al-Muhandisin, an engineering school in Fez. Muhammad IV hired writers to translate various European textbooks on engineering and he was personally involved in the translation of the works of scientists such as Legendre and Lalande. He struck deals with British Gibraltar and Egypt to receive regular contingents of Moroccan soldiers for artillery training, immediately upon ascension to throne in August 1859, Muhammad IV was faced with his first test, the Spanish-Moroccan War governed by Isabella II of Spain.
Raids by irregular tribesmen on the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Mellila in northwest Morocco prompted Spain to demand an expansion of the borders of its enclave around Ceuta, when this was refused by Muhammad IV, Spain declared war. The Spanish navy bombarded Tangier and Tetouan, a large Spanish expeditionary force landed in Ceuta, which subsequently went on to defeat the Moroccan army at the Battle of Tétouan in February 1860. Provisions allowed the Spanish to hold Tetouan until it was paid, the treaty ceded the enclave of Sidi Ifni, in southwestern Morocco, to Spain. The new financial difficulties from the colonial encroachment prompted the Makhzen to demand ever-greater exactions of troops, initially designed as a centralizing move, this eventually backfired, as the qaids, once esconsed in their tribal fiefs, proved even more ungovernable than the amghars had ever been. During Muhammad IVs reign, Morocco began essentially careening into feudalism, list of Kings of Morocco History of Morocco Abun-Nasr, J. M.
A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press Laroui, A. Morocco from the Beginning of the Nineteenth century to 1880 in J. F. Ade Ajayi, Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880s. Pp. 478-96 Martinière, H. M. P. de la Morocco, journeys in the kingdom of Fez, Whittaker online Park, T. K. and A. Boum Historical Dictionary of Morocco. New York, New York University Press, Morocco Alaoui dynasty History of Morocco