The Battle of Uhud was a battle between the early Muslims and their Qurayshi Meccan enemies in 624 CE in the Hejazi region of the Arabian peninsula. The battle was fought on 22 December 624 at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud, it occurred between a force from the Muslim community of Medina led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a force led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from Mecca, the town from which many of the Muslims had emigrated. The Battle of Uhud was the second military encounter between the Meccans and the Muslims, preceded by the Battle of Badr in 623, where a small Muslim army had defeated a larger Meccan army. Marching out from Mecca towards Medina on 10 December 624 CE, the Meccans desired to avenge their losses at Badr and strike back at Muhammad and his followers; the Muslims readied for war soon afterwards and the two armies fought on the slopes and plains of Mount Uhud. Although outnumbered, the Muslims gained the early initiative and forced the Meccan lines back, thus leaving much of the Meccan camp unprotected.
When the battle looked to be only one step away from a decisive Muslim victory, a serious mistake was committed by a part of the Muslim army, which altered the outcome of the battle. A breach of Muhammad's orders by the Muslim archers, who left their assigned posts to despoil the Meccan camp, allowed a surprise attack from the Meccan cavalry, led by Meccan war veteran Khalid ibn al-Walid, which brought chaos to the Muslim ranks. Many Muslims were killed, Muhammad himself was badly injured; the Muslims had to withdraw up the slopes of Uhud. The Meccans marched back to Mecca declaring victory. For the Muslims, the battle was a significant setback. Although they had been close to routing the Meccans a second time, their breach of Muhammad's orders in favor of collecting Meccan spoils reaped severe consequences; the two armies would meet again in 627 CE at the Battle of the Trench. Muhammad had preached the religion of Islam in Mecca from 613 to 622, he had attracted a small community of followers, but drew staunch opposition from the rest of the Quraish, the tribe that ruled Mecca and to which he belonged.
The Muslims established themselves at Medina. The Quraysh had seized the properties and families of Muslims in Mecca and dispatched caravans to Damascus which the Muslims intercepted and raided; the Meccans sent out a small army to stop their raiding. At the Battle of Badr in 623, a small Muslim force defeated the much larger Meccan army. Many Muslims considered this unexpected victory a proof that they had been favored by God and believed they were assured such victories in the future. A number of the leading tribesmen of Quraysh had been killed at Badr and so leadership passed to Abu Sufyan, he forbade the mourning of the losses at Badr, for he was eager to exact revenge upon Muhammad, vowing to conduct a retaliatory raid on the city of Medina. Several months Abu Sufyan accompanied a party of 200 men to the city, obtaining temporary residence with the chief of the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir and learning more of the current situation in Medina, he and his party left Medina, burning down two houses and laying waste to some fields in fulfillment of his vow.
Further skirmishes between the Meccans and the Muslims would occur thereafter. The reason for the battle was to retaliate against the Muslims for the Battle of Badr; the following year on 10 December 624, with Abu Sufyan at the helm, the Meccans, anxious to avenge their defeat at Badr, raised another force numbering 3,000 and set out for the Muslim base in Medina. Rather than attacking Medina itself, populated by numerous strongholds that would have required long sieges to overcome, they camped on the pastures north of the city, hoping that the Muslims would come out to meet them. According to the early Muslim historian Ibn Ishaq, a number of Meccan women are said to have accompanied Abu Sufyan's army to provide vocal support, including Hind bint Utbah, his wife. A scout alerted numbers late on Thursday, 20 December; the next morning, a Muslim conference of war convened, there was dispute over how to best repel the Meccans. Muhammad and many of the senior figures suggested that it would be safer to fight within Medina and take advantage of its fortified strongholds.
Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying their crops, that huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim prestige. Muhammad conceded to the wishes of the latter, readied the Muslim force for battle. A group of 1,000 Muslim men set out on late Friday from Medina and managed to circle around the Meccan forces. Early the next morning, they took a position on the lower slopes of the hill of Uhud. Shortly before the battle commenced,'Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy and his followers withdrew their support for Muhammad and returned to Medina, with reports suggesting Ibn Ubayy's discontent with the plan to march out from Medina to meet the Meccans. Ibn Ubayy and his followers would receive censure in the Qur'an for this act. What ye suffered on the day the two armies Met, was with the leave of Allah, in order that He might test the believers,-And the Hypocrites also; these were told: "Come, fight in the way of Allah, or drive." They said: "Had we known how to fight, we should have followed you."
They were that day nearer to Unbelief than to Faith, saying with their lips what was not in their hearts but Allah hath full knowledge of all they conceal. The ones that
Rock On is the fourth album by the English rock group Humble Pie, released in 1971. It reached #118 on the Billboard 200, it is the last Humble Pie studio album to feature guitarist/vocalist Peter Frampton, who embarked on a successful solo career. Rock On saw Humble Pie establishing the heavy blues/rock sound they became famous for, led in no small part by their new manager, Dee Anthony, after the collapse of Andrew Loog Oldham's Immediate Records, but this was not where Frampton wanted to be and within a year he had quit the group to pursue his solo career and take his music in a more acoustic direction. Most of the songs on Rock On were performed live on tour before being recorded for the album. Marriott turned the production into a studio party of sorts, featuring numerous guest performers from the world of blues and soul. Distinguished performers such as PP Arnold, who Marriott knew well from his Small Faces days, Doris Troy who had a U. S. hit in the early 1960s with her own self-composed song "Just One Look", Claudia Lennear, were featured on this album.
The album features the classic rock song "Stone Cold Fever" written by band members Marriott, Ridley and Shirley. Steve Marriott's ballad "A Song For Jenny". B. J. Cole contributes pedal steel guitar. "Strange Days" is a ballsy blues rock song, in which Marriott's powerful vocals soar as close to a live performance as any on this album. The vocals have a delayed echo, sounding grounded yet "out there", it is the longest song on the album. "Sour Grain" was a joint composition by Peter Frampton and Steve Marriott, keeping the same tempo as "Shine On", but with just Marriott on vocals. "Shine On" - – 3:00 "Sour Grain" - – 2:40 "79th and Sunset" - – 3:01 "Stone Cold Fever" - – 4:09 "Rolling Stone" - – 6:00 "A Song for Jenny" - – 2:35 "The Light" - – 3:15 "Big George" - – 4:08 "Strange Days" - – 6:36 "Red Neck Jump" - – 3:06 Steve Marriott - guitar, Lead & Backing vocals, organ on, harmonica Peter Frampton - guitar, backing vocals, Lead Vocal on & Greg Ridley - bass, backing vocals, Lead Vocal on Jerry Shirley - drums, piano on "79th and Sunset" Guests: Alexis Korner - backing vocals Bobby Keys - saxophone B. J. Cole - pedal steel guitar Soul Sisters: P. P.
Arnold - chorus Claudia Lennear - chorus Doris Troy - chorus Production: Recorded and Mixed by Glyn Johns at Olympic Sound Studios, January 1971 A Glyn Johns and Humble Pie Joint Production John Kelly - Album cover design and photography Humble Pie history and biographies
The Snead Building located at 815 W. Market St. is a multi-use facility housing two working glass studios: a Walk-In Workshop and tours by appointment. From 1850 to 1901, at least seven different glass manufacturing factories operated in Louisville. Six were utilitarian bottle houses, the other manufactured window and plate glass. In 1850 the first glass bottle- and jar-making firm, known as the Kentucky Glass Works was formed, which, by 1855, was being referred to under the name "Louisville Glass Works".. However, that firm was defunct by 1873, bears no relationship to the former glassmaking business which operated under the name "Louisville Glassworks". In 1896 Edwin Penna began operation, has gone under five generations of Penna ownership; the downtown location has been known as the Snead Manufacturing Building, was put on the National Register in 1978. Snead was responsible for building many iron buildings around the country. After the old building burnt down, the architect was told to build a "first-class fireproof power building".
The Louisville Glassworks business closed its doors in 2012. Since 2012, The Louisville Glassworks building has been home to Flame Run Glass Studio and Gallery, who relocated there from their previous location in the NuLu district, the home of the Mark Payton Glass Center, The Foundry at Glassworks, various other businesses on the top floors; the Glassworks building still boasts one of the largest owned hot glass studios in the country, a nationally recognized glass art gallery which showcases artist from across the globe. List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Louisville Glassworks website
"Jasenovac i Gradiška Stara" is a Croatian song promoting the Ustaše massacres in the World War II. The lyrics celebrate the World War II persecution of Serbs in Herzegovina. In 2003, Matija Babić, a journalist at Index.hr, criticized the Croatian band Thompson for performing the song, as well as Croatian Radiotelevision, Croatia Records and other media for continuing to cover Thompson as a mainstream artist. In 2007, Efraim Zuroff, while reporting in the Jerusalem Post on a Thompson performance at Maksimir Stadium, said that Perković gained notoriety for having performed the song, overtly fascist, criticized Thompson concerts as an occasion for a display of extremist nationalists. Perković himself first acknowledged. Stating that "he is a musician, not a politician". An organizer for a Thompson tour of New York City in 2007 defended Perković, claiming the musician did not write the song nor is a copy available on any of his albums. According to Anti Defamation League, "Various media accounts report that Thompson’s concerts in Europe begin with the traditional “war cry” of the Ustashe.
Concertgoers young people, many wearing black shirts with Ustashe insignia and carrying banners with anti-Serb and anti-Roma rhetoric respond with Nazi salutes. Ustashe paraphernalia is sold at the concerts, as well
The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age Aegean civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands, flourishing from c. 2700 to c. 1450 BC until a late period of decline ending around 1100 BC. It represents the first advanced civilization in Europe, leaving behind massive building complexes, stunning artwork, writing systems, a massive network of trade; the civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. The name "Minoan" derives from the mythical King Minos and was coined by Evans, who identified the site at Knossos with the labyrinth and the Minotaur; the Minoan civilization has been described as the earliest of its kind in Europe, historian Will Durant called the Minoans "the first link in the European chain". The Minoan civilization is notable for its large and elaborate palaces up to four stories high, featuring elaborate plumbing systems and decorated with frescoes; the most notable Minoan palace is that of Knossos, followed by that of Phaistos.
The Minoan period saw extensive trade between Crete and Mediterranean settlements the Near East. Through their traders and artists, the Minoans' cultural influence reached beyond Crete to the Cyclades, the Old Kingdom of Egypt, copper-bearing Cyprus and the Levantine coast and Anatolia; some of the best Minoan art is preserved in the city of Akrotiri on the island of Santorini, destroyed by the Minoan eruption. The Minoans wrote in the undeciphered Linear A and in undeciphered Cretan hieroglyphs, encoding a language hypothetically labelled Minoan; the reasons for the slow decline of the Minoan civilization, beginning around 1550 BC, are unclear. The term "Minoan" refers to the mythical King Minos of Knossos, its origin is debated, but it is attributed to archeologist Arthur Evans. Minos was associated in Greek mythology with the labyrinth. However, Karl Hoeck had used the title Das Minoische Kreta in 1825 for volume two of his Kreta. Evans read Hoeck's book, continued using the term in his writings and findings: "To this early civilization of Crete as a whole I have proposed—and the suggestion has been adopted by the archaeologists of this and other countries—to apply the name'Minoan'."
Evans said. Hoeck, with no idea that the archaeological Crete had existed, had in mind the Crete of mythology. Although Evans' 1931 claim that the term was "unminted" before he used it was called a "brazen suggestion" by Karadimas and Momigliano, he coined its archaeological meaning. Instead of dating the Minoan period, archaeologists use two systems of relative chronology; the first, created by Evans and modified by archaeologists, is based on pottery styles and imported Egyptian artifacts. Evans' system divides the Minoan period into three major eras: early and late; these eras are subdivided—for example, Early Minoan I, II and III. Another dating system, proposed by Greek archaeologist Nikolaos Platon, is based on the development of architectural complexes known as "palaces" at Knossos, Phaistos and Zakros. Platon divides neo - and post-palatial sub-periods; the relationship between the systems in the table includes approximate calendar dates from Warren and Hankey. The Minoan eruption of Thera occurred during a mature phase of the LM IA period.
Efforts to establish the volcanic eruption's date have been controversial. Radiocarbon dating has indicated a date in the late 17th century BC. Although stone-tool evidence suggests that hominins may have reached Crete as early as 130,000 years ago, evidence for the first anatomically-modern human presence dates to 10,000–12,000 YBP; the oldest evidence of modern human habitation on Crete is pre-ceramic Neolithic farming-community remains which date to about 7000 BC. A comparative study of DNA haplogroups of modern Cretan men showed that a male founder group, from Anatolia or the Levant, is shared with the Greeks; the Neolithic population lived in open villages. Fishermen's huts were found on the shores, the fertile Messara Plain was used for agriculture; the Early Bronze Age has been described as indicating a "promise of greatness" in light of developments on the island. The Bronze Age began on Crete around 3200 BC. In the late third millennium BC, several locations on the island developed into centers of commerce and handiwork, enabling the upper classes to exercise leadership and expand their influence.
It is that the original hierarchies of the local elites were replaced by monarchies, a precondition for the palaces. At the end of the MMII period there was a large disturbance on Crete—probably an earthquake, but an invasion from Anatolia; the palaces at Knossos, Phaistos and Kato Zakros were destroyed. At the beginning of the neopalatial period the population increased again, the palaces were rebuilt on a larger scale and new settlements were built across the island; this period was the apex of Minoan civilization. After around 1700 BC, material culture on the Greek mainland reached a new high due to Minoan influence. Another natural catastrophe occurred around 1600 BC an eruption of the Thera volcano; the Minoans rebuilt the palaces with several
Linda Smith is a member of the Republican Party who represented Washington's 3rd congressional district from 1995 to 1999 and was the unsuccessful Republican nominee for the U. S. Senate in 1998, losing to incumbent Democrat Patty Murray. After leaving politics, Linda Smith founded Shared Hope International, a nonprofit organization to rescue and restore women and children in crisis. Since its creation, Smith has worked around the world and within the United States on behalf of those who have been victimized through sex trafficking. Smith grew up in a working class home, her father abandoned the family and her mother remarried a mechanic, in 1966 moved the family to Vancouver, Washington. Linda has an older sister, two younger sisters, two younger brothers. In high school she had part-time jobs as a day-care aide, she recalled, "I felt like by 17, I had had more lives than most people." She was 24 years old. Her step father remarried a few months later. In 1968, she married Vern Smith, a young locomotive engineer, shortly before the age of 18, they raised two children.
She became the manager of a number of independent tax offices in Southern Washington. She lives in Vancouver with her husband, has two children and six grandchildren. Smith began her political career in a special election in 1983 when she defeated a Democratic Party incumbent to win a seat in the Washington House of Representatives. In 1987, she moved up to the state Senate, giving Republicans control of that chamber, remained there until her supporters began a September 1994 write-in campaign to elect her to Washington's 3rd congressional district, after Republican candidate Tim Moyer dropped out of the race. In spite of being dubbed the "Hazel Dell housewife", Smith began a 19-day-long grassroots campaign that resulted in her defeating the only Republican candidate listed on the primary ballot. Having secured a ballot line as the Republican nominee through her September write-in campaign, she went on to defeat liberal three-term Democrat Jolene Unsoeld in November, she narrowly won reelection in 1996.
Smith was known for her staunch anti-abortion stance and her maverick tendencies, such as opposing the Balanced Budget Amendment, supporting campaign finance reform, most notably of all, being one of 9 House Republicans to vote against confirming House Speaker Newt Gingrich in early 1997. She had a reputation for opposing gay rights and viewed homosexuality as a "morally unfit inclination." Giving up her House seat in 1998, Smith ran for Washington's U. S. Senate seat, she defeated former King County Prosecuting Attorney Chris Bayley to face sitting U. S. Senator Patty Murray, only the third Senate race between two women. Many observers expected the election to be close. In the fall of 1998, while still a member of the U. S. Congress, Linda Smith traveled to Falkland Road in Mumbai, one of the worst brothel districts in the world; the hopeless faces of desperate women and children forced into prostitution compelled her to found Shared Hope International, a non-profit organization dedicated to eradicating sex-trafficking.
Since Smith's retirement from Congress, she has devoted all her energy to this cause, traveling around the world to prevent and bring justice to victims of trafficking. Shared Hope supports shelter and service creation for sex trafficking survivors using a comprehensive model for restoration. By partnering with local organizations, Shared Hope provides restorative care, shelter and job skills training at Homes and Villages of Hope where women and children can live without time limit. Today, Shared Hope provides leadership in awareness and training, prevention strategies, restorative care and policy initiatives to mobilize a national network of protection for victims. To build momentum in the international anti-trafficking movement, Smith founded the War Against Trafficking Alliance in January 2001. WATA coordinates both international efforts necessary to combat sex trafficking. In February 2003, WATA co-sponsored a World Summit with the U. S. Department of State, which brought together non-government and government leaders from 114 nations, all demonstrating a sustained commitment to prosecuting trafficking, providing assistance to victims, building regional strategies to protect the vulnerable from the sex trade.
In 2005, WATA was invited to participate, along with UNIFEM, in the first ASEAN conference to address child sex tourism in East and Southeast Asia. With a grant from the U. S. Department of State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Linda Smith and her team have worked in the field conducting research in Jamaica, the Netherlands and the United States in order to reveal the sophisticated business model behind sex trafficking, exposing the buyers who increase demand and the traffickers who supply the victims; this extensive research led to SHI's release of the DEMAND. Report and documentary in 2007. In response to the findings from the DEMAND. Report, since 2006 Smith and Shared Hope International have partnered with Anti-Trafficking Task Forces in ten U. S. cities with funding from the U. S Department of Justice, to identify and provide services to American victims of Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking; the National Report on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: America's Prostituted Children released by SHI, compiled all of the information obtained throughout four years of research in America.
It examines the governmental and nongovernmental efforts and gaps in addressing child sex trafficking in th